Search results: Found 11

Listing 1 - 10 of 11 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Plants; Stress & Proteins

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452675 Year: Pages: 323 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-267-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Biotic and abiotic stress factors deliver a huge impact on plant life. Biotic stress factors such as damage through pathogens or herbivore attack, as well as abiotic stress factors like variation in temperature, rainfall and salinity, have placed the plant kingdom under constant challenges for survival. As a consequence, global agricultural and horticultural productivity has been disturbed to a large extent. Being sessile in nature, plants cannot escape from the stress, and instead adapt changes within their system to overcome the adverse conditions. These changes include physiological, developmental and biochemical alterations within the plant body which influences the genome, proteome and metabolome profiles of the plant. Since proteins are the ultimate players of cellular behavior, proteome level alterations during and recovery period of stress provide direct implications of plant responses towards stress factors. With current advancement of modern high-throughput technologies, much research has been carried out in this field. This e-book highlights the research and review articles that cover proteome level changes during the course or recovery period of various stress factors in plant life. Overall, the chapters in this e-book has provided a wealth of information on how plants deal with stress from a proteomics perspective.

Sub-cellular Proteomics

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193028 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-302-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Whilst significant advances have been made in whole organismal proteomics approaches, many researchers still rely on combinations of tissue selection and subcellular prefractionation methods to reduce the complexity of protein extracts from plants prior to proteomic analysis. Often this will allow identification of many lower abundance proteins of the target proteome and it may involve the selection of specific organs, cell types or the isolation of specific subcellular components. These subcellular proteomes provide insight into functions following various treatments and also contribute to the wider understanding of the entire organismal proteome by cataloguing a series of sub-proteome contents. The aim of this Research Topic is to bring together knowledge of sub cellular components in different plant species to provide a basis for accelerated research. It aims to provide a mini-review for each proposed section that summarizes the current understanding of a particular proteome, with the anticipation that every 5 - 10 years we can update these definitive publications.

Physiology and Pathophysiology of Musculoskeletal Aging

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193905 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-390-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

We live in a world with an ever-increasing aging population. This aging population is predicted to place a huge financial burden on healthcare systems around the world. Understanding healthy ageing is a key research priority, along with a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ageing that occurs in a number of age related diseases, such as arthritis. By gaining a better understanding of healthy musculoskeletal ageing we can provide better care and new therapies for common musculoskeletal problems. This Research Topic is intended to bring together basic researchers and clinicians working in the broad area of musculoskeletal ageing. The topic includes mechanisms of healthy ageing in the musculoskeletal system, which we define as skeletal muscle and the synovial joint, particularly constituent structures including articular cartilage, subchondral bone tendon and ligament. A particular focus of this Research Topic is dietary modulation of musculoskeletal ageing.

Biomass Modification, Characterization and Process Monitoring Analytics to Support Biofuel and Biomaterial Production

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198672 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-867-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into renewable fuels and other commodities has provided an appealing alternative towards supplanting global dependence on fossil fuels. The suitability of multitudes of plants for deconstruction to useful precursor molecules and products is currently being evaluated. These studies have probed a variety of phenotypic traits, including cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharide, lignin, and lignin monomer composition, glucose and xylose production following enzymatic hydrolysis, and an assessment of lignin-carbohydrate and lignin-lignin linkages, to name a few. These quintessential traits can provide an assessment of biomass recalcitrance, enabling researchers to devise appropriate deconstruction strategies. Plants with high polysaccharide and lower lignin contents have been shown to breakdown to monomeric sugars more readily. Not all plants contain ideal proportions of the various cell wall constituents, however. The capabilities of biotechnology can alleviate this conundrum by tailoring the chemical composition of plants to be more favorable for conversion to sugars, fuels, etc. Increases in the total biomass yield, cellulose content, or conversion efficiency through, for example, a reduction in lignin content, are pathways being evaluated to genetically improve plants for use in manufacturing biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Although plants have been previously domesticated for food and fiber production, the collection of phenotypic traits prerequisite for biofuel production may necessitate new genetic breeding schemes. Given the plethora of potential plants available for exploration, rapid analytical methods are needed to more efficiently screen through the bulk of samples to hone in on which feedstocks contain the desired chemistry for subsequent conversion to valuable, renewable commodities. The standard methods for analyzing biomass and related intermediates and finished products are laborious, potentially toxic, and/or destructive. They may also necessitate a complex data analysis, significantly increasing the experimental time and add unwanted delays in process monitoring, where delays can incur in significant costs. Advances in thermochemical and spectroscopic techniques have enabled the screening of thousands of plants for different phenotypes, such as cell-wall cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharide, and lignin composition, lignin monomer composition, or monomeric sugar release. Some instrumental methods have been coupled with multivariate analysis, providing elegant chemometric predictive models enabling the accelerated identification of potential feedstocks. In addition to the use of high-throughput analytical methods for the characterization of feedstocks based on phenotypic metrics, rapid instrumental techniques have been developed for the real-time monitoring of diverse processes, such as the efficacy of a specific pretreatment strategy, or the formation of end products, such as biofuels and biomaterials. Real-time process monitoring techniques are needed for all stages of the feedstocks-to-biofuels conversion process in order to maximize efficiency and lower costs by monitoring and optimizing performance. These approaches allow researchers to adjust experimental conditions during, rather than at the conclusion, of a process, thereby decreasing overhead expenses. This Frontiers Research Topic explores options for the modification of biomass composition and the conversion of these feedstocks into to biofuels or biomaterials and the related innovations in methods for the analysis of the composition of plant biomass, and advances in assessing up- and downstream processes in real-time. Finally, a review of the computational models available for techno-economic modeling and lifecycle analysis will be presented.

Regulatory potential of post-translational modifications in bacteria

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196104 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-610-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are widely employed by all living organisms to control the enzymatic activity, localization or stability of proteins on a much shorter time scale than the transcriptional control. In eukarya, global analyses consistently reveal that proteins are very extensively phosphorylated, acetylated and ubiquitylated. Glycosylation and methylation are also very common, and myriad other PTMs, most with a proven regulatory potential, are being discovered continuously. The emergent picture is that PTM sites on a single protein are not independent; modification of one residue often affects (positively or negatively) modification of other sites on the same protein. The best example of this complex behavior is the histone “bar-code” with very extensive cross-talk between phosphorylation, acetylation and methylation sites.Traditionally it was believed that large networks of PTMs exist only in complex eukaryal cells, which exploit them for coordination and fine-tuning of various cellular functions. PTMs have also been detected in bacteria, but the early examples focused on a few important regulatory events, based mainly on protein phosphorylation. The global importance (and abundance) of PTMs in bacterial physiology was systematically underestimated. In recent years, global studies have reported large datasets of phosphorylated, acetylated and glycosylated proteins in bacteria. Other modifications of bacterial proteins have been recently described: pupylation, methylation, sirtuin acetylation, lipidation, carboxylation and bacillithiolation. As the landscape of PTMs in bacterial cells is rapidly expanding, primarily due to advances of detection methods in mass spectrometry, our research field is adapting to comprehend the potential impact of these modifications on the cellular physiology. The field of protein phosphorylation, especially of the Ser/Thr/Tyr type, has been profoundly transformed. We have become aware that bacterial kinases phosphorylate many protein substrates and thus constitute regulatory nodes with potential for signal integration. They also engage in cross-talk and eukaryal-like mutual activation cascades. The regulatory potential of protein acetylation and glycosylation in bacteria is also rapidly emerging, and the cross-talk between acetylation and phosphorylation has been documented. This topic deals with the complexity of the PTM landscape in bacteria, and focus in particular on the physiological roles that PTMs play and methods to study them. The topic is associated to the 1st International Conference on Post-Translational Modifications in Bacteria (September 9-10, 2014, Göttingen, Germany).

Systems biology and ecology of microbial mat communities

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197934 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-793-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Microbial mat communities consist of dense populations of microorganisms embedded in exopolymers and/or biomineralized solid phases, and are often found in mm-cm thick assemblages, which can be stratified due to environmental gradients such as light, oxygen or sulfide. Microbial mat communities are commonly observed under extreme environmental conditions, deriving energy primarily from light and/or reduced chemicals to drive autotrophic fixation of carbon dioxide. Microbial mat ecosystems are regarded as living analogues of primordial systems on Earth, and they often form perennial structures with conspicuous stratifications of microbial populations that can be studied in situ under stable conditions for many years. Consequently, microbial mat communities are ideal natural laboratories and represent excellent model systems for studying microbial community structure and function, microbial dynamics and interactions, and discovery of new microorganisms with novel metabolic pathways potentially useful in future industrial and/or medical applications. Due to their relative simplicity and organization, microbial mat communities are often excellent testing grounds for new technologies in microbiology including micro-sensor analysis, stable isotope methodology and modern genomics. Integrative studies of microbial mat communities that combine modern biogeochemical and molecular biological methods with traditional microbiology, macro-ecological approaches, and community network modeling will provide new and detailed insights regarding the systems biology of microbial mats and the complex interplay among individual populations and their physicochemical environment. These processes ultimately control the biogeochemical cycling of energy and/or nutrients in microbial systems. Similarities in microbial community function across different types of communities from highly disparate environments may provide a deeper basis for understanding microbial community dynamics and the ecological role of specific microbial populations. Approaches and concepts developed in highly-constrained, relatively stable natural communities may also provide insights useful for studying and understanding more complex microbial communities.

International Plant Proteomics Organization (INPPO) World Congress 2014

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450602 Year: Pages: 407 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-060-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The field of proteomics has advanced considerably over the past two decades. The ability to delve deeper into an organism’s proteome, identify an array of post-translational modifications and profile differentially abundant proteins has greatly expanded the utilization of proteomics. Improvements to instrumentation in conjunction with the development of these reproducible workflows have driven the adoption and application of this technology by a wider research community. However, the full potential of proteomics is far from being fully exploited in plant biology and its translational application needs to be further developed. In 2011, a group of plant proteomic researchers established the International Plant Proteomics Organization (INPPO) to advance the utilization of this technology in plants as well as to create a way for plant proteomics researchers to interact, collaborate and exchange ideas. The INPPO conducted its inaugural world congress in mid 2014 at the University of Hamburg (Germany). Plant proteomic researchers from around the world were in attendance and the event marked the maturation of this research community. The Research Topic captures the opinions, ideas and research discussed at the congress and encapsulates the approaches that were being applied in plant proteomics.The field of proteomics has advanced considerably over the past two decades. The ability to delve deeper into an organism’s proteome, identify an array of post-translational modifications and profile differentially abundant proteins has greatly expanded the utilization of proteomics. Improvements to instrumentation in conjunction with the development of these reproducible workflows have driven the adoption and application of this technology by a wider research community. However, the full potential of proteomics is far from being fully exploited in plant biology and its translational application needs to be further developed. In 2011, a group of plant proteomic researchers established the International Plant Proteomics Organization (INPPO) to advance the utilization of this technology in plants as well as to create a way for plant proteomics researchers to interact, collaborate and exchange ideas. The INPPO conducted its inaugural world congress in mid 2014 at the University of Hamburg (Germany). Plant proteomic researchers from around the world were in attendance and the event marked the maturation of this research community. The Research Topic captures the opinions, ideas and research discussed at the congress and encapsulates the approaches that were being applied in plant proteomics.

Proteomics of Microbial Human Pathogens

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450886 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-088-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2012 infectious diseases and related conditions account for more than 70% of premature deaths across 22 African countries and estimated 450 000 people worldwide developed multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. This alarming situation, of great public health concern, calls for the urgent development of novel and efficient responding strategies. The employment of important research platforms, such as genomics and proteomics, has contributed significant insight into the mechanisms underlying microbial infection and microbe-host interaction. In this Frontiers Research Topic, we aim to produce a timely and pertinent discussion regarding the current status of “Proteomics of microbial Human pathogens” and the role of proteomics in combating the challenges posed by microbial infection and indeed acquired anti-microbial resistance. As the field of proteomics progressed from 2-DE gel based approaches to modern LC-MS/MS based workflows, remarkable advances have been reported in terms of data quantity and quality. Given the immediate and enormous advantages that high resolution and accurate mass spectrometers have brought to the field, proteomics has now evolved into a robust platform capable of generating large amounts of comprehensive data comparable to that reported previously in genomics studies. For example, detection of the complete yeast proteome has been reported and other small proteomes, such as those of bacteria, are within reach. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has become an essential tool for biologists and biochemists, and is now considered by many as an essential component of modern structural biology. Additionally, the introduction of high-resolution mass spectrometers has driven the development of various different strategies aimed at accurate quantification of absolute and relative amount of protein(s) of interest. Emerging targeted mass spectrometry methodologies such as; Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM), Parallel Reaction Monitoring (PRM) and SWATH, are perhaps the latest breakthrough within the proteomics community. Indeed, through a label free approach, targeted mass spectrometry offers an unequalled capability to characterize and quantify a specific set of proteins reproducibility, in any biological sample. Usefully, Aebersold and colleagues have recently generated and validated a number of assays to quantify 97% of the 4,012 annotated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins by SRM. As such, the Mtb Proteome library represents a valuable experimental resource that will undoubtedly bring new insight to the complex life cycle of Mtb. Finally, as reviewed recently in Frontiers Research Topic, mass spectrometry-based proteomics has had a tremendous impact on our current understanding of post translational modification (PTM) in bacteria including the key role of PTMs during interaction of pathogenic bacteria and host interactions. We believe that our understanding of microbial Human pathogens has benefited enormously from both 2-DE gel and modern LC-MS/MS based proteomics. It is our wish to produce an integrated discussion surrounding this topic to highlight the existing synergy between these research fields. We envisage this Research Topic as a window to expert opinions and perspectives on the realistic practicalities of proteomics as an important tool to address healthcare problems caused by microbial pathogens.

Surveying Antimicrobial Resistance: Approaches, Issues, and Challenges to Overcome

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451418 Year: Pages: 419 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-141-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Why Antibiotic Resistance? The use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine may have consequences beyond their intended applications. The “One Health” concept recognizes that the health of humans is connected to the health of animals and the environment. Progress in molecular genetics is facilitating the rapid evaluation of the essentiality of these targets on a genomic scale. In 2015, a group of researchers established the International Conference on Antibiotic Resistance (IC2AR).The primary objective of this meeting is to bring together scientists involved in antibiotic resistance prevention and control. The IC2AR conducted its inaugural world congress in January 2015 at Caparica (Portugal). Antimicrobial resistance presents a significant challenge to scientists in the field of infectious diseases. The full knowledge of how antibiotics resistance is evolving and being transmitted between hosts in different ecosystems is taking on great importance. Necessary action includes research to define the scope of the problem including its various sources. This eBook comprises a series of original research and review articles dealing with the epidemiology of resistance in animal and zoonotic pathogens, mobile elements containing resistance genes, the omics of antimicrobial resistance, emerging antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, control of resistant infections, establishing antimicrobial use and resistance surveillance systems, and alternatives strategies to overcome the problem of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Gilberto Igrejas, José Luis Capelo and Patrícia Poeta Scientific Committee of IC2AR, February 20th, 2017Why Antibiotic Resistance? The use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine may have consequences beyond their intended applications. The “One Health” concept recognizes that the health of humans is connected to the health of animals and the environment. Progress in molecular genetics is facilitating the rapid evaluation of the essentiality of these targets on a genomic scale. In 2015, a group of researchers established the International Conference on Antibiotic Resistance (IC2AR).The primary objective of this meeting is to bring together scientists involved in antibiotic resistance prevention and control. The IC2AR conducted its inaugural world congress in January 2015 at Caparica (Portugal). Antimicrobial resistance presents a significant challenge to scientists in the field of infectious diseases. The full knowledge of how antibiotics resistance is evolving and being transmitted between hosts in different ecosystems is taking on great importance. Necessary action includes research to define the scope of the problem including its various sources. This eBook comprises a series of original research and review articles dealing with the epidemiology of resistance in animal and zoonotic pathogens, mobile elements containing resistance genes, the omics of antimicrobial resistance, emerging antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, control of resistant infections, establishing antimicrobial use and resistance surveillance systems, and alternatives strategies to overcome the problem of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Gilberto Igrejas, José Luis Capelo and Patrícia Poeta Scientific Committee of IC2AR, February 20th, 2017

Genomic Approaches for Improvement of Understudied Grasses

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452422 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-242-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Grasses are diverse, spanning native prairies to high-yielding grain cropping systems. They are valued for their beauty and useful for soil stabilization, pollution mitigation, biofuel production, nutritional value, and forage quality; grasses encompass the most important grain crops in the world. There are thousands of distinct grass species and many have promiscuous hybridization patterns, blurring species boundaries. Resources for advancing the science and knowledgebase of individual grass species or their unique characteristics varies, often proportional to their perceived value to society. For many grasses, limited genetic information hinders research progress. Presented in this research topic is a brief snapshot of creative efforts to apply modern genomics research methodologies to the study of several minor grass species.

Listing 1 - 10 of 11 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (11)


License

CC by (11)


Language

english (11)


Year
From To Submit

2017 (6)

2016 (2)

2015 (3)

-->