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Chapter 6 Coordinating international interventions in complex settings (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9780367236885 Year: Pages: 17 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 11:21:04
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This paper assesses coordination as a salient capability of international interventions in complex settings characterised by weak states, the dominance of political elites whose interest in reforms is questionable and multiple local and international stakeholders. It focuses on the challenge of integrating a range of national and international actors and multiple policy domains, assessing this operational capability in terms of a Whole-of-Society approach. Using the example of the EU’s intervention in Kosovo through the mechanisms of the EULEX mission, and the EU-facilitated Dialogue between Serbia and Kosovo, the paper argues that the EU’s impact in Kosovo was weakened by its limited ability to include and engage a broad range of local stakeholders. While a Whole-of-Society approach could address this weakness, the paper also argues that a better understanding of the context-specific opportunities and limitations placed on international organisations like the EU is needed.

Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038429258 9783038429265 Year: Pages: X, 390 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-18 15:50:08
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This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts either describing original research or reviewing scientific literature related to salt reduction. Manuscripts should focus on population interventions for reducing dietary sodium and we are particularly interested in innovative approaches to changing the food environment and/or consumer behaviour. Manuscripts that discuss theoretical models informing the design of interventions for reducing dietary sodium are also welcome, as are studies from low or lower middle income countries.Potential topics may include, but are not limited to: Development/evaluation of regional or national strategies to reduce population salt intake Methodological issues related to measuring salt consumption patterns Use of policy or legislative approaches to reduce salt consumption Design and/or assessment of impact of behavioural change programs Modelling of the impact of interventions on salt intake and health outcomes.

Development Assistance for Peacebuilding

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Book Series: International Peacekeeping ISBN: 9781138080461 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_632450 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-22 11:01:47
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Development assistance to fragile states and conflict-affected areas can be a core component of peacebuilding, providing support for the restoration of government functions, delivery of basic services, the rule of law, and economic revitalization. What has worked, why it has worked, and what is scalable and transferable are key questions for both development practice and research into how peace is built and the interactive role of domestic and international processes therein. Despite a wealth of research into these questions, significant gaps remain. This volume speaks to these gaps through new analysis of a selected set of well-regarded aid interventions. Drawing on diverse scholarly and policy expertise, eight case study chapters span multiple domains and regions to analyse Afghanistan’s National Solidarity Programme, the Yemen Social Fund for Development, public financial management reform in Sierra Leone, Finn Church Aid’s assistance in Somalia, Liberia’s gender-sensitive police reform, the judicial facilitators programme in Nicaragua, UNICEF’s education projects in Somalia, and World Bank health projects in Timor-Leste. Analysis illustrates the significance of three broad factors in understanding why some aid interventions work better than others: the area of intervention and related degree of engagement with state institutions, local contextual factors such as windows of opportunity and the degree of local support, and programme design and management.

Health Literacy in Context—Settings, Media, and Populations

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ISBN: 9783038974710 9783038974727 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-472-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Education --- Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-24 10:13:02
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To date, most published health literacy research has focused on assessing and improving personal skills and abilities. More recently, a better understanding has emerged of the extent to which these skills and abilities are mediated by environmental demands and situational complexities — the context in which health literacy is developed and applied. This has led to much greater attention being given to ways of reducing the situational demands and complexity in which an individual makes a health decision. This collection of papers examines current progress in understanding health literacy "in context", by improving our understanding of the mutual impact of a range of social, economic, environmental, and organisational influences on health literacy.These papers provide unique and original perspectives on the concept, distribution, and application of health literacy in very diverse populations, offering cultural insights and a clear indication of the impact of social and environmental context on health literacy. These perspectives include an examination of differing national policy responses to health literacy illustrating how policy and practice can (and should) respond to this more complete but complex understanding of health literacy. Other papers look at the application of new digital media and the creative harnessing of popular culture as routes to extend the reach and customisation of communications. These papers also illustrate good progress in the evolution of research in the contexts in which health literacy is developed and applied, as well as signaling some areas in which more research would be useful.

Youth Violence

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ISBN: 9781919895871 9781920541651 9781920541286 Year: Language: English
Publisher: UCT Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101856
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-11 11:21:03
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Youth violence: sources and solutions in South Africa thoroughly and carefully reviews the evidence for risk and protective factors that influence the likelihood of young people acting aggressively. Layers of understanding are built by viewing the problem from a multitude of perspectives, including the current situation in which South African youth are growing up, perspectives from developmental psychology, the influences of race, class and gender, and of the media. The book examines the evidence for effective interventions in the contexts of young people’s lives – their homes, their schools, their leisure activities, with gangs, in the criminal justice system, in cities and neighbourhoods, and with sexual offenders. In doing so, thoughtful suggestions are made for keeping an evidence-based perspective while (necessarily) adapting interventions for developing world contexts, such as South Africa.

Elements of Causal Inference

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Book Series: Adaptive Computation and Machine Learning series ISBN: 9780262344296 9780262037310 Year: Pages: 288 Language: English
Publisher: The MIT Press
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:41:31
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A concise and self-contained introduction to causal inference, increasingly important in data science and machine learning.The mathematization of causality is a relatively recent development, and has become increasingly important in data science and machine learning. This book offers a self-contained and concise introduction to causal models and how to learn them from data. After explaining the need for causal models and discussing some of the principles underlying causal inference, the book teaches readers how to use causal models: how to compute intervention distributions, how to infer causal models from observational and interventional data, and how causal ideas could be exploited for classical machine learning problems. All of these topics are discussed first in terms of two variables and then in the more general multivariate case. The bivariate case turns out to be a particularly hard problem for causal learning because there are no conditional independences as used by classical methods for solving multivariate cases. The authors consider analyzing statistical asymmetries between cause and effect to be highly instructive, and they report on their decade of intensive research into this problem. The book is accessible to readers with a background in machine learning or statistics, and can be used in graduate courses or as a reference for researchers. The text includes code snippets that can be copied and pasted, exercises, and an appendix with a summary of the most important technical concepts.

The Education of d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: Perspectives on Language and Literacy Development

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ISBN: 9783039281244 9783039281251 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-125-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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A significant number of d/Deaf and hard of hearing (d/Dhh) children and adolescents experience challenges in acquiring a functional level of English language and literacy skills in the United States (and elsewhere). To provide an understanding of this issue, this book explores the theoretical underpinnings and synthesizes major research findings. It also covers critical controversial areas such as the use of assistive hearing devices, language, and literacy assessments, and inclusion. Although the targeted population is children and adolescents who are d/Dhh, contributors found it necessary to apply our understanding of the development of English in other populations of struggling readers and writers such as children with language or literacy disabilities and those for whom English is not the home language. Collectively, this information should assist scholars in conducting further research and enable educators to develop general instructional guidelines and strategies to improve the language and literacy levels of d/Dhh students. It is clear that there is not a ‘one-size-fits-all’ concept, but, rather, research and instruction should be differentiated to meet the needs of d/Dhh students. It is our hope that this book stimulates further theorizing and research and, most importantly, offers evidence- and reason-based practices for improving language and literacy abilities of d/Dhh students.

Promoting Inclusion Oral-Health: Social Interventions to Reduce Oral Health Inequities

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ISBN: 9783039283064 9783039283071 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-307-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Dentistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The aim of this collection of papers is to provide the reader with a cogent understanding of the role of evidence in the development of social or community-based interventions to promote inclusion oral-health and reduce oral health, health, and psychosocial inequities. In addition, this material will include various methods used for their implementation and evaluation. At the outset, the reader will be offered a working definition of inclusion oral-health, which will be modelled on the work of Luchenski et al. [1]. The interventions described are theoretically underpinned by a pluralistic definition of evidence-based practice [2] and the radical discourse of health promotion as postulated by Laverack and Labonte [3] and others [4,5]. This Special Issue will consist of eight papers, including an introduction. The first three papers will examine the various sources of evidence used to transform top-down into bottom-up community-based interventions for people experiencing homelessness; people in custody and for families residing in areas of high social deprivation. The final four papers will report on the implementation and evaluation of social or community-based interventions. This collection of research papers will highlight the importance of focusing on prevention and the adoption of a common risk factor agenda to tackle oral health, health and psychosocial inequities felt by those most excluded in our societies.

Updates in Pediatric Sleep and Child Psychiatry

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ISBN: 9783038979388 9783038979395 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-939-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Sleep-related symptoms are common in the majority of psychiatric diagnostic categories. The overlap of sleep and psychiatric disorders have been demonstrated in numerous studies. The understanding of sleep and child psychiatry has progressively evolved in the last decade and newer insights have developed regarding the complex interaction between sleep and psychopathology. This collection of articles represents updates on sleep and psychiatric disorders with medical and neurological co-morbidities in children and adolescents.

Energy and Seismic Renovation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

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ISBN: 9783038979449 9783038979456 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-945-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Arts in general --- Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 09:16:44
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The principle of sustainability should be strictly connected with safety, since both aim to conserve resources: in the case of sustainability, the resources are typically thought of as environmental, while in the case of safety, the resources are basically human. In spite of this common ground, discussions on sustainability usually give insufficient attention to safety. In the last years the EU has made large investments to increase the energy efficiency of the existing building stock, paving the way for a low-carbon future; however, less effort has been made to enhance its seismic resilience. Therefore, the safety and, consequently, the sustainability of towns situated in earthquake-prone countries remain inadequate. In such countries, energy renovation actions should be combined with seismic retrofitting. However, a number of barriers considerably limit the real possibility of extensively undertaking combined retrofit actions, especially for multi-owner housing and high-rise buildings. These barriers are of different kinds: technical (e.g., unfeasibility and/or ineffectiveness of conventional retrofit solutions), financial (e.g., high renovation costs, insufficient incentives/subsidies), organizational (e.g., occupants’ disruption and relocation, renovation consensus by condominium ownerships), and cultural/social (insufficient information and skills, lack of adequate policy measures for promoting renovation actions). This book aims to overcome these barriers and to bridge the gap between sustainability and safety, so to conserve both human and environmental resources.

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