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Dynamics of decision making: from evidence to preference and belief

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192700 Year: Pages: 259 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-270-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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At the core of the many debates throughout cognitive science concerning how decisions are made are the processes governing the time course of preference formation and decision. From perceptual choices, such as whether the signal on a radar screen indicates an enemy missile or a spot on a CT scan indicates a tumor, to cognitive value-based decisions, such as selecting an agreeable flatmate or deciding the guilt of a defendant, significant and everyday decisions are dynamic over time. Phenomena such as decoy effects, preference reversals and order effects are still puzzling researchers. For example, in a legal context, jurors receive discrete pieces of evidence in sequence, and must integrate these pieces together to reach a singular verdict. From a standard Bayesian viewpoint the order in which people receive the evidence should not influence their final decision, and yet order effects seem a robust empirical phenomena in many decision contexts. Current research on how decisions unfold, especially in a dynamic environment, is advancing our theoretical understanding of decision making. This Research Topic aims to review and further explore the time course of a decision - from how prior beliefs are formed to how those beliefs are used and updated over time, towards the formation of preferences and choices and post-decision processes and effects. Research literatures encompassing varied approaches to the time-scale of decisions will be brought into scope: a) Speeded decisions (and post-decision processes) that require the accumulation of noisy and possibly non-stationary perceptual evidence (e.g., randomly moving dots stimuli), within a few seconds, with or without temporal uncertainty. b) Temporally-extended, value-based decisions that integrate feedback values (e.g., gambling machines) and internally-generated decision criteria (e.g., when one switches attention, selectively, between the various aspects of several choice alternatives). c) Temporally extended, belief-based decisions that build on the integration of evidence, which interacts with the decision maker's belief system, towards the updating of the beliefs and the formation of judgments and preferences (as in the legal context). Research that emphasizes theoretical concerns (including optimality analysis) and mechanisms underlying the decision process, both neural and cognitive, is presented, as well as research that combines experimental and computational levels of analysis.

Dynamic systems theory and embodiment in psychotherapy research. A new look at process and outcome

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197804 Year: Pages: 151 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-780-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
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In an attempt to cease from reducing the world and its phenomena to linear modeling and analytic dissection, Dynamic Systems Theories (DST) and Embodiment theories and methods aim to account for the complex, dynamic, and non-linear phenomena that we constantly deal with in psychology. For instance, a DST and Embodiment perspective can enrich psychology’s understanding of communicative processes both in clinical and non-clinical settings. In psychotherapy, research has shown that there are a number of common factors contributing to psychotherapy outcome, of which the therapeutic relationship is the most important one. These findings give communication a central role in the psychotherapy process. In the traditional view, the underlying model of understanding psychotherapy processes is that of a number of components summatively coming together enabling us to make a linear causal prediction. Yet, communication is inherently dynamic. A shift to viewing the communication process in psychotherapy as a field dynamic phenomenon helps us to take into account nonlinear phenomena, such as feedback processes within and between persons. We thus propose an embodied enactive dynamic systems view as a new theoretical and methodological perspective that can more realistically capture what happens among and between two persons in psychotherapy. This view is broader than that of most current models in psychotherapy research. DST and Embodied Enactive Approaches can offer solutions to the prevailing neglect of non-linear phenomena in Western science, to better account for the complex dynamics of reality, and to move to a more holistic level of analysis. DST and Embodied Enactive Approaches have developed not in a single discipline but in a joined movement based on various fields such as physics, biology, robotics, anthropology, philosophy, linguistics, neuroscience, and psychology, and have only recently entered clinical theorizing. The two new paradigms are presently triggering a rethinking of the therapeutic process by recognizing the embodied nature of psychological and communicative phenomena. Their integration opens up a promising scenario in the field of psychotherapy research, developing new, profoundly transdisciplinary, theoretical concepts, methodologies, and standards of knowledge. The notion of field dynamics enables us to account for the role of the communicational context in the regulation of intra-psychological processes, while at the same time avoiding the pitfalls of an ontologization of the hierarchy of systemic organization. Moreover, the new approach implements methodological strategies that can transcend the conventional opposition between idiographic and nomothetic sciences.

Computational and Experimental Approaches in Multi-Target Pharmacology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452521 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-252-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The next frontier in pharmacology is the development of multi-target strategies in which pathological processes are controlled by pharmacologically manipulating them at many different points at once. Designing multi-target strategies will require deep understanding of the complex physiology that underlies pathological processes. It will also require the development of single drugs with multiple targets, or combinations of drugs with compatible pharmacokinetics that work synergistically to maximize desirable effects while minimizing unwanted side effects. This e-Book contains ten original articles, each addressing a different aspect of this challenge. Together they open new perspectives and show the way forward in the development of multi-target therapeutics.

Fishing for Human Perceptions in Coastal and Island Marine Resource Use Systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454594 Year: Pages: 175 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-459-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Human perceptions, decision-making and (pro-) environmental behaviour are closely connected. This Research Topic focuses on bringing together perceptions and behaviour for sustainable coastal and island marine resource use systems. Management and governance of (large and small-scale) coastal marine resource use systems function in highly complex social and ecological environments, which are culturally embedded, economically interest-led and politically biased. Management processes therefore have to integrate multiple perspectives as well as perception-driven standpoints on the individual as well as the decision-makers’ levels. Consequently, the analysis of perceptions has developed not only as part of philosophy and psychology but also of environmental science, anthropology and human geography. It encompasses intuitions, values, attitudes, thoughts, mind-sets, place attachments and sense of place. All of these influence human behavior and action, and are collected or are available within the respective marine resource use system, which may support the livelihood of a large part of the local population. Management and governance are not only about mediating between resource use conflicts or establishing marine protected areas, they deal with people and their ideas and perceptions. Understanding the related decision-making processes on multiple scales and levels hence means much more than economically assessing the available marine resources or existing threats to the associated system. Over the past decade, there has been a growing inter- and transdisciplinary international community becoming interested in research which integrates perceptions of coastal and inland residents, local and regional stakeholder groups, as well as resource and environmental managers and decision-makers. By acknowledging the importance of the individual perspective and interest-led personal views, it became obvious how valuable and important these sources of information are for coastal research. An increase of research effort spent on the link between perceptions and behaviour in marine resource use systems is thus both timely and needed. By offering a diversity of inspiring and comprehensive contributions on the link between perceptions and behaviour, this Research Topic aspires to critically enlighten the discourse and applicability of such research for finding sustainable, locally identified, anchored and integrated marine resource use pathways.

Disclosure Within HIV-Affected Families

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455263 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-526-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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While HIV/AIDS is a global public heath challenge, its impact is arguably greatest in the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where new infections account for approximately 66% of the total number of HIV-positive persons globally. In SSA, medical, social, and economic resources are limited, thus necessitating innovative approaches to disease prevention. One of the mechanisms of prevention that is most promising occurs through HIV disclosure to family members (e.g., adult sexual partners) generally, and to children in particular. Our emphasis in this eBook is on HIV disclosure to children because it has multiple benefits, including improved adherence to antiretroviral medication treatment and understanding at an early age of the impact of sexual activity on the spread of HIV. While there is a noticeable gap in research on HIV disclosure to younger children, some of the general reasons for non-disclosure include concerns about fear of adult partners leaving relationships, and that children are too young to comprehend the severity of the situation and may tell others outside the family. Thus, it is critical to better understand how the HIV disclosure process happens (or does not happen) within HIV-affected families, as well as the best practices on how to disclose. In this eBook, we present a combination of empirical research studies and critical literature reviews that investigate the reasons for and for not disclosing HIV status within HIV-affected families and provide evidence-based practices that could be adopted by healthcare professionals to help HIV-positive parents facilitate disclosure activities within these families. This information can also be used by researchers, practitioners, and stakeholders who are in a position to influence policies on effective HIV disclosure practices, guidelines, and programs.

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