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Color Vision Sensation and Perception

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199600 Year: Pages: 91 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-960-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Color vision is considered a microcosm of the visual science. Special physiological and psychological processes make this scientific topic an intriguing and complex research field that can aggregates around molecular biologists, neurophysiologists, physicists, psychophysicists and cognitive neuroscientists. Our purpose is to present the frontier knowledge of this area of visual science, showing, in the end, the future prospects of application and basic studies of color perception.

The Impact of Shared Vision on Leadership, Engagement, Organizational Citizenship and Coaching

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196715 Year: Pages: 199 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-671-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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According to management and psychology courses, as well as legions of consultants in organizational psychology, shared vision in dyads, teams and organizations can fill us with hope and inspire new possibilities, or delude us into following false prophets. However, few research studies have empirically examined the impact of shared vision on key organizational outcomes such as leadership effectiveness, employee engagement, organizational citizenship, coaching and organizational change. As a result, the field of organizational psychology has not yet established a causal pattern of whether, if, and how shared vision helps dyads, teams and organizations function more effectively. The lack of empirical work around shared vision is surprising given its long-standing history in the literature. Bennis and Nanus (1982) showed that distinctive leaders managed attention through vision. The practitioner literature has long proclaimed that vision is a key to change, while Conger and Kanungo (1998) discussed its link to charismatic leadership. Around the same time, positive psychology appeared in the forms of Appreciative Inquiry (Cooperrider, Sorensen, Whitney, & Yaeger, 2000) and Positive Organizational Scholarship (Cameron, Dutton, & Quinn, 2003). In this context, a shared vision or dream became a legitimate antecedent to sustainable change. But again, empirical measurement has been elusive. More recently, shared vision has been the focus of a number of dissertations and quantitative studies building on Intentional Change Theory (ICT) (Boyatzis, 2008) at dyad, team and organization levels of social systems. These studies are beginning to lay the foundations for a systematic body of empirical knowledge about the role of shared vision in an organizational context. For example, we now know that shared vision can activate neural networks that arouse endocrine systems and allow a person to consider the possibilities of a better future (Jack, Boyatzis, Leckie, Passarelli & Khawaja, 2013). Additionally, Boyatzis & Akrivou (2006) have discussed the role of a shared vision as the result of a well-developed set of factors that produce a desired image of the future. Outside of the organizational context, positive visioning has been known to help guide future behavior in sports psychology (Loehr & Schwartz, 2003), medical treatment (Roffe, Schmidt, & Ernst, 2005), musical performance (Meister, Krings, Foltys, Boroojerdi, Muller, Topper, & Thron, 2004), and academic performance (Curry, Snyder, Cook, Ruby, & Rehm, 1997). This Research Topic for Frontiers in Psychology is a collection of 14 original papers examining the role of vision and shared vision on a wide variety of desired dependent variables from leadership effectiveness and executive performance to organizational engagement, citizenship and corporate social responsibility, and how to develop it through coaching.

Feedforward and Feedback Processes in Vision

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195947 Year: Pages: 151 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-594-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The visual system consists of hierarchically organized distinct anatomical areas functionally specialized for processing different aspects of a visual object (Felleman & Van Essen, 1991). These visual areas are interconnected through ascending feedforward projections, descending feedback projections, and projections from neural structures at the same hierarchical level (Lamme et al., 1998). Accumulating evidence from anatomical, functional and theoretical studies suggests that these three projections play fundamentally different roles in perception. However, their distinct functional roles in visual processing are still subject to debate (Lamme & Roelfsema, 2000). The focus of this Research Topic is the roles of feedforward and feedback projections in vision. Even though the notions of feedforward, feedback, and reentrant processing are widely accepted, it has been found difficult to distinguish their individual roles on the basis of a single criterion. We welcome empirical contributions, theoretical contributions and reviews that fit into any one (or a combination) of the following domains: 1) their functional roles for perception of specific features of a visual object 2) their contributions to the distinct modes of visual processing (e.g., pre-attentive vs. attentive, conscious vs. unconscious) 3) recent techniques/methodologies to identify distinct functional roles of feedforward and feedback projections and corresponding neural signatures. We believe that the current Research Topic will not only provide recent information about feedforward/feedback processes in vision but also contribute to the understanding fundamental principles of cortical processing in general.

Phenomics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456079 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-607-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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"Phenomics" is an emerging area of research whose aspiration is the systematic measurement of the physical, physiological and biochemical traits (the phenome) belonging to a given individual or collection of individuals. Non-destructive or minimally invasive techniques allow repeated measurements across time to follow phenotypes as a function of developmental time. These longitudinal traits promise new insights into the ways in which crops respond to their environment including how they are managed.To maximize the benefit, these approaches should ideally be scalable so that large populations in multiple environments can be sampled repeatedly at reasonable cost. Thus, the development and validation of non-contact sensing technologies remains an area of intensive activity that ranges from Remote Sensing of crops within the landscape to high resolution at the subcellular level. Integration of this potentially highly dimensional data and linking it with variation at the genetic level is an ongoing challenge that promises to release the potential of both established and under-exploited crops.

Visual Dysfunction in Schizophrenia: A View into the Mechanisms of Madness?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195152 Year: Pages: 319 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-515-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-30 16:33:44
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Research on visual perception in schizophrenia has a long history. However, it is only recently that it has been included in mainstream efforts to understand the cognitive neuroscience of the disorder and to assist with biomarker and treatment development (e.g., the NIMH CNTRICS and RDoC initiatives). Advances in our understanding of visual disturbances in schizophrenia can tell us about both specific computational and neurobiological abnormalities, and about the widespread computational and neurobiological abnormalities in the illness, of which visual disturbances constitute well-studied, replicable, low-level examples. Importantly, far from being a passive sensory registration process, visual perception is active, inferential, and hypothesis-generating, and therefore can provide excellent examples of breakdowns in general brain functions in schizophrenia. Despite progress made in understanding visual processing disturbances in schizophrenia, many challenges exist and many unexplored areas are in need of examination. For example, the directional relationships between perceptual and cognitive disturbances (e.g., in attention, memory, executive function, predictive coding) remain unclear in many cases, as do links with symptoms, including visual hallucinations. The effect of specific visual disturbances on multisensory integration in schizophrenia has also not been explored. In addition, few studies of vision in schizophrenia have used naturalistic stimuli, including real-world objects, and almost no studies have examined processing during interaction with objects or visual exploration, which can provide important data on functioning of the perception for action pathway. Relatedly, studies of visual processing in schizophrenia have also not been conducted within contexts that include emotional stimulation and the presence of reinforcers - characteristics of many real-world situations - and the consequences of this are likely to be an incomplete view of how and when perception is abnormal in the condition. An additional important area involves treatment of visual disturbances in schizophrenia. Two major questions regarding this are: 1) can visual processing be improved in cases where it is impaired (and by what types of interventions affecting which cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms)? and 2) what are the clinical and functional benefits of improving specific visual functions in people with schizophrenia? Other important and understudied questions concern: 1) the extent to which indices of visual functioning can serve as biomarkers such as predictors of relapse, treatment response, and/or recovery; 2) the potential role of visual functioning in diagnosing and predicting illness; 3) the extent to which some visual perception disturbances are diagnostically specific to schizophrenia; and 4) the extent to which visual disturbances are truly manifestations of disease, as opposed to aspects of normal variation that, in combination with disease, serves to modify the clinical presentation. This Frontiers Research Topic explores some of these, and other issues facing this exciting interface between vision science and schizophrenia research. We include papers that span the entire range of different Frontiers paper types, including those that are data driven (using psychophysics, electroencephalography, neuroimaging, computational and animal models, and other methods), reviews, hypotheses, theories, opinion, methods, areas of impact, and historical perspectives.

Awareness shaping or shaped by prediction and postdiction

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195329 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-532-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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We intuitively believe that we are aware of the external world as it is. Unfortunately, this is not entirely true. In fact, the capacity of our sensory system is too small to veridically perceive the world. To overcome this problem, the sensory system has to spatiotemporally integrate neural signals in order to interpret the external world. However, the spatiotemporal integration involves severe neural latencies. How does the sensory system keep up with the ever-changing external world? As later discussed, ‘prediction’ and ‘postdiction’ are essential keywords here. For example, the sensory system uses temporally preceding events to predict subsequent events (e.g., Nijhawan, 1994; Kerzel, 2003; Hubbard, 2005) even when the preceding event is subliminally presented (Schmidt, 2000). Moreover, internal prediction modulates the perception of action outcomes (Bays et al., 2005; Cardoso-Leite et al., 2010) and sense of agency (Wenke et al., 2010). Prediction is also an indispensable factor for movement planning and control (Kawato, 1999). On the other hand, the sensory system also makes use of subsequent events to postdictively interpret a preceding event (e.g. Eagleman & Sejnowski, 2000; Enns, 2002; Khuu et al., 2010; Kawabe, 2011, 2012; Miyazaki et al., 2010; Ono & Kitazawa, 2011) and it's much the same even for infancy (Newman et al., 2008). Moreover, it has also been proposed that sense of agency stems not only from predictive processing but also from postdictive inference (Ebert & Wegner, 2011). The existence of postdictive processing is also supported by several neuroscience studies (Kamitani & Shimojo, 1999; Lau et al., 2007). How prediction and postdiction shape awareness of the external world is an intriguing question. Prediction is involved with the encoding of incoming signals, whereas postdiction is related to a re-interpretation of already encoded signals. Given this perspective, prediction and postdiction may exist along a processing stream for a single external event. However, it is unclear whether, and if so how, prediction and postdiction interact with each other to shape awareness of the external world. Awareness of the external world may also shape prediction and/or postdiction. It is plausible that awareness of the external world drives the prediction and postdiction of future and past appearances of the world. However, the literature provides little information about the role of awareness of the external world in prediction and postdiction. This background propelled us to propose this research topic with the aim of offering a space for systematic discussion concerning the relationship between awareness, prediction and postdiction among researchers in broad research areas, such as psychology, psychophysics, neuroscience, cognitive science, philosophy, and so forth. We encouraged papers that address one or more of the following questions: 1) How does prediction shape awareness of the external world? 2) How does postdiction shape awareness of the external world? 3) How do prediction and postdiction interact with each other in shaping awareness of the external world? 4) How does awareness of the external world shape prediction/postdiction?

How Humans Recognize Objects: Segmentation, Categorization and Individual Identification

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199402 Year: Pages: 265 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-940-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Human beings experience a world of objects: bounded entities that occupy space and persist through time. Our actions are directed toward objects, and our language describes objects. We categorize objects into kinds that have different typical properties and behaviors. We regard some kinds of objects – each other, for example – as animate agents capable of independent experience and action, while we regard other kinds of objects as inert. We re-identify objects, immediately and without conscious deliberation, after days or even years of non-observation, and often following changes in the features, locations, or contexts of the objects being re-identified. Comparative, developmental and adult observations using a variety of approaches and methods have yielded a detailed understanding of object detection and recognition by the visual system and an advancing understanding of haptic and auditory information processing. Many fundamental questions, however, remain unanswered. What, for example, physically constitutes an “object”? How do specific, classically-characterizable object boundaries emerge from the physical dynamics described by quantum theory, and can this emergence process be described independently of any assumptions regarding the perceptual capabilities of observers? How are visual motion and feature information combined to create object information? How are the object trajectories that indicate persistence to human observers implemented, and how are these trajectory representations bound to feature representations? How, for example, are point-light walkers recognized as single objects? How are conflicts between trajectory-driven and feature-driven identifications of objects resolved, for example in multiple-object tracking situations? Are there separate “what” and “where” processing streams for haptic and auditory perception? Are there haptic and/or auditory equivalents of the visual object file? Are there equivalents of the visual object token? How are object-identification conflicts between different perceptual systems resolved? Is the common assumption that “persistent object” is a fundamental innate category justified? How does the ability to identify and categorize objects relate to the ability to name and describe them using language? How are features that an individual object had in the past but does not have currently represented? How are categorical constraints on how objects move or act represented, and how do such constraints influence categorization and the re-identification of individuals? How do human beings re-identify objects, including each other, as persistent individuals across changes in location, context and features, even after gaps in observation lasting months or years? How do human capabilities for object categorization and re-identification over time relate to those of other species, and how do human infants develop these capabilities? What can modeling approaches such as cognitive robotics tell us about the answers to these questions? Primary research reports, reviews, and hypothesis and theory papers addressing questions relevant to the understanding of perceptual object segmentation, categorization and individual identification at any scale and from any experimental or modeling perspective are solicited for this Research Topic. Papers that review particular sets of issues from multiple disciplinary perspectives or that advance integrative hypotheses or models that take data from multiple experimental approaches into account are especially encouraged.

Multisensory Integration in Action Control

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193127 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-312-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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The integration of multisensory information is an essential mechanism in perception and in controlling actions. Research in multisensory integration is concerned with how the information from the different sensory modalities, such as the senses of vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and proprioception, are integrated to a coherent representation of objects. Multisensory integration is central for action control. For instance, when you grasp for a rubber duck, you can see its size and hear the sound it produces. Moreover, identical physical properties of an object can be provided by different senses. You can both see and feel the size of the rubber duck. Even when you grasp for the rubber duck with a tool (e.g. with tongs), the information from the hand, from the effect points of the tool and from the eyes are integrated in a manner to act successfully. Over the recent decade a surge of interest in multisensory integration and action control has been witnessed, especially in connection with the idea that multiple sensory sources are integrated in an optimized way. For this perspective to mature, it will be helpful to delve deeper into the information processing mechanisms and their neural correlates, asking about the range and constraints of this mechanisms, about its localization and involved networks.

Neuromorphic Engineering Systems and Applications

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194544 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-454-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Neuromorphic engineering has just reached its 25th year as a discipline. In the first two decades neuromorphic engineers focused on building models of sensors, such as silicon cochleas and retinas, and building blocks such as silicon neurons and synapses. These designs have honed our skills in implementing sensors and neural networks in VLSI using analog and mixed mode circuits. Over the last decade the address event representation has been used to interface devices and computers from different designers and even different groups. This facility has been essential for our ability to combine sensors, neural networks, and actuators into neuromorphic systems. More recently, several big projects have emerged to build very large scale neuromorphic systems. The Telluride Neuromorphic Engineering Workshop (since 1994) and the CapoCaccia Cognitive Neuromorphic Engineering Workshop (since 2009) have been instrumental not only in creating a strongly connected research community, but also in introducing different groups to each other’s hardware. Many neuromorphic systems are first created at one of these workshops. With this special research topic, we showcase the state-of-the-art in neuromorphic systems.

Learning to see (better): Improving visual deficits with perceptual learning

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196036 Year: Pages: 95 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-603-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Perceptual learning can be defined as a long lasting improvement in a perceptual skill following a systematic training, due to changes in brain plasticity at the level of sensory or perceptual areas. Its efficacy has been reported for a number of visual tasks, such as detection or discrimination of visual gratings (De Valois, 1977; Fiorentini & Berardi, 1980, 1981; Mayer, 1983), motion direction discrimination (Ball & Sekuler, 1982, 1987; Ball, Sekuler, & Machamer, 1983), orientation judgments (Fahle, 1997; Shiu & Pashler, 1992; Vogels & Orban, 1985), hyperacuity (Beard, Levi, & Reich, 1995; Bennett & Westheimer, 1991; Fahle, 1997; Fahle & Edelman, 1993; Kumar & Glaser, 1993; McKee & Westheimer, 1978; Saarinen & Levi, 1995), visual search tasks (Ahissar & Hochstein, 1996; Casco, Campana, & Gidiuli, 2001; Campana & Casco, 2003; Ellison & Walsh, 1998; Sireteanu & Rettenbach, 1995) or texture discrimination (Casco et al., 2004; Karni & Sagi, 1991, 1993). Perceptual learning is long-lasting and specific for basic stimulus features (orientation, retinal position, eye of presentation) suggesting a long-term modification at early stages of visual analysis, such as in the striate (Karni & Sagi, 1991; 1993; Saarinen & Levi, 1995; Pourtois et al., 2008) and extrastriate (Ahissar & Hochstein, 1996) visual cortex. Not confined to a basic research paradigm, perceptual learning has recently found application outside the laboratory environment, being used for clinical treatment of a series of visually impairing conditions such as amblyopia (Levi & Polat, 1996; Levi, 2005; Levi & Li, 2009, Polat et al., 2004; Zhou et al., 2006), myopia (Tan & Fong, 2008) or presbyopia (Polat, 2009). Different authors adopted different paradigms and stimuli in order to improve malfunctioning visual abilities, such as Vernier Acuity (Levi, Polat & Hu, 1997), Gratings detection (Zhou et al., 2006), oculomotor training (Rosengarth et al., 2013) and lateral interactions (Polat et al., 2004). The common result of these studies is that a specific training produces not only improvements in trained functions, but also in other, untrained and higher-level visual functions, such as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and reading speed (Levi et al, 1997a, 1997b; Polat et al., 2004; Polat, 2009; Tan & Fong, 2008). More recently (Maniglia et al. 2011), perceptual learning with the lateral interactions paradigm has been successfully used for improving peripheral vision in normal people (by improving contrast sensitivity and reducing crowding, the interference in target discrimination due to the presence of close elements), offering fascinating new perspectives in the rehabilitation of people who suffer of central vision loss, such as maculopathy patients, partially overcoming the structural differences between fovea and periphery that limit the vision outside the fovea. One of the strongest point, and a distinguishing feature of perceptual learning, is that it does not just improve the subject’s performance, but produces changes in brain’s connectivity and efficiency, resulting in long-lasting, enduring neural changes. By tailoring the paradigms on each subject’s needs, perceptual learning could become the treatment of choice for the rehabilitation of visual functions, emerging as a simple procedure that doesn’t need expensive equipment.

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