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Information-based methods for neuroimaging: analyzing structure, function and dynamics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195022 Year: Pages: 191 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-502-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The aim of this Research Topic is to discuss the state of the art on the use of Information-based methods in the analysis of neuroimaging data. Information-based methods, typically built as extensions of the Shannon Entropy, are at the basis of model-free approaches which, being based on probability distributions rather than on specific expectations, can account for all possible non-linearities present in the data in a model-independent fashion.Mutual Information-like methods can also be applied on interacting dynamical variables described by time-series, thus addressing the uncertainty reduction (or information) in one variable by conditioning on another set of variables.In the last years, different Information-based methods have been shown to be flexible and powerful tools to analyze neuroimaging data, with a wide range of different methodologies, including formulations-based on bivariate vs multivariate representations, frequency vs time domains, etc. Apart from methodological issues, the information bit as a common unit represents a convenient way to open the road for comparison and integration between different measurements of neuroimaging data in three complementary contexts: Structural Connectivity, Dynamical (Functional and Effective) Connectivity, and Modelling of brain activity. Applications are ubiquitous, starting from resting state in healthy subjects to modulations of consciousness and other aspects of pathophysiology.Mutual Information-based methods have provided new insights about common-principles in brain organization, showing the existence of an active default network when the brain is at rest. It is not clear, however, how this default network is generated, the different modules are intra-interacting, or disappearing in the presence of stimulation. Some of these open-questions at the functional level might find their mechanisms on their structural correlates. A key question is the link between structure and function and the use of structural priors for the understanding of the functional connectivity measures. As effective connectivity is concerned, recently a common framework has been proposed for Transfer Entropy and Granger Causality, a well-established methodology originally based on autoregressive models. This framework can open the way to new theories and applications.This Research Topic brings together contributions from researchers from different backgrounds which are either developing new approaches, or applying existing methodologies to new data, and we hope it will set the basis for discussing the development and validation of new Information-based methodologies for the understanding of brain structure, function, and dynamics.

Basic and applied research on deception and its detection

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192540 Year: Pages: 249 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-254-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Deception is a ubiquitous phenomenon in social interactions and has attracted a significant amount of research during the last decades. The majority of studies in this field focused on how deception modulates behavioral, autonomic, and brain responses and whether these changes can be used to validly identify lies. Especially the latter question, which historically gave rise to the development of psychophysiological "lie detection" techniques, has been driving research on deception and its detection until today. The detection of deception and concealed information in forensic examinations currently constitutes one of the most frequent applications of psychophysiological methods in the field. With the increasing use of such methods, the techniques for detecting deception have been controversially discussed in the scientific community. It has been proposed to shift from the original idea of detecting deception per se to a more indirect approach that allows for determining whether a suspect has specific knowledge of crime-related details. This so-called Concealed Information Test is strongly linked to basic psychological concepts concerning memory, attention, orienting, and response monitoring. Although research in this field has intensified with the advancement of neuroimaging techniques such as PET and fMRI in the last decade, basic questions on the psychological mechanisms underlying modulatory effects of deception and information concealment on behavioral, autonomic, and brain responses are still poorly understood. This Research Topic brings together contributions from researchers in experimental psychology, psychophysiology, and neuroscience focusing on the understanding of the broad concept of deception including the detection of concealed information, with respect to basic research questions as well as applied issues. This Research Topic is mainly composed of originalresearch articles but reviews and papers elaborating on novel methodological approaches have also been included. Experimental methods include, but are not limited to, behavioral, autonomic, electroencephalographic or brain imaging techniques that allow for revealing relevant facets of deception on a multimodal level. While this Research Topic primarily includes laboratory work, relevant issues for the field use of such methods are also discussed.

Multisensory Integration in Action Control

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193127 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-312-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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The integration of multisensory information is an essential mechanism in perception and in controlling actions. Research in multisensory integration is concerned with how the information from the different sensory modalities, such as the senses of vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and proprioception, are integrated to a coherent representation of objects. Multisensory integration is central for action control. For instance, when you grasp for a rubber duck, you can see its size and hear the sound it produces. Moreover, identical physical properties of an object can be provided by different senses. You can both see and feel the size of the rubber duck. Even when you grasp for the rubber duck with a tool (e.g. with tongs), the information from the hand, from the effect points of the tool and from the eyes are integrated in a manner to act successfully. Over the recent decade a surge of interest in multisensory integration and action control has been witnessed, especially in connection with the idea that multiple sensory sources are integrated in an optimized way. For this perspective to mature, it will be helpful to delve deeper into the information processing mechanisms and their neural correlates, asking about the range and constraints of this mechanisms, about its localization and involved networks.

ICT for assessment and rehabilitation in Alzheimer's disease and related disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197781 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-778-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
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Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are no longer objects gathering dust on a shelf; instead, they have become intrinsic in our everyday lives. They are now even taking on an indispensable role in many clinical and rehabilitation settings. In the past decade there has been a surge of interest in using ICT with elderly people, both with and without dementia, in various clinical and research settings. On the one hand, ICT can supplement the assessment of functional ability by more precisely evaluating the nature and extent of functional impairment; on the other hand, ICT can be used to support elderly people in their everyday activities, as well as to ameliorate symptoms and improve quality of life through stimulation and rehabilitation. This is the intention driving the development of Serious Games (SG), which are digital applications (often based on Virtual Reality) specifically adapted for purposes other than entertaining, including rehabilitation, training and education. Finally, ICT can also play a key role in the development of interactive educational programs to support caregivers of people living with dementia. A handful of interesting studies have started to investigate the effectiveness of employing ICT in people with different types of dementia, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is therefore timely to attempt to scope this newly emerging field, as well as to foster a dialogue among the different professionals, including academics, clinicians and computer engineers, working in the area. With this in mind, the Research Topic “ICT for assessment and rehabilitation in Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders” aims to provide new and interesting insights into the current use of ICT in healthy and pathological aging. The intent is also to identify challenges and new perspectives in the field, gather recommendations for the application of ICT in AD and related disorders in clinical practice, and to showcase cutting edge clinical research. The articles included in this Frontier Research Topics have more than achieved this aim and are a perfect illustration of how ICT can be used to enhance the lives of people living dementia and their caregivers.

Reading Faces and Bodies: Behavioral and Neural Processes Underlying the Understanding of,and Interaction with, Others

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451456 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-145-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The aim of this Research Topic was to offer an interdisciplinary forum for researchers interested in the interplay of face, eye gaze, and body perception in the understanding of others, with an emphasis on behavioural and neural processing. The papers included in this topic come from cognitive, neuroscience and social psychology perspectives and shed new light on how facial and body cues interact with each other and with social, ecological and contextual factors (such as for example social identification and group membership) to form a unified representation that can guide our perceptions and responses to other people. Altogether, they provide an up-to-date picture of advances in this fascinating research field.

Artificial Neural Networks as Models of Neural Information Processing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454013 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-401-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Modern neural networks gave rise to major breakthroughs in several research areas. In neuroscience, we are witnessing a reappraisal of neural network theory and its relevance for understanding information processing in biological systems. The research presented in this book provides various perspectives on the use of artificial neural networks as models of neural information processing. We consider the biological plausibility of neural networks, performance improvements, spiking neural networks and the use of neural networks for understanding brain function.

Neural information processing with dynamical synapses

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193837 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-383-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Experimental data have consistently revealed that the neuronal connection weight, which models the efficacy of the firing of a pre-synaptic neuron in modulating the state of a post-synaptic one, varies on short time scales, ranging from hundreds to thousands of milliseconds. This is called short-term plasticity (STP). Two types of STP, with opposite effects on the connection efficacy, have been observed in experiments. They are short-term depression (STD) and short-term facilitation (STF). Computational studies have explored the impact of STP on network dynamics, and found that STP can generate very rich intrinsic dynamical behaviors, including damped oscillations, state hopping with transient population spikes, traveling fronts and pulses, spiral waves, rotating bump states, robust self-organized critical activities and so on. These studies also strongly suggest that STP can play many important roles in neural computation. For instances, STD may provide a dynamic control mechanism that allows equal fractional changes on rapidly and slowly firing afferents to produce post-synaptic responses, realizing Weber's law; STD may provide a mechanism to close down network activity naturally, achieving iconic sensory memory; and STF may provide a mechanism for implementing work-memory not relying on persistent neural firing. From the computational point of view, the time scale of STP resides between fast neural signaling (in the order of milliseconds) and rapid learning (in the order of minutes or above), which is the time scale of many important temporal processes occurring in our daily lives, such as motion control and working memory. Thus, STP may serve as a substrate for neural systems manipulating temporal information on the relevant time scales. This Research Topic aims to present the recent progress in understanding the roles of STP in neural information processing. It includes, but no exclusively, the studies on investigating various computational roles of STP, the modeling studies on exploring new dynamical behaviors generated by STP, and the experimental works which help us to understand the functional roles of STP.

Neuro-Education and Neuro-Rehabilitation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450060 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-006-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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In the last decade, important discoveries have been made in cognitive neuroscience regarding brain plasticity and learning such as the mirror neurons system and the anatomo-functional organization of perceptual, cognitive and motor abilities.... Time has come to consider the societal impact of these findings. The aim of this Research Topic of Frontiers in Psychology is to concentrate on two domains: neuro-education and neuro-rehabilitation. At the interface between neuroscience, psychology and education, neuro-education is a new inter-disciplinary emerging field that aims at developing new education programs based on results from cognitive neuroscience and psychology. For instance, brain-based learning methods are flourishing but few have been rigorously tested using well-controlled procedures. Authors of this Research Topic will present their latest findings in this domain using rigorously controlled experiments. Neuro-rehabilitation aims at developing new rehabilitation methods for children and adults with learning disorders. Neuro-rehabilitation programs can be based upon a relatively low number of patients and controls or on large clinical trials to test for the efficiency of new treatments. These projects may also aim at testing the efficiency of video-games and of new methods such as Trans Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) for therapeutic interventions in children or adolescents with learning disabilities. This Research Topic will bring together neuroscientists interested in brain plasticity and the effects of training, psychologists working with adults as well as with normally developing children and children with learning disabilities as well as education researchers directly confronted with the efficiency of education programs. The goal for each author is to describe the state of the art in his/her specific research domain and to illustrate how her/his research findings can impact education in the classroom or rehabilitation of children and adolescents with learning disorders.

Understanding the Role of Time-Dimension in the Brain Information Processing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451494 Year: Pages: 135 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-149-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Optimized interaction of the brain with environment requires the four-dimensional representation of space-time in the neuronal circuits. Information processing is an important part of this interaction, which is critically dependent on time-dimension. Information processing has played an important role in the evolution of mammals, and has reached a level of critical importance in the lives of primates, particularly the humans. The entanglement of time-dimension with information processing in the brain is not clearly understood at present. Time-dimension in physical world – the environment of an organism – can be represented by the interval of a pendulum swing (the cover page depicts temporal unit with the help of a swinging pendulum). Temporal units in neural processes are represented by regular activities of pacemaker neurons, tonic regular activities of proprioceptors and periodic fluctuations in the excitability of neurons underlying brain oscillations. Moreover, temporal units may be representationally associated with time-bins containing bits of information (see the Editorial), which may be studied to understand the entanglement of time-dimension with neural information processing. The optimized interaction of the brain with environment requires the calibration of neural temporal units. Neural temporal units are calibrated as a result of feedback processes occurring during the interaction of an organism with environment. Understanding the role of time-dimension in the brain information processing requires a multidisciplinary approach, which would include psychophysics, single cell studies and brain recordings. Although this Special Issue has helped us move forward on some fronts, including theoretical understanding of calibration of time-information in neural circuits, and the role of brain oscillations in timing functions and integration of asynchronous sensory information, further advancements are needed by developing correct computational tools to resolve the relationship between dynamic, hierarchical neural oscillatory structures that form during the brain’s interaction with environment.

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