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Agricultural Input Subsidies: The Recent Malawi Experience

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ISBN: 9780199683529 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199683529.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: OAPEN-UK
Subject: Economics --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2013-10-11 21:10:22
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Agricultural input subsidies were a major feature of development policies in rural economies until the 1980s. Continuing rural poverty with low productivity and fertilizer use in smallholder staple crops has led to their resurgence in Africa. These subsidies are, however, controversial with claims of both large food security benefits and unsustainable, inefficient resource use. This book reviews current theory and evidence on the strengths and weaknesses of these programmes and the effects of programme context, design, and implementation. Theoretical arguments for agricultural subsidies are based on input promotion where farmers’ private costs (benefits) are higher (lower) than wider economic costs (benefits). These arguments, and concerns about inefficiency and diversion, are reviewed and extended to consider input affordability constraints and ‘smart’ rationing and targeting. Recent programmes in Africa have a variety of generally producer-focused objectives, with varied implementation and programme outcomes. Most pay little attention to consumer interests and potential contributions to wider growth. A detailed examination of Malawi’s controversial agricultural input subsidy programme follows. Drawing on a wide range of information sources, the political and agro-economic contexts of the programme are examined, with evidence on its implementation and impacts from 2005 to 2011. Positive impacts are recorded on beneficiaries’ production, incomes, food consumption, school enrolment, child health, and reduced need for earnings from undertaking casual labour for others. There is evidence of indirect economy-wide impacts, but this is not as strong as might be expected. Targeting and graduation are identified as critically important issues requiring continuing attention.

The Politics of Inclusive Development: Interrogating the Evidence

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ISBN: 9780198788829 9780198722564 Year: Pages: 416 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198722564.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-27 11:01:17
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It is now widely accepted that politics plays a significant role in shaping the possibilities for inclusive development. However, the specific ways in which this happens across different types and forms of development, and in different contexts, remains poorly understood. This collection provides the state of the art review regarding what is currently known about the politics of inclusive development. Leading academics offer systematic reviews of how politics shapes development across multiple dimensions, including through growth, natural resource governance, poverty reduction, service delivery, social protection, justice systems, the empowerment of marginalized groups, and the role of both traditional and non-traditional donors. The book not only provides a comprehensive update but also a groundbreaking range of new directions for thinking and acting around these issues. The book’s originality thus derives not only from the wide scope of its case-study material, but also from the new conceptual approaches it offers for thinking about the politics of inclusive development, and the innovative and practical suggestions for donors, policymakers, and practitioners that flow from this.

Building State Capability: Evidence, Analysis, Action

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ISBN: 9780198747482 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198747482.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: Harvard University
Subject: Economics --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-25 11:01:13
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Governments play a major role in the development process, and constantly introduce reforms and policies to achieve developmental objectives. Many of these interventions have limited impact, however; schools get built but kids don’t learn, IT systems are introduced but not used, plans are written but not implemented. These achievement deficiencies reveal gaps in capabilities, and weaknesses in the process of building state capability. This book addresses these weaknesses and gaps. It starts by providing evidence of the capability shortfalls that currently exist in many countries, showing that many governments lack basic capacities even after decades of reforms and capacity-building efforts. The book then analyzes this evidence, identifying capability traps that hold many governments back—particularly related to isomorphic mimicry (where governments copy best practice solutions from other countries that make them look more capable even if they are not more capable) and premature load bearing (where governments adopt new mechanisms that they cannot actually make work, given weak extant capacities). The book then describes a process that governments can use to escape these capability traps. Called PDIA (problem-driven iterative adaptation), this process empowers people working in governments to find and fit solutions to the problems they face. The discussion about this process is structured in a practical manner so that readers can actually apply tools and ideas to the capability challenges they face in their own contexts. These applications will help readers devise policies and reforms that have more impact than those of the past.

Keywords

foreign aid --- reform --- policy --- government --- politics --- capability --- development --- poverty --- pdia --- services

Governing Extractive Industries

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9780198820932 9780198820932 Year: Pages: 304 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198820932.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-25 11:01:02
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Proposals for more effective natural resource governance emphasize the importance of institutions and governance, but say less about the political conditions under which institutional change occurs. This book synthesizes findings regarding the political drivers of institutional change in extractive industry governance. The authors analyse resource governance from the late nineteenth century to the present in Bolivia, Ghana, Peru, and Zambia. They focus on the ways in which resource governance and national political settlements interact. Special attention is paid to the nature of elite politics, the emergence of new political actors, forms of political contention, changing ideas regarding natural resources and development, the geography of natural resource deposits, and the influence of the transnational political economy of global commodity production. National elites and subnational actors are in continuous contention over extractive industry governance. Resource rents are used by elites to manage this contention and incorporate actors into governing coalitions and overall political settlements. Periodically, new resource frontiers are opened, and new political actors emerge with the power to redefine how extractive industries are governed and used as instruments for development. Colonial and post-colonial histories of resource extraction continue to give political valence to ideas of resource nationalism that mobilize actors who challenge existing institutional arrangements. The book is innovative in its focus on the political longue durée, and the use of in-depth, comparative, country-level analysis in Africa and Latin America, to build a theoretical argument that accounts for both similarity and divergence between these regions.

New Sources of Development Finance

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ISBN: 9780199278558 Year: Pages: 268 DOI: 10.1093/0199278555.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: UNU WIDER
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-29 00:11:23
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"As their Millennium Development Goals, world leaders have pledged by 2015 to halve the number of people living in extreme poverty and hunger, to achieve universal primary education, to reduce child mortality, to halt the spread of HIV/AIDS, and to halve the number of people without safe drinking water. Achieving these goals requires a large increase in the flow of financial resources to developing countries – double the present development assistance from abroad. In examining innovative ways to secure these resources, this book, which is part of the UNU–WIDER Studies in Development Economics series, sets out a framework for the economic analysis of different sources of funding and applying the tools of modern public economics to identify the key issues. It examines the role of new sources of overseas aid, considers the fiscal architecture and the lessons that can be learned from federal fiscal systems, asks how far increased transfers impose a burden on donors, and investigates how far the raising of resources can be separated from their use. In turn, the book examines global environmental taxes (such as a carbon tax), the taxation of currency transactions (the Tobin tax), a development‐focused allocation of Special Drawing Rights by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the UK Government proposal for an International Finance Facility, increased private donations for development purposes, a global lottery (or premium bond), and increased remittances by emigrants. In each case, it considers the feasibility of the proposal and the resources that it can realistically raise, and offers new perspectives and insights into these new and controversial proposals. "

Blame It On the WTO: A Human Rights Critique

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ISBN: 9780199689767 Year: Pages: 327 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_454396 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: OAPEN-UK
Subject: Law --- Economics --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2013-10-01 07:26:06
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The World Trade Organization (WTO) is often accused of, at best, not paying enough attention to human rights or, at worst, facilitating and perpetuating human rights abuses. This book weighs these criticisms and examines their validity, incorporating legal arguments as well as some economic and political science perspectives. After introducing the respective WTO and human rights regimes, and discussing their legal and normative relationship to each other, the book presents a detailed analysis of the main human rights concerns relating to the WTO. These include the alleged democratic deficit within the Organization and the impact of WTO rules on the right to health, labour rights, the right to food, and on questions of poverty and development. Given that some of the most important issues within the WTO concern its impact on poor people within developing States, the book asks whether rich States have an obligation to the people of poorer States to construct a fairer trading system that better facilitates the alleviation of poverty and development. Against this background, the book examines the current Doha round proposals as well as suggestions for reform of the WTO to make it more ‘human rights-friendly’.

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