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Culture and Cognition: Essays in Honor of Peter Damerow

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Book Series: Proceedings 11: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561355 Year: Pages: 295
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-14 10:36:04
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Peter Damerow (1939–2011) was a visionary scholar of rare versatility. A key figure in the foundation and early development of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, he contributed to fields as wide-ranging as pedagogy, mathematics, philosophy, psychology, Near Eastern studies, as well as the history of knowledge and science. Through his work and his dynamic personality, he shaped the careers of many scholars worldwide. He was a paragon of the engaged scientist, having great sensitivity for political and social concerns and a perceptiveness that also shaped his scholarship. The present volume attempts to capture the vivacity of his ever-curious mind. It comprises contributions by some of his closest companions, colleagues, and friends, most of which were presented at a workshop held in Peter’s honor at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin in December 19–20, 2013. The contributions are organized in four parts, the first three of which cover some of the areas of Peter’s interests: the origins of writing and mathematics; the history of knowledge and science; and societal concerns and the role of information technologies for the humanities. The last part offers a glimpse at his life and also presents the scope of his scholarship with a bibliography of his writings.

Science in Court Society: Giovan Battista Benedetti’s “Diversarum speculationum mathematicarum et physicarum liber” (Turin, 1585)

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Book Series: Sources 11: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561164 Year: Pages: 642 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-03 09:43:11
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Giovanni Battista Benedetti is counted as one of the most brilliant mathematical and philosophical minds of the late Italian Renaissance. However, the theoretical and historical relevance of his work is still obscure in many respects. This is due to several factors, principal among which is the relative rarity of his major work, Diversarum speculationum mathematicarum et physicarum liber (Book including various mathematical and physical speculations), 1585.This work was a major contribution to Renaissance science, especially due to its insights on mechanics, the mathematical approach to natural investigation, and the connection of celestial and terrestrial dynamics in a post-Copernican perspective. The first edition was an elegant folio, which includes heterogeneous writings not only on mathematics and physics but also on technical and philosophical issues. Benedetti presented these as short treatises or letters addressed to gentlemen, courtiers, scholars, engineers, and practitioners of different arts. The Diversae speculationes appeared in a series of prestigious volumes aimed at celebrating the magnificence of the court and the capital. It aimed to make the quality of the court mathematician’s research and skills publicly appreciable. It also bore witness to the intensity of the cultural debates going on in Turin or connecting it with other centers, especially Venice.This open access edition makes the Benedetti’s work accessible to a large scholarly readership. In the extensive introduction, his achievement is presented in its rich complexity. Benedetti is emblematic of his time and of the non-linearity of the historical process of Renaissance science with its multicentric institutions and scientific networks. The apparent fragmentary nature of his work hides a fundamental unity of the conception and the method, both of which rest on geometry. Benedetti regarded mechanics as a model, but he enlarged his perspective to include the most varied fields of investigation and concretely to demonstrate the fruitfulness of his approach to universal knowledge, astronomy, physics, meteorology, and even to ethics.Edition Open Sources (EOS) pioneers a new paradigm in the publishing of historical sources. Academic editions of primary sources in the history of science are published in online, digital, and print formats that present facsimiles, transcriptions, and often translations of original works with an introduction to the author, the text, and the context in which it was written. The sources are historical books, manuscripts, documents, or other archival materials that are otherwise difficult to access. EOS is a cooperation between the University of Oklahoma Libraries, the Department for the History of Science der University of Oklahoma, and the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science.

Theory, Practice, and Nature In-between: Antonio Vallisneri's 'Primi Itineris Specimen'

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Book Series: Sources 9: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561324 Year: Pages: 369 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-19 14:28:52
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In the summer of 1704, Antonio Vallisneri (1661–1730), the preeminent Italian physician and natural philosopher of his time, traveled with a “daring soul” and “trembling feet” across the “silent horrors” of the northern Apennines: down the hills south of Reggio Emilia to northern Tuscany and the western edge of his native land, the Province of Garfagnana. He then wrote a report of this adventure, the Primi Itineris per Montes Specimen Physico-Medicum (“Physico-medical example of a first journey through the mountains"), and sent it to the Royal Society of London, hoping for its publication in Philosophical Transactions. Unfortunately this did not happen and the manuscript disappeared from sight. The original draft, however, survived in the State Archive of the Italian city of Reggio Emilia where it was found in 2009. With its exceptional array of geological, medical, geographical, technical, ethnographic, and historical data, the Primi Itineris Specimen is one of the earliest and most well-documented attempts to define a systematic approach to field research. Its frantically reworked pages and anxious marginal notes offer a new and precious opportunity to understand why and how experimental data and theories in the early modern period interacted and shaped the development of many crucial debates. These include the discovering of deep-time, the comprehension of geological phenomena (such as the hydrologic cycle and the origin of mountains and fossils), the perception of man’s place in nature, the constant search for new therapeutics, the tormented and charming relation between science and religion.

Algebra in Cuneiform: Introduction to an Old Babylonian Geometrical Technique

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Book Series: Textbooks 2: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561157 Year: Pages: 156 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-21 11:59:57
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This textbook analyzes a number of texts in “conformal translation,” that is, a translation in which the same Babylonian term is always translated in the same way and, more importantly, in which different terms are always translated differently. Appendixes are provided for readers who are familiar with basic Assyriology but otherwise philological details are avoided. All of these texts are from the second half of the Old Babylonian period, that is, 1800–1600 BCE. It is indeed during this period that the “algebraic” discipline, and Babylonian mathematics in general, culminates. Even though a few texts from the late period show some similarities with what comes from the Old Babylonian period, they are but remnants. Beyond analyzing texts, the book gives a general characterization of the kind of mathematics involved, and locates it within the context of the Old Babylonian scribe school and its particular culture. Finally, it describes the origin of the discipline and its impact in later mathematics, not least Euclid’s geometry and genuine algebra as created in medieval Islam and taken over in European medieval and Renaissance mathematics.

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MPRL --- Edition Open Access

Alvarus Thomas und sein Liber de triplici motu. Band I: Naturphilosophie an der Pariser Artistenfakultät

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Book Series: Sources 7: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561096 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 671 Language: German
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 14:37:16
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Der Liber de triplici motu ist ein Werk von Alvarus Thomas aus dem Jahr 1509. Das Buch repräsentiert einen letzten Höhepunkt der scholastischen Auseinandersetzung mit der aristotelischen Bewegungslehre vor der Entstehung der klassischen Mechanik, an dem man die entscheidenden Stadien der Transformation des Bewegungsbegriffs seit der Antike studieren kann. Von zukunftsweisender Bedeutung ist darin die mathematische Proportionslehre und die damit verbundene Quantifizierung von naturphilosophischen Qualitäten nach den Methoden der Oxforder Kalkulatoren wie zum Beispiel die Quantifizierung der Geschwindigkeit einer Bewegung. Aus dem Inhalt und der Strukturierung des Werks sowie dem Leben von Alvarus Thomas lassen sich die Zusammenhänge zwischen Formen und Inhalten der Wissensvermittlung und Wissensproduktion, zwischen wissenschaftlicher Forschung und wissenschaftlicher Sozialisation für das frühe 16. Jahrhundert erhellen. Dieser erste Band zu Alvarus Thomas und seinem Liber de triplici motu bietet zudem einen strukturierten Abriss des Werks, einen Glossar zum mathematischen und naturphilosophischen Vokabular sowie weiteres bibliographisches Material. Die Edition Open Sources (EOS) setzt ein neues Paradigma im Verlagswesen im Hinblick auf wissenschaftliche Publikationen von Quellen um. Die herausgegebenen Werke sind in unterschiedlichen Formaten online frei zugänglich, und auch in gedruckter Form erhältlich. EOS-Publikationen behandeln wichtige Originalquellen zur Geschichte und Entwicklung des Wissens, die als Faksimile und bearbeitete Neuausgabe eines Textes, teilweise auch als Übersetzung bereitgestellt und mit einer Einführung in Autor, Werk und Entstehungszeit versehen werden. Bei den Quellen kann es sich um historische Bücher, Manuskripte, Dokumente oder andere Materialien handeln, die ansonsten schwer zugänglich sind. EOS ist eine Zusammenarbeit der University of Oklahoma Libraries, des Department for the History of Science der University of Oklahoma sowie des Max-Planck-Instituts für Wissenschaftsgeschichte.

Alvarus Thomas und sein Liber de triplici motu. Band II: Bearbeiteter Text und Faksimile

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Book Series: Sources 8: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561102 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 580 Language: German
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 15:02:38
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Der Liber de triplici motu ist ein Werk von Alvarus Thomas aus dem Jahr 1509. Das Buch repräsentiert einen letzten Höhepunkt der scholastischen Auseinandersetzung mit der aristotelischen Bewegungslehre vor der Entstehung der klassischen Mechanik, an dem man die entscheidenden Stadien der Transformation des Bewegungsbegriffs seit der Antike studieren kann. Von zukunftsweisender Bedeutung ist darin die mathematische Proportionslehre und die damit verbundene Quantifizierung von naturphilosophischen Qualitäten nach den Methoden der Oxforder Kalkulatoren wie zum Beispiel die Quantifizierung der Geschwindigkeit einer Bewegung. Der Liber de triplici motu gilt unter Forschern zur Geschichte der Naturphilosophie und der Mathematik der Frühen Neuzeit wegen seiner ausufernden Abkürzungen als schwer zu lesendes Werk. Dieser zweite Band zu Alvarus Thomas und seinem Liber de triplici motu stellt daher neben einem Faksimile den vollständigen Text in einer überarbeiteten Form zur Verfügung. Die Edition Open Sources (EOS) setzt ein neues Paradigma im Verlagswesen im Hinblick auf wissenschaftliche Publikationen von Quellen um. Die herausgegebenen Werke sind in unterschiedlichen Formaten online frei zugänglich, und auch in gedruckter Form erhältlich. EOS-Publikationen behandeln wichtige Originalquellen zur Geschichte und Entwicklung des Wissens, die als Faksimile und bearbeitete Neuausgabe eines Textes, teilweise auch als Übersetzung bereitgestellt und mit einer Einführung in Autor, Werk und Entstehungszeit versehen werden. Bei den Quellen kann es sich um historische Bücher, Manuskripte, Dokumente oder andere Materialien handeln, die ansonsten schwer zugänglich sind. EOS ist eine Zusammenarbeit der University of Oklahoma Libraries, des Department for the History of Science der University of Oklahoma sowie des Max-Planck-Instituts für Wissenschaftsgeschichte.

Cavendish: The Experimental Life

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Book Series: Studies 7: Max Planck Research Library in the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561065 Year: Pages: 596 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 16:09:07
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Two gifted eighteenth-century Londoners, Charles Cavendish and his painfully preeminent son Henry were descendants of paired revolutions, one political and one scientific. Scions of a powerful revolutionary family, they gave an original turn to the duty of public service that attached to their social rank. The English aristocracy knew one of its finest hours when Henry Cavendish gently laid his delicate weights in the scales of the first great precision balance of the century. For this action to happen, it took two generations and two kinds of invention, one in social forms and the other in scientific methods. This joint biography of father and son tells how it came to pass. Henry Cavendish is best known for his researches in chemistry, electricity, and heat, but in truth he worked in every part of physical science, bringing to it his unique combination of experimental precision and mathematical penetration. His accomplishment is likened to the highest example: since the death of Newton, Humphry Davy wrote, England has suffered "no scientific loss so great as that of Cavendish." Through inheritance he became immensely rich. Regarding intellect and fortune, he is called "the wisest of the rich and the richest of the wise." In his exclusive devotion to science, he is compared with "the most austere anchorites," who were "not more faithful to their vows." With reference to his legendary shyness, he is described as a man of "most reserved disposition," of a "degree bordering on disease." He was, to be sure, all of these things: one of the best scientists of his time, one of the richest men in the kingdom, a member of one of the politically most influential aristocratic families, a scientific fanatic, and a person of extraordinary peculiarities. This biography, a major revision of the original published in 1999, offers an enlarged understanding of the eighteenth century world of science and a reevaluation both of the scientific genius and of the remarkable personality of Henry Cavendish. It is a comprehensive study of science, family, and society in the eighteenth century.

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MPRL --- Edition Open Access

The Globalization of Knowledge in the Iberian Colonial World

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Book Series: Proceedings 10: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561072 Year: Pages: 322 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 10:37:43
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This volume investigates processes of knowledge formation in the Iberian colonies by attempting to understand the Spanish and Portuguese contribution to the European scientific tradition, and by tracing the origins and history of this knowledge to find out how it was gained. The studies in this volume reconsider our understanding of what scientific knowledge is and introduce a variety of scientific cultures of European and non-European origin. They examine the mixing processes of scientific cultures and the role these cultures played in the colonial situation at the intersection of non-human processes and human action. The volume brings together contributions in the history of botany, art, materia medica, translation in the religious sphere of colonial missions as well as mining as a scientific, juridical and industrial endeavor.

Shifting Paradigms: Thomas S. Kuhn and the History of Science

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Book Series: Proceedings 8: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561119 Year: Pages: 397 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 12:55:38
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The publication of Thomas S. Kuhn’s "Structure of Scientific Revolutions" in 1962 stands for a turning point in the history and philosophy of science. The repercussions of this work have rearticulated the theoretical framework of history and philosophy of science and have also generated discussions that contributed to the formation of the communities of historians as well as philosophers of science in many parts of the world. Different approaches to history of science have since emerged and most of them have the "Structure" as their reference point. In October 2012, a conference at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science brought together some of the historians of science whose work has played a decisive role in the ways history of science has evolved as a field of research in the past 50 years, both intellectually and institutionally. This volume gathers reflections by many of these historians on the history of the history of science, based on the presentations and discussions at the conference. The topics covered range from personal recollections of working with Thomas Kuhn to broad overviews of the historical development of the history of science as a discipline in the past half-century. The series Proceedings of the Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge presents the results of scientific meetings on current issues and supports further cooperation on these issues via an electronic platform. The volumes are available both as print-on-demand books and as open-access publications on the Internet. The material is freely accessible online at www.edition-open-access.de.

Spatial Thinking and External Representation: Towards a Historical Epistemology of Space

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Book Series: Studies 8: Max Planck Research Library in the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561089 Year: Pages: 219 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 13:00:16
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Spatial knowledge takes different forms in different societies and at different times in history depending on the spatial experiences accounted for and the available means for the external representation of knowledge. The volume presents and analyses manifestations of spatial thinking in the language and practices of recent non-literate societies, in the administrative institutions of early civilizations, in discursive contexts of ancient Greece and China, in early modern natural philosophy and metaphysics, and in twentieth-century physics, and discusses their historical and structural relations.

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MPRL --- Edition Open Access

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