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Into the woods

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ISBN: 9782759229079 Year: DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-2907-9 Language: English
Publisher: éditions Quae
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-10 11:21:05
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Abstract

At the centre of concerns related to curbing the decline in forest biodiversity caused by increasing anthropogenic pressure and global change, old-growth forests are mainly characterised by the continuity of their tree cover. This has been defined mainly by their appearance on historical maps and by ecological criteria dating back to certain temporal cut-off points (about two centuries). Inherited over hundreds, even thousands, of years of interaction between Man and Nature, these ancient forests have been managed and shaped by past societies to meet their various needs, both domestic and industrial. Also, studying the historical trajectories of such forests, their responses to environmental and anthropogenic stress, and the long-term consequences of past human activities, is essential in order to better understand their current ecology and rethink their conservation. The development of pluridisciplinary and interdisciplinary research (ecology, paleoecology, history, archaeology, geography, sociology) now makes it possible not only to push back the hitherto accepted thresholds of ancientness, but in particular to understand old forests in their entirety and complexity over the longer term. This book, comprising both theoretical and methodological contributions along with case studies, reflects the diversity of current approaches and thinking and promotes interdisciplinarity as the only route to a comprehensive understanding of ancient forests as natural and cultural assets.

Keywords

biodiversité --- forêt --- histoire

Agroforesterie et services écosystémiques en zone tropicale

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ISBN: 9782759230594 Year: DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-3059-4 Language: French
Publisher: éditions Quae
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-10 11:21:07
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Respectueux de l'environnement et garantissant une sécurité alimentaire soutenue par la diversification des productions et des revenus qu'ils procurent, les systèmes agroforestiers apparaissent comme un modèle prometteur d'agriculture durable dans les pays du Sud les plus vulnérables aux changements globaux. Cependant, ces systèmes agroforestiers ne peuvent être optimisés qu'à condition de mieux comprendre et de mieux maîtriser les facteurs de leurs productions. L'ouvrage présente un ensemble de connaissances récentes sur les mécanismes biophysiques et socio-économiques qui sous-tendent le fonctionnement et la dynamique des systèmes agroforestiers. Il concerne, d'une part les systèmes agroforestiers à base de cultures pérennes, telles que cacaoyers et caféiers, de régions tropicales humides en Amérique du Sud, en Afrique de l'Est et du Centre, d'autre part les parcs arborés et arbustifs à base de cultures vivrières, principalement de céréales, de la région semi-aride subsaharienne d'Afrique de l'Ouest. Il synthétise les dernières avancées acquises grâce à plusieurs projets associant le Cirad, l'IRD et leurs partenaires du Sud qui ont été conduits entre 2012 et 2016 dans ces régions. L'ensemble de ces projets s'articulent autour des dynamiques des systèmes agroforestiers et des compromis entre les services de production et les autres services socio-écosystémiques que ces systèmes fournissent.

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