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Surgical Infections

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454983 Year: Pages: 47 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-498-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Surgery
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Surgical infections are caused by the breakdown of the equilibrium existing between organisms and the host. This may occur after a breach in a protective surface, as occurs after surgical trauma, changes in host resistance, or particular characteristics of the organism. The possible outcomes are abscess formation, local spread with/without tissue death, distant spread or resolution. A surgical infection is an infection requiring operative treatment (excision or drainage), and occupies an unvascularized space in tissue, or may occur in an operated site. Common examples of the former group are furuncles and carbuncles, hollow viscus inflammations, such as appendicitis, cholecystitis, and most abscesses. The latter group comprises all surgical site infections.This Research Topic provides comprehensive information on the biology, mechanisms, prevention and treatment of surgery-related infections.

Obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194285 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-428-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Immune response and metabolic regulation are highly integrated and this interface maintains a central homeostatic system, dysfunction of which can cause obesity-associated metabolic disorder such as type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance is an underlying basis for the pathogenesis of these metabolic diseases. Overnutrition or obesity activates the innate immune system with subsequent recruitment of immune cells such as macrophages and T cells, which contributes to the development of insulin resistance. In particular, a significant advance in our understanding of obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance has been recognition of the critical role of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). ATMs are a prominent source of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-a and IL-6, that can block insulin action in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver autocrine/paracrine signaling and cause systemic insulin resistance via endocrine signaling, providing a potential link between inflammation and insulin resistance. All articles in this topic highlight the interconnection between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance in all its diversity to the mechanisms of obesity-induced inflammation and role of immune system in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and diabetes.

The Pathogenetic Mechanisms at the Basis of Aortopathy Associated with Bicuspid Aortic Valve: Insights from "Omics", Models of Disease and Emergent Technologies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453955 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-395-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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This forum of comprehensive reviews and research studies on distinct aspects of the pathophysiology of BAV aortopathy provides both the state of the art in the knowledge on this complex disease and novel insights into its causes and consequences. The present collection of focused papers also envisions and proposes new therapeutic strategies, novel biomarkers and original risk stratification criteria, for the improvement of patient management.

Controversies in the Local Management of Lung Cancer

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455614 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-561-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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This special edition of Frontiers in Oncology reviews the current efficacy and limitations of surgical and radiotherapeutic management of lung cancer and provides insight into how local management options may change in the future.

Plastic Surgery for the Oncological Patient

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199877 Year: Pages: 76 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-987-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology --- Surgery
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The develoment of plastic surgery techniques allows for preserving and reconstruction of function after resection of malignant tumors. From split thickness skin grafts to pedicled and free tissue transfer multiple techniques are at hand to restore body integrity. Sufficient soft tissue coverage allows for adjuvant radiation therapy or can cure its sequelae. Nerve, tendon and muscle transfers are used to regain motor function of the extremities. Even large bony defects can be treated by microsurgically transferring fibula, pelvic and femoral bone. In case main vessels need to be resected reconstruction is possible with autologous and artificial grafts. By means of plastic surgery thoracic and abdominal defects can be covered so that foremost unresectable tumors become curable. Unfortunately the knowledge of these techniques is not very popular with oncologic surgeons. Therefore we suggest as a clinical topic the role of reconstructive surgery in the multimodal treatment of oncologic patients. The focus will be on different areas of the body, therefore articels for reconstructional procedures at the head, the extremities, the trunk, the thoracic wall, the breast, and the foot will be invited. Another focus will be the role of reconstructive procedures in the multimodal treatment concept consisting of radiation and chemotherapy as well. By knowing and applying the opportunities of plastic surgery the quality of live of the oncologic patient can be significantly improved.

Neurological and psychiatric disorders in endocrine diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195893 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-589-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General) --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Neurological and psychiatric disorders can occur in endocrine diseases either in the setting of the clinical manifestations of the same (i.e., hyper- or hyposecretion of hormones or peptides from the endocrine glands) or as events secondary to the pathogenetic mechanisms of the endocrinopathy (i.e., autommunity affecting endocrine glands and the brain). Also the medical or surgical treatment of the endocrine disease can sometimes determine the occurrence of neurological or psychiatric abnormalities. Moreover some genetic alterations can lead to syndromes affecting both the endocrine and the nervous system with a variety of possible manifestations. In the last couple of decades a number of associations between dysfunctions of the endocrine system and neurological or psychiatric manifestations have appeared and only in the minority of the cases this link has been fully elucidated. Often the neurological or psychiatric alterations still represent a relevant challenge for clinicians with regard to the management of the patients. The complexity of the topic and the limited availability of laboratory research models for the study of the endocrine system-nervous system cross-interaction are making the scientific progresses intricate and, sometimes, slow. A dedicated focus to such broad and often still obscure topic might help and clarify the current state-of-the-art in the field and direct the goals of future research.

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