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Comprehensive Systems Biomedicine

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193745 Year: Pages: 113 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-374-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Systems Biomedicine is a field in perpetual development. By definition a translational discipline, it emphasizes the role of quantitative systems approaches in biomedicine and aims to offer solutions to many emerging problems characterized by levels and types of complexity and uncertainty unmet before. Many factors, including technological and societal ones, need to be considered. In particular, new technologies are providing researchers with the data deluge whose management and exploitation requires a reinvention of cross-disciplinary team efforts. The advent of “omics” and high-content imaging are examples of advances de facto establishing the necessity of systems approaches. Hypothesis-driven models and in silico validation tools in support to all the varieties of experimental applications call for a profound revision. The focus on phases like mining and assimilating the data has substantially increased so to allow for interpretable knowledge to be inferred. Notably, to be able to tackle the newly generated data dimensionality, heterogeneity and complexity, model-free and data-driven intensive applications are increasingly shaping the computational pipelines and architectures that quant specialists set aside of the high-throughput genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics platforms. As for the societal aspects, in many advanced societies health care needs now more than in the past to address the problem of managing ageing populations and their complex morbidity patterns. In parallel, there is a growing research interest on the impact that cross-disciplinary clinical, epidemiological and quantitative modelling studies can have in relation to outcomes potentially affecting the quality of life of many people. Complex systems, including those characterizing biomedicine, are assessed in both their functionality and stability, and also relatively to the capacity of generating information from diversity, variation, and complexity. Due to the combined interactions and effects, such systems embed prediction power available for instance in both target identification or marker discovery, or more generally for conducting inference about patients’ pathological states, i.e. normal versus disease, diagnostic or prognostic analysis, and preventive assessment (e.g., risk evaluation). The ultimate goal, personalized medicine, will be achieved based on the confluence of the system’s predictive power to patient-specific profiling.

Recent Advances and Challenges on Big Data Analysis in Neuroimaging

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451289 Year: Pages: 195 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-128-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Big data is revolutionizing our ability to measure and study the human brain. New technology increases the resolution of images that are being study as well as enables researchers to study the brain as it functions. These technological advances are combined with efforts to collect neuroimaging data on large numbers of subjects, in some cases longitudinally. This combination of advances in measurement and scope of studies requires novel development in the statistical analysis. Fast, scalable, robust and accurate models and approaches need to be developed to make headway on these problems. This volume represents a unique collection of researchers providing deep insights on the statistical analysis of big neuroimaging data.

At the Crossroads: Lessons and Challenges in Computational Social Science

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450213 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-021-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The interest of physicists in economic and social questions is not new: for over four decades, we have witnessed the emergence of what is called nowadays “sociophysics” and “econophysics”, vigorous and challenging areas within the wider “Interdisciplinary Physics”. With tools borrowed from Statistical Physics and Complexity, this new area of study have already made important contributions, which in turn have fostered the development of novel theoretical foundations in Social Science and Economics, via mathematical approaches, agent-based modelling and numerical simulations. From these foundations, Computational Social Science has grown to incorporate as well the empirical component —aided by the recent data deluge from the Web 2.0 and 3.0—, closing in this way the experiment-theory cycle in the best tradition of Physics.

Machine Learning With Radiation Oncology Big Data

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457304 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-730-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Radiation oncology is uniquely positioned to harness the power of big data as vast amounts of data are generated at an unprecedented pace for individual patients in imaging studies and radiation treatments worldwide. The big data encountered in the radiotherapy clinic may include patient demographics stored in the electronic medical record (EMR) systems, plan settings and dose volumetric information of the tumors and normal tissues generated by treatment planning systems (TPS), anatomical and functional information from diagnostic and therapeutic imaging modalities (e.g., CT, PET, MRI and kVCBCT) stored in picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), as well as the genomics, proteomics and metabolomics information derived from blood and tissue specimens. Yet, the great potential of big data in radiation oncology has not been fully exploited for the benefits of cancer patients due to a variety of technical hurdles and hardware limitations.With recent development in computer technology, there have been increasing and promising applications of machine learning algorithms involving the big data in radiation oncology. This research topic is intended to present novel technological breakthroughs and state-of-the-art developments in machine learning and data mining in radiation oncology in recent years.

Transplant Rejection and Tolerance: Advancing the Field through Integration of Computational and Experimental Investigations

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452927 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-292-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Organ transplantation is a life-saving surgical procedure through which the functionality of a failing organ system can be restored. However, without the life-long administration of immunosuppressive drugs, the recipient’s immune system will launch a massive immune attack that will ultimately destroy the graft. Although successful at protecting the graft from an immune attack, long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs leads to serious complications (e.g., increased risk of infection, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and cancer). Moreover, recipients suffer from limited long-term graft survival rates due to the inability of current treatments to establish tolerance to the transplanted tissues. Thus, there is a great medical need to understand the complex network of immune system interactions that lead to transplant rejection so that new strategies of intervention can be determined that will redirect the system toward transplant acceptance while preserving immune competence against offending agents. In the past 20 years, the discovery and growing understanding of the positive and negative regulators of the activation of the immune system have fostered new interventional procedures targeting one or the other. While pre-clinical results proved the validity of these strategies, their clinical implementation has been troublesome. These results underscore the need for additional methods to determine the most effective interventions to prevent long-term transplant rejection. New tools of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being implemented in powerful analyses that promise the development of better, safer personalized treatments. In parallel, theoretical modeling has emerged as a tool that transcends investigations of individual mechanistic processes and instead unravels the relevant mechanisms of complex systems such as the immune response triggered by a transplant. In this way, theoretical models can be used to identify important behavior that arises from complex systems and thereby delineate emergent properties of biological systems that could not be identified studying single components. Employing this approach, interdisciplinary collaborations among immunologists, mathematicians, and system biologists will yield novel perspectives in the development of more effective strategies of intervention. The aim of this Research Topic is to demonstrate how new insight and methods from theoretical and experimental studies of the immune response can aid in identifying new research directions in transplant immunology. First, techniques from various theoretical and experimental studies with applications to the immune response will be reviewed to determine how they can be adapted to explore the complexity of transplant rejection. Second, recent advances in the acquisition and mining of large data sets related to transplant genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics will be discussed in the context of their predictive power and potential for optimizing and personalizing patient treatment. Last, new perspectives will be offered on the integration of computational immune modeling with transplant and omics data to establish more effective strategies of intervention that promote transplant tolerance.

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