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Chapter 28 Genomics in emerging and developing economies (Book chapter)

Book title: Routledge Handbook of Genomics, Health and Society

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781138211957 9781315451695 Year: Pages: 12 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-28 11:01:58
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Low and middle-income countries have become a site of increasing research interest and investment with the transnational expansion and spread of genomic knowledge and technologies (Kumar 2012, Seguin et al. 2008). This reflects a dynamic terrain in which genomics is being harnessed to address a range of healthcare challenges.

Starting with the End in Mind by Developing Diagnostics around User Needs (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9781498772938 Year: Pages: 14 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:46:28
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As discussed in this chapter, the commercialization and adoption bottlenecks for these moderately complex diagnostics cannot be overcome by technological innovation alone, particularly in the highly regulated and payer-limited healthcare and public health markets. Diagnostics, unlike other clinical products, is not an intervention but a decision-aid that guides the use (or nonuse) of an intervention. It is important that the value proposition for any technology-centric innovation in diagnostics include a strong link to a gained efficiency in making a specific decision. Any assay developed without context to the system, users, decision points, and downstream interventions resembles one that is more targeted to the research community, rather than clinical care or public health.

KfW Water Symposium 2009

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ISBN: 9781780401515 Year: DOI: 10.2166/9781780401515 Language: English
Publisher: IWA Publishing
Subject: Environmental Technology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-16 11:02:28
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"The central objective of the International Year of Sanitation was to put the global community on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goals MDG sanitation target. However, one year later, it is still difficult to keep sanitation high on the agenda, while practical action is required to encourage demand driven and sustainable solutions. With the support of the German Ministry for Development and Cooperation and together with the European Investment Bank EIB and the French Development Agency AFD, KfW organised a two day Symposium to specifically address ways in which financing institutions can better promote the achievement of the MDG sanitation target. More than 70 experts from various backgrounds explored the challenges of sanitation and discussed ways to further develop innovative financing mechanisms for improved hygiene, sanitation and wastewater management in low-income countries. Four thematic areas were tackled by detailed background papers, presentations and high-level open floor discussions. Session 1: Financing Change in Personal Hygiene Behaviour and Demand Creation for Sanitation Motivation This section contains a rapid review of past experiences in developed countries and the evolution of methods used in developing countries to change hygiene and sanitation behaviors, including successes and failures. Relative costs and impacts, the role of institutional arrangements and actors, as well as approaches for linking hygiene behavior change and sanitation demand creation (so called software investments) with hardware investments are examined. Finally, considerations and opportunities for development banks and other financing agencies to become engaged in the scale-up of hygiene behavior change and sanitation demand creation approaches which have demonstrated success are presented. Session 2: Targeting the Poor with Facilities and Improved Services Motivation The interventions that can help poor people to access sanitation goods and services are examined. The focus is on three types of interventions: the use of low-cost technologies, the use of micro-credit and the use of targeted public finance (or subsidies) to reduce the funding gap that poor people face to meet the capital and recurrent costs of sustainable sanitation. Targeted public finance, performance assessment, effectiveness, sustainability, public funding strategies and performance are analysed. Session 3: Urban Spaces - How to Provide and Finance Service to Peri-urban Areas New approaches to meet sanitation challenges arising from absolute population growth and rapid urbanization are examined from a technical point of view. Simplified solutions and semi-centralised supply and treatment systems are examined in detail and with the help of examples. Session 4: The Potential Role of Utilities in Sanitation Provision for Peri-urban Areas and Poor Target Groups The question why sanitation service provision by local government authorities is poor is addressed. Examples of how water supply and sanitation utilities are being encouraged to support peri-urban areas and poor target groups with the provision of sanitation services are provided. The difficulties of utilities to provide piped water and sewers in a commercially viable manner is addressed. The role of local government authorities, of the regulatory framework, of education and public awareness is highlighted. A theme that appeared in all four sessions concerned the process of project design by development banks. Recommendations to improve it in order to best tackle sanitation issues were as follows: 1. address the entire sanitation chain 2. plan for all urban areas including informal housing areas and slums 3. ensure the sustainable operation of all sections of the sanitation chain (long-term effectiveness). For the full proceedings and the main findings and recommendations, please visit www.iwaponline.com to download free of charge."

Negotiating Gender Equity in the Global South

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Routledge ISS Gender, Sexuality and Development Studies ISBN: 9780815372356 9781351245623 Year: Pages: 262 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-26 11:21:03
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The fact that women have achieved higher levels of political inclusion within low- and middle-income countries has generated much speculation about whether this is reaping broader benefits in tackling gender-based inequalities. This book uncovers the multiple political dynamics that influence governments to adopt and implement gender equity policies, pushing the debate beyond simply the role of women’s inclusion in influencing policy. Bringing the politics of development into discussion with feminist literature on women's empowerment, the book proposes the new concept of ‘power domains’ as a way to capture how inter-elite bargaining, coalitional politics, and social movement activism combine to shape policies that promote gender equity. In particular, the book investigates the conditions under which countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have adopted legislation against domestic violence, which remains widespread in many developing countries. The book demonstrates that women’s presence in formal politics and policy spaces does not fully explain the pace in adopting and implementing domestic violence law. Underlying drivers of change within broader domains of power also include the role of clientelistic politics and informal processes of bargaining, coalition-building, and persuasion; the discursive framing of gender-equitable ideas; and how transnational norms influence women’s political inclusion and gender-inclusive policy outcomes. The comparative approach across Uganda, Rwanda, South Africa, Ghana, India, and Bangladesh demonstrates how advancing gender equality varies by political context and according to the interests surrounding a particular issue.

Managing Development

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9780203015292 9780415364102 9780415649872 9781134225583 9781134225576 9781134225538 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203015292 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:19
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Globalization in the 1990s provided both opportunities and challenges for developing and transition economies. Though for some, it offered the chance to achieve economic growth through active involvement in the integrated and liberalized world economy, it also increased their vulnerability to external shocks and volatility. As a consequence, stakeholders at every level of the development and transition process – international organizations, national governments and the private sector – had to review their strategies in order to adjust to the new world economic environment. As the Mexican peso crisis of 1994-1995 and the Asian financial crisis of 1997-1998 showed dramatically, the cost of maladjustment was not only very high but it also affected many more stakeholders than before, due to the contagious effects of crises. This revealing book analyzes the different methods employed to manage globalization and development. Bringing together an international team of contributors, including Barbara Stallings, Alicia Giron and J. C. Ferraz, it will prove to be a valuable resource for those involved in the fields of development economics and political economy.

Keywords

latin --- america --- transition --- economies --- east --- asian --- countries --- developing --- country --- world

International Trade Policy

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ISBN: 9780203027882 9780415068789 9780415068796 9781134915224 9781134915217 9781134915170 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203027882 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:21
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This volume provides an introduction to the basic theory behind international trade policy. The author analyses current policy issues within a theoretical framework. The book adopts a thematic approach, with each chapter examining a different issue - each of which is of central importance to contemporary trade policy. The book will be essential for all those who want to understand what governments do, in terms of trade policy and how they do it.

Keywords

developing --- country --- uruguay --- round --- voluntary --- export --- restraints --- countervailing --- duties --- tokyo

Kansalaiset kaupunkia kehittämässä

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9789520306236 Year: Pages: 299 Language: Finnish
Publisher: Tampere University Press
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-09 11:02:27
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"Urban planning and development are a meeting ground for different experiences and interpretations pertaining to the desireable city, and the ways in which citizens should genuinely be able to participate in the process. This multidisciplinary book explores broadly the question of how to best approach participation today. Instead of aiming at a singular interpretation, the book sets out to develop tools for a better understanding of the different logics behind urban development and citizen participation. The authors explore themes ranging from governmental structures and settings all the way to individual lifeworlds and experiences, and provide several well-founded propositions on what participation is about. The articles give voice to actors from the public sphere, from the third and fourth sectors, as well as to citizens in different social roles and positions. The book serves as a text book in disciplines related to urban development and participation, and as an information source for professionals and citizens interested in the topic."

The Leap of Faith

Author:
ISBN: 9780198796817 Year: Pages: 332 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 295675
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-08 11:01:03
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This is the first book to compare the history of tax compliance in several countries (Sweden, Britain, Italy, Romania, and the United States)The book clearly elaborates the policy lessons from the five cases explored for countries who are currently trying to build successful and effective tax policiesMakes the direct connection between historical cases and current policy issues in developed and developing countriesWhy are citizens in some countries more willing to pay taxes than in other countries? This book examines the history of the relationship between citizens and their states in five countries, (Sweden, Britain, Italy, Romania, and the United States), and demonstrates how and why people in in some countries have come to trust the government with their money while in other countries they do not. The book explores the evolution of this relationship in detail, in each case showing how some governments developed the fiscal and technical capacity to tax their citizens fairly and deliver public services efficiently. In short, how and why some countries became more trustworthy than others. The volume concludes by examining the implications of these five cases for developing countries today and the lessons that can be learned.

Developing and Assessing Academic and Professional Writing Skills

Authors: ---
Book Series: Forum Angewandte Linguistik - F.A.L. ISBN: 9783653960471 9783653960488 9783631673621 Year: Pages: 205 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Education --- Languages and Literatures --- Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:54
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Academic literacy used to be considered a complex set of skills that develop automatically as a by-product of academic socialization. Since the Bologna Reform with its shorter degree programmes, however, it has been realized that these skills need to be fostered actively. Simultaneously, writing skills development at all levels of education has been faced with the challenge of increasingly multilingual and multicultural groups of pupils and students. This book addresses the questions of how both academic and professional writing skills can be fostered under these conditions and how the development of writing skills can be measured.

Manual Sobre los Derechos Humanos al Agua Potable y Saneamiento para Profesionales

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ISBN: 9781789060522 Year: DOI: 10.2166/9781789060522 Language: Spanish
Publisher: IWA Publishing
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-13 11:21:02
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"Also available in Portuguese (Manual Sobre os Direitos Humanos à Água Potável e Saneamento para Profissionais), French (Manuel des Droits de l'Homme à l'Eau Potable et à l'Assainissement à l’intention des Praticiens) and Spanish (Manual Sobre los Derechos Humanos al Agua Potable y Saneamiento para Profesionales). The Manual highlights the human rights principles and criteria in relation to drinking water and sanitation. It explains the international legal obligations in terms of operational policies and practice that will support the progressive realisation of universal access. The Manual introduces a human rights perspective that will add value to informed decision making in the daily routine of operators, managers and regulators. It also encourages its readership to engage actively in national dialogues where the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation are translated into national and local policies, laws and regulations. Creating such an enabling environment is, in fact, only the first step in the process towards progressive realisation. Allocation of roles and responsibilities is the next step, in an updated institutional and operational set up that helps apply a human rights lens to the process of reviewing and revising the essential functions of operators, service providers and regulators. Contents Introduction; Main operational principles; Setting the scene – context and contents of the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation; Translating the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation into operational terms; Creating the enabling environment; . Incorporating HRWS into the essential functions of service providers; Addressing sensitive practices, dealing with challenges and avoiding pitfalls."

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