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Emerging Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Antibiotic Resistance and Novel Treatment Options

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451890 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-189-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Enterobacteriaceae are spread worldwide and the diseases they cause may be fatal especially in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, the high prevalence of ESBL producing Salmonella and Shigella species diseases worldwide suggests major underlying safety issues. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 2015, approximately 220 million children contract diarrhoeal diseases every year and 96 000 die. As a result, the increase in single or multi drug-resistant foodborne bacterial pathogens is of major public health concern. Moreover, resistance to antimicrobials was found among Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp from animals and food, and since fluoroquinolones became licensed for use in animal foods, especially for poultry, the rate of fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp in animals and human food, and then in human infections, rapidly increased. To that purpose, the findings of the conducted studies in the book chapters, 1) highlight surveillance studies reporting the occurrence and distribution of resistance to antimicrobial agents, namely, to third generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones, 2) describe the mechanisms of transmission of resistance determinants from animals, food products and clinical specimens, that allow implementation of appropriate measures to control their spread and adopt appropriate therapeutic measures, and 3) provide treatment options, useful to medical practice.

History of Chemoattractant Research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197019 Year: Pages: 61 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-701-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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In the Research Topic "History of Chemoattractant Research" we will portray some of the key discoveries that helped to transform cell migration research into a global playing field within immunology (and beyond). Early progress had a profound effect on both, academia and industry. Today, numerous academic laboratories are fully engaged in compiling a detailed road map describing the highly complex network of immune and tissue cells that respond to chemoattractants. Industrial research, on the other hand, centers on drugs that interfere with immune cell traffic in inflammatory diseases and cancer. The following series of “short stories” provide personal accounts on key discoveries. The individual molecular discoveries enabled numerous research laboratories worldwide to unravel their significance in steady-state or pathological immune processes. Although ground-breaking in their own right, it is therefore worth emphasizing that rapid progress in chemoattractant research was made possible by many other laboratories who were not directly involved in the original discovery process. Therefore, the authors of this mini-series are discussing their findings in the context of time, place and subsequent progress enabled by their discoveries. It is hoped that a wide readership will find these accounts entertaining as well as educational although those who wish to gain a more detailed knowledge are referred to the many outstanding reviews on chemokines and other chemoattractants.

Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Swine

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452804 Year: Pages: 95 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-280-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most devastating diseases of livestock. The research topic here features nine studies supplementing the state-of-the art of the knowledge on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of FMD in swine.

Surveying Antimicrobial Resistance: Approaches, Issues, and Challenges to Overcome

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451418 Year: Pages: 419 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-141-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Why Antibiotic Resistance? The use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine may have consequences beyond their intended applications. The “One Health” concept recognizes that the health of humans is connected to the health of animals and the environment. Progress in molecular genetics is facilitating the rapid evaluation of the essentiality of these targets on a genomic scale. In 2015, a group of researchers established the International Conference on Antibiotic Resistance (IC2AR).The primary objective of this meeting is to bring together scientists involved in antibiotic resistance prevention and control. The IC2AR conducted its inaugural world congress in January 2015 at Caparica (Portugal). Antimicrobial resistance presents a significant challenge to scientists in the field of infectious diseases. The full knowledge of how antibiotics resistance is evolving and being transmitted between hosts in different ecosystems is taking on great importance. Necessary action includes research to define the scope of the problem including its various sources. This eBook comprises a series of original research and review articles dealing with the epidemiology of resistance in animal and zoonotic pathogens, mobile elements containing resistance genes, the omics of antimicrobial resistance, emerging antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, control of resistant infections, establishing antimicrobial use and resistance surveillance systems, and alternatives strategies to overcome the problem of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Gilberto Igrejas, José Luis Capelo and Patrícia Poeta Scientific Committee of IC2AR, February 20th, 2017Why Antibiotic Resistance? The use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine may have consequences beyond their intended applications. The “One Health” concept recognizes that the health of humans is connected to the health of animals and the environment. Progress in molecular genetics is facilitating the rapid evaluation of the essentiality of these targets on a genomic scale. In 2015, a group of researchers established the International Conference on Antibiotic Resistance (IC2AR).The primary objective of this meeting is to bring together scientists involved in antibiotic resistance prevention and control. The IC2AR conducted its inaugural world congress in January 2015 at Caparica (Portugal). Antimicrobial resistance presents a significant challenge to scientists in the field of infectious diseases. The full knowledge of how antibiotics resistance is evolving and being transmitted between hosts in different ecosystems is taking on great importance. Necessary action includes research to define the scope of the problem including its various sources. This eBook comprises a series of original research and review articles dealing with the epidemiology of resistance in animal and zoonotic pathogens, mobile elements containing resistance genes, the omics of antimicrobial resistance, emerging antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, control of resistant infections, establishing antimicrobial use and resistance surveillance systems, and alternatives strategies to overcome the problem of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Gilberto Igrejas, José Luis Capelo and Patrícia Poeta Scientific Committee of IC2AR, February 20th, 2017

Digital Transformation of Animal Health Data: Proceedings of the AHEAD 2017 Workshop

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455683 Year: Pages: 63 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-568-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)’s Co-operativeResearch Programme on Biological Resource Management for SustainableAgricultural Systems sponsored the AHEAD 2017 workshop, bringing together expertsfrom the farming and pharmaceutical industries, information and communicationstechnology, policy, research (and more) to create a roadmap to the digital transformationof animal health surveillance.In many countries, policy supports the reduction of antibiotic use and a growingfocus in the veterinary practice is to move away from blanket dosage of antibiotics,for example for mastitis. Significant and speedy improvements can take place, but only with coordinated actions supported by the entire value chain.Reducing the use of antibiotics is of massive societal importance, but changingon farm or veterinary methods requires thought and a user-centred approach.The most glaring and addressable challenge is the absence of near real-time dataand information.AHEAD 2017 explored how governments globally can benefit from increased digitisationin animal health. For effective monitoring, it is important to first understandthe relevant tasks of each stakeholder in the food value chain. In these proceedingswe openly discuss and define these tasks, identify existing challenges to completionof these tasks, and suggest the business opportunities overcoming these challengescan create. Through this publication, it is our intention to encourage open discussion,design and co-creation of an improved digital approach to animal health anddrug usage in agriculture.The Workshop was sponsored by the OECD Co-operative Research Programmeon Biological Resource Management for Sustainable Agricultural Systems, whosefinancial support made it possible for most of the invited speakers to participate inthe Workshop.The opinions expressed and arguments employed in this publication are the soleresponsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the OECD or ofthe governments of its Member countries.

Applications of Novel Analytical Methods in Epidemiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456581 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-658-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The repertoire of quantitative analytical techniques in disciplines such as ecology, decision science, and evolutionary biology has grown, in part enabled by the development and increased availability of computational resources. Integration of cutting-edge, quantitative tools into veterinary epidemiology that have been borrowed from such disciplines has offered opportunities to advance the study of disease dynamics in animal populations, to improve and guide decision-making related to disease prevention, control, or eradication. Furthermore, the need to explore new analytical methods for veterinary epidemiology has been driven by the increasing availability and complexity of animal disease data. The objective of this e-book is to contribute to current methods in epidemiology by 1) presenting and discussing novel analytical tools that help advance our understanding of epidemiology; and 2) demonstrating how inferences emerging from the application of novel analytical tools can be incorporated into decision-making related to animal health. The e-book constitutes a collection of articles that explore the applications of a variety of analytical methods such as machine learning, Bayesian risk assessment and an advanced form of social network analysis in the modern epidemiologic study of animal diseases.

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