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Vitamin K and Vitamin K-Dependent Proteins in Relation to Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038428312 9783038428329 Year: Pages: X, 192 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-17 12:23:54
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Vitamin K comprises a group of highly lipophilic molecules that possess a common 2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone nucleus and a variable polyisoprenoid side chain at the 3-position that can vary in both length and degree of saturation. In nature, these forms are found as a single plant form (phylloquinone or vitamin K1) and a series of bacterial forms (menaquinones or vitamin K2). Vitamin K acts as a cofactor for a microsomal enzyme, γ-carboxyglutamyl carboxylase (GGCX), that serves to transform specific peptide-bound glutamate residues found in certain specialized proteins to γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla). This posttranslational protein modification is the only firmly established biochemical function of vitamin K. The resultant vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins, or Gla proteins, are diverse in both structure and function and are found in many cell and tissue types. The best-known example of the health role of vitamin K-mediated protein γ-carboxylation is in the synthesis of several VKD blood coagulation proteins, which are essential for the maintenance of extracellular haemostasis. An overt deficiency of vitamin K results in bleeding and although rare in most populations, vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in early infancy has potentially devastating and fatal consequences because bleeding commonly occurs within the brain. For this reason it is recommended that all newborn infants should receive vitamin K prophylaxis. On the other hand, the deliberate lowering of circulating VKD-coagulation factors by the therapeutic administration of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) such as warfarin is used to treat and prevent thrombotic disorders. The functions of most non-coagulation Gla proteins remain uncertain, but are suspected to play roles in processes as diverse as bone and cardiovascular mineralization, vascular integrity, energy metabolism, immune response, brain metabolism, and in cellular growth, survival, and signalling. For the most part, extrapolations of the cellular properties of extrahepatic Gla proteins to tangible health benefits are unclear or fuzzy, as are the health consequences of their undercarboxylation. However, there is evidence that higher nutritional intakes of vitamin K are required to enable maximal γ-carboxylation of certain extrahepatic Gla proteins, such as osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein (MGP). Osteocalcin and MGP currently represent the best-studied extrahepatic Gla proteins with respect to their putative roles in bone and cardiovascular health, respectively. In addition, osteocalcin may play a role in regulating energy metabolism. Much current interest focuses on the role of MGP as an inhibitor of vascular mineralization, particularly in renal disease and in patients taking VKA. Interestingly, although VKA have been in clinical use for decades, recent evidence suggests that they may cause unintended health consequences by disrupting the function of MGP resulting in calcification and loss of the functional integrity of the vessel wall. Apart from the role of vitamin K in γ-carboxylation there is evidence that some forms, particularly menaquinone-4 (MK-4), have a direct influence on cellular functions.This Special Issue of Nutrients focuses on advances that extend our knowledge of the biochemical functions and health roles played by both the micronutrient vitamin K and its target Gla proteins. The scope of potential topics is wide and may include studies in population and patient groups, animal models and at the cellular level. Examples include the presentation, diagnosis, incidence, causes, and prevention of deficiency syndromes, of which the most obvious is bleeding in infancy, but also extends to other putative roles of vitamin K such as in bone and cardiovascular health. In trying to define extrahepatic functions of vitamin K it is important to obtain evidence of pathophysiological signatures that may derive from chronic suboptimal vitamin K intakes or as a consequence of vitamin K antagonists. An important related question is whether the pathophysiology can be ameliorated or prevented by judicious vitamin K supplementation. Equally important to our understanding of the human physiology of vitamin K are studies that define the relative functional importance of individual vitamers and how differences in their availability and metabolism affect their biological activity. Recent highlights in metabolism include the delineation of the importance of vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) in maintaining vitamin K status and the intriguing hypothesis that its paralog VKOR-like 1 enzyme (VKORL1) may serve an antioxidant function. Another highlight illustrating the importance of metabolism to vitamin K function is the discovery that the enzyme UbiA prenyltransferase-containing domain 1 (UBIAD1) participates in the cellular conversion of phylloquinone to MK-4 with menadione as a metabolic intermediate. We invite authors to submit reviews or original research on any of the above topics.

Vitamin D and Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038975861 9783038975878 Year: Pages: 306 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-587-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-21 10:04:11
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Over the past decades, researchers have gathered data demonstrating that vitamin D and its metabolites possess activities far beyond the classic regulation of calcium–phosphate homeostasis. It is now well established that vitamin D is essential for the proper functioning of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous, and immune systems. Furthermore, vitamin D and its analogs were shown to regulate proliferation and differentiation of keratinocyte, immune cells, and numerous cancer-derived cells, both in vivo and in vitro. On the other hand, population base studies have provided evidence that global vitamin D deficiency is correlated with the occurrence and aggravation of symptoms of skeletal, cardiovascular autoimmune, and skin disease; infections; metabolic and cognitive disorders; multiple types of cancers; as well as overall mortality. This Special Issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences, entitled “Vitamin D and Human Health”, summarizes recent advances in our understanding of pleiotropic activity of vitamin D with a focus on its protective role against cancer, hypertension, viral infections, and neurological diseases, as well as its impact on the immune system and mitochondria. Furthermore, eight research papers provide new insight into vitamin D research and highlight new directions and targets in the prevention and treatment of human diseases.

Vitamin C: Current Concepts in Human Physiology

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ISBN: 9783038972945 9783038972952 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-295-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-05 12:11:11
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.[Vitamin C is synthesized by almost all animals. However, for humans, it is a vitamin that needs constant replenishment in the diet. While its role as an anti-oxidant and for preventing scurvy have been known for a long time, novel functions and unrecognized associations continue to be identified for this enigmatic molecule. In the past decade, new details have emerged regarding differences in its uptake by oral and intravenous modes. While vitamin C deficiency remains largely unknown and poorly addressed in many segments of the population, novel pharmacological roles for high-dose, intravenous vitamin C in many disease states have now been postulated and investigated. This has shifted its role in health and disease from the long-perceived notion as merely a vitamin and an anti-oxidant to a pleiotropic molecule with a broad anti-inflammatory, epigenetic, and anti-cancer profile.This Special Issue comprises original research papers and reviews on vitamin C metabolism and function that relate to the following topics: understanding its role in the modulation of inflammation and immunity, therapeutic applications and safety of pharmacological ascorbate in disease, and the emerging role of vitamin C as a pleiotropic modulator of critical care illness and cancer.]

Vitamin C in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783038970293 9783038970309 Year: Pages: X, 288 Language: english
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Cardiovascular
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-09 11:31:26
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Vitamin C is a pivotal water soluble electron donor in nature and an essential nutrient in man. Despite its many years as a research focus, new and increasingly regulatory functions of vitamin C in human health are continually being unravelled. This improved mechanistic insight is starting to provide rationales explaining the extensive epidemiological literature that, for decades, has consistently shown strong associations between poor vitamin C status and increased morbidity and mortality.In this Special Issue, we include original research and literature reviews by experts in the field outlining the roles of vitamin C in early, daily and late life, as well as the roles of deficiency in cardiovascular disease, inflammation and cancer.

Dietary Trace Minerals

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ISBN: 9783039283248 9783039283255 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-325-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Dietary trace minerals are pivotal and hold a key role in numerous metabolic processes. Trace mineral deficiencies (except for iodine, iron, and zinc) do not often develop spontaneously in adults on ordinary diets; infants are more vulnerable because their growth is rapid and their intake varies. Trace mineral imbalances can result from hereditary disorders (e.g., hemochromatosis, Wilson disease), kidney dialysis, parenteral nutrition, restrictive diets prescribed for people with inborn errors of metabolism, or various popular diet plans. The Special Issue “Dietary Trace Minerals” comprised 13 peer-reviewed papers on the most recent evidence regarding the dietary intake of trace minerals, as well as their effect on the prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases. Original contributions and literature reviews further demonstrated the crucial and central part that dietary trace minerals play in human health and development. This editorial provides a brief and concise overview of the content of the Dietary Trace Minerals Special Issue.

Micronutrients Intake and Status during Pregnancy and Lactation

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ISBN: 9783038978404 9783038978411 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-841-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Optimal nutrition is important during pregnancy and lactation for the health of both the mother and infant. Chronic deficiencies of both macronutrients and micronutrients are well established in developing countries. Although in developed countries overconsumption of macronutrients is a major issue, micronutrient deficiencies which occur concomitantly are no less of a concern. Furthermore in developed countries there is also the risk of excessive micronutrient intake from dietary supplements. Micronutrients have a role in fetal and neonatal health and also health in later life. Micronutrient deficiency or toxicity during pregnancy or early life can permanently affect developing tissues, resulting in adverse growth and development of the infant which is associated with chronic diseases in adulthood. An aberrant micronutrient intake during pregnancy or lactation can also have detrimental effect on the mother both in the neonatal period and in later life.

Carbohydrate Intake in Non-communicable Disease Prevention and Treatment

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ISBN: 9783038978183 9783038978190 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-819-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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In 2011, carbohydrates provided 63% of the dietary energy intake to the world&rsquo;s population. Historically, carbohydrate-rich diets have been associated with good health and longevity but there has been a move away from traditional carbohydrate-rich diets, with refined carbohydrate taking much criticism for contributing to non-communicable disease. The aim of this Special Issue is to discuss the appropriate use of environmentally sustainable carbohydrate-rich foods in the modern diet in developing and developed countries in the context of prevention and treatment of non-communicable disease.

Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

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ISBN: 9783039214396 9783039214402 Year: Pages: 370 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-440-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The purpose of this Special Issue “Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)” is to increase knowledge regarding the role of dietary composition and effects in IBD, describing the prevalence of malnutrition in IBD and the effect on clinical outcomes, discussing methods of nutrition risk screening and assessment in IBD, and reviewing mechanisms through which diet and dietary components may affect disease severity. The articles focus on the following areas: Dietary Composition/Therapy Interventions in Ulcerative Colitis and effects on outcomes; Dietary Composition/Therapy Interventions in Crohn’s Disease and effects on outcomes; Nutrition Risk Screening and Assessment in IBD; Mechanisms of Diet in the pathogenesis of IBD.

Keywords

body composition --- obesity --- visceral adipose tissue --- fat --- osteoporosis --- osteopenia --- sarcopenia --- inflammatory bowel disease --- Crohn’s disease --- dietary intake --- malnutrition --- Mediterranean diet --- exclusive enteral nutrition --- children --- IBD --- remission --- mucosal cytokines --- dietary protein level --- colitis --- epithelial repair --- mucosa-adherent microbiota --- intestinal inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease --- epithelial adherens junctions --- bioactive peptides --- synbiotic --- prebiotic --- probiotic --- IBD --- Bacillus spores --- dietary fibre --- sugar cane fibre --- ulcerative colitis --- colon --- high-sulfur foods --- inflammation --- metagenomics --- microbiota --- sulfur reducing --- inflammatory bowel disease --- Crohn --- ulcerative colitis --- diet --- nutrition --- exclusive enteral nutrition --- intestinal epithelial cells --- inflammation --- probiotics --- Lactobacillus acidophilus --- Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis --- vitamin D --- IBD --- Crohn’s disease --- ulcerative colitis --- supplementation --- deficiency --- Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) --- Mediterranean Diet --- Western-style Diet (WSD) --- Nutritional Approach --- vitamin D --- Crohn’s disease --- ulcerative colitis --- faecal calprotectin --- C-reactive protein --- diet --- inflammatory bowel disease --- microbiota --- intestinal barrier --- nutrients --- immunity --- colitis --- food additive --- diet --- emulsifiers --- high salt diet --- inflammatory bowel diseases --- inflammatory bowel disease --- dietary modification --- exclusive enteral nutrition --- lifestyle modification --- Mediterranean diet --- colorectal cancer --- inflammatory bowel disease --- colorectal cancer --- dysplasia --- berries --- chemoprevention --- Inflammatory Bowel Disease --- micronutrients --- vitamin --- mineral --- deficiency --- inflammatory bowel disease --- dietary habits --- food components --- gut microbiota --- immune homeostasis --- epigenetic changes --- inflammatory bowel disease --- malnutrition --- Mediterranean diet --- older age --- diet --- inflammatory bowel disease --- ulcerative colitis --- inflammatory bowel disease --- Westernisation --- genotypes --- nutrient deficiency --- food intolerance --- FODMAPs --- gluten --- fructose --- lactose --- brassica --- mushrooms --- n/a

Carotenoids and Human Health

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ISBN: 9783039218325 9783039218332 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-833-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Carotenoids are a group of approximately 600 compounds synthesized by photosynthetic organisms. These pigments are abundant in fruits and vegetables, as well as in certain animal products such as eggs and salmon, being responsible for their colorful appearance. The bioactive properties of certain carotenoids in human health are clear, as some of these compounds have antioxidant properties and serve as the only precursors of vitamin A in nature. The aim of this Special Issue entitled “Carotenoids and Human Health” is to provide the scientific community with an updated perspective of this exciting and growing research area. We compiled 19 papers from some of the most prominent scientists in the carotenoid field, including seven literature reviews and 12 original publication, covering topics such as cancer, obesity, vision, cognitive function, and skin health.

Keywords

carotenoids --- lycopene --- gastric cancer --- H. pylori --- smoking --- case-control study --- Korea --- cancer-related cognitive impairment --- cognition --- carotenoid --- memory --- inflammation --- mango by-products --- lutein --- ?-carotene --- ?-tocopherol --- mangiferin --- food ingredients --- astaxanthin --- Akkermansia --- alcoholic fatty liver disease --- inflammation --- gut microbiota --- lycopene --- carotene --- retinoic acid --- retinoid --- vitamin A --- RAR --- RXR --- ?-carotene --- ?-carotene --- ?-cryptoxanthin --- carotenoids --- lutein --- provitamin A --- retinol --- vitamin A --- breastfeeding --- new-born --- full-term mothers --- preterm mothers --- xanthophylls --- carotenes --- lutein --- colostrum --- mature milk --- ?-Cryptoxanthin --- carotenoids --- Caenorhabditis elegans --- fat reduction --- oxidative stress --- transcriptomic analysis --- metabolic syndrome --- aging --- prostate cancer --- tomato --- lycopene --- androgen --- cell culture --- animal --- obesity --- hippocampus --- nutrition --- overweight --- carotenoids --- Phaeodactylum tricornutum --- microalgae --- fucoxanthin --- eicosapentanoic acid --- obesity --- browning --- brown adipose tissue --- carotenes --- xanthophylls --- bioavailability --- intestine --- membrane transporters --- Vitamin A --- adipocyte --- ?-carotene oxygenase 1 --- hypertension --- carotenoids --- tomato extract --- lycopene --- phytoene --- phytofluene --- bioavailability --- glaucoma --- antioxidants --- oxidative stress --- macular pigment --- lutein --- colourless carotenoids --- cosmeceuticals --- functional foods --- nutraceuticals --- nutricosmetics --- photoprotection --- phytoene --- phytofluene --- public health --- nutrition --- chronic disease --- lutein --- zeaxanthin --- lycopene --- beta-carotene --- alpha-carotene --- beta-cryptoxanthin --- adipocytes --- adipose tissue --- brain --- carotenoids --- obesity --- retinoids --- carotenoids --- bioactive compounds

Cancer Metabolomics 2018

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ISBN: 9783039213450 9783039213467 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-346-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The metabolomics approach, defined as the study of all endogenously-produced low-molecular-weight compounds, appeared as a promising strategy to define new cancer biomarkers. Information obtained from metabolomic data can help to highlight disrupted cellular pathways and, consequently, contribute to the development of new-targeted therapies and the optimization of therapeutics. Therefore, metabolomic research may be more clinically translatable than other omics approaches, since metabolites are closely related to the phenotype and the metabolome is sensitive to many factors. Metabolomics seems promising to identify key metabolic pathways characterizing features of pathological and physiological states. Thus, knowing that tumor metabolism markedly differs from the metabolism of normal cells, the use of metabolomics is ideally suited for biomarker research. Some works have already focused on the application of metabolomic approaches to different cancers, namely lung, breast and liver, using urine, exhaled breath and blood. In this Special Issue we contribute to a more complete understanding of cancer disease using metabolomics approaches.

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