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Autonomy, Rationality, and Contemporary Bioethics

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ISBN: 9780198858584 Year: Pages: 298 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198858584.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 086041
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-15 04:51:06
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Personal autonomy is often lauded as a key value in contemporary Western bioethics, and the claim that there is an important relationship between autonomy and rationality is often treated as an uncontroversial claim in this sphere. Yet, there is also considerable disagreement about how we should cash out the relationship between rationality and autonomy. In particular, it is unclear whether a rationalist view of autonomy can be compatible with legal judgments that enshrine a patient’s right to refuse medical treatment, regardless of whether “. . . the reasons for making the choice are rational, irrational, unknown or even non-existent”. In this book, I bring recent philosophical work on the nature of rationality to bear on the question of how we should understand autonomy in contemporary bioethics. In doing so, I develop a new framework for thinking about the concept, one that is grounded in an understanding of the different roles that rational beliefs and rational desires have to play in personal autonomy. Furthermore, the account outlined here allows for a deeper understanding of different form of controlling influence, and the relationship between our freedom to act, and our capacity to decide autonomously. I contrast my rationalist with other prominent accounts of autonomy in bioethics, and outline the revisionary implications it has for various practical questions in bioethics in which autonomy is a salient concern, including questions about the nature of informed consent and decision-making capacity.

Keywords

bioethics --- autonomy --- rationality

Farewell to Freedom

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ISBN: 9781911534600 9781911534600 9781911534624 9781911534631 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.16997/book15 Language: English
Publisher: University of Westminster Press
Subject: Political Science --- Philosophy --- History --- Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:31
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Understandings of freedom are often discussed in moral, theological, legal and political terms, but they are not often set in a historical perspective, and they are even more rarely considered within their specific language context. From Homeric poems to contemporary works, the author traces the words that express the various notions of freedom in Classical Greek, Latin, and medieval and modern European idioms. Examining writers as varied as Plato, Aristotle, Luther, La Boétie, Hobbes, Rousseau, Kant, Stirner, Nietzsche, and Foucault among others, this theoretical mapping shows old and new boundaries of the horizon of freedom. The book suggests the possibility of transcending these boundaries on the basis of a different theorization of human interactions, which constructs individual and collective subjects as processes rather than entities. This construction shifts and disseminates the very locus of freedom, whose vocabulary would be better recast as a relational middle path between autonomous and heteronomous alternatives.

Keywords

individual --- theology --- mastery --- liberty --- autonomy --- freedom

La autonomía universitaria en Madrid (1919-1922). Estudio histórico-jurídico

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Book Series: Historia de las Universidades ISSN: 18860710 ISBN: 9788499829272 Year: Volume: 27 Pages: 549 Language: Spanish
Publisher: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Figuerola Institute of Social Science History
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2014-06-27 10:41:22
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El modelo de universidad diseñado en la primera mitad del siglo XIX se ajustaba a criterios de centralidad: era un instrumento al servicio del Estado, y estaba controlado y sostenido íntegramente por éste. Las universidades carecían de recursos propios y era patente el desinterés general del Estado por el ámbito de la cultura. Esta situación prolongada en el tiempo llevó a una esclerotización de las universidades españolas a finales del siglo XIX. Entre los diversos intentos de regenerar el país, se pensó que las universidades debían convertirse en instrumentos óptimos de renovación cultural y de modernización de España. Por ello, frente al rígido centralismo que regía buena parte del gobierno de la Administración, se promovieron distintas formas de autonomía que permitieran una más dinámica gestión de lo público. Se habló mucho de autonomía política y, en el ámbito de las universidades, se promovió la búsqueda de la autonomía universitaria. Entre los numerosos intentos de lograrla, este libro estudia el más ambicioso de todos: la conocida como Reforma Silió, emprendida por el ministro de Instrucción Pública y Bellas Artes César Silió, entre 1919 y 1922. El autor estudia la situación de la universidad española en 1919, la gestación de aquella reforma y su acogida en la Universidad Central; los trabajos preparatorios de la comisión del estatuto y más tarde los del claustro, que sirvieron para preparar el primer estatuto de autonomía de la Universidad; y, más adelante, el desarrollo legislativo de la reforma y la aprobación de los estatutos en la segunda etapa del ministerio de Silió. A partir de abundante documentación de archivo de aquella Universidad, se estudian todos los pasos que se dieron en la Universidad Central para constituirla en universidad autónoma. Y la obra concluye con el estudio de la suspensión de aquella autonomía, decidida por el ministro de Instrucción Pública Tomás Montejo. En un apéndice documental se recoge una valiosa relación de documentos relacionados con la Reforma Silió y con su intento de implantación en la Universidad Central.

Difficult Folk?

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ISBN: 9781845454500 9781785336638 9781785336638 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Berghahn Books Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101647
Subject: Anthropology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:13
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How should we tell the histories of academic disciplines? All too often, the political and institutional dimensions of knowledge production are lost beneath the intellectual debates. This book redresses the balance. Written in a narrative style and drawing on archival sources and oral histories, it depicts the complex pattern of personal and administrative relationships that shape scholarly worlds. Focusing on the field of social anthropology in twentieth-century Britain, this book describes individual, departmental and institutional rivalries over funding and influence. It examines the efforts of scholars such as Bronislaw Malinowski, Edward Evans-Pritchard and Max Gluckman to further their own visions for social anthropology. Did the future lie with the humanities or the social sciences, with addressing social problems or developing scholarly autonomy? This new history situates the discipline's rise within the post-war expansion of British universities and the challenges created by

Praxisbuch Ethik in der Notfallmedizin

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ISBN: 9783954662678 Year: Pages: 414 DOI: 10.32745/9783954662678 Language: German
Publisher: MWV Medizinisch Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-08 00:00:34
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The work presents ethical challenges and decision-making conflicts from the wide field of internal and extra-clinical emergency medicine and provides practical decision-making aids through food for thought and ethical arguments. It is aimed at doctors and nurses from different disciplines, across multiple disciplines and professions, emergency services employees from various organizations and institutions, managers and sponsors of clinics and emergency services, employees of crisis intervention teams, and ethics advisors and ethics committees.

Autonomía y reformas en la Universidad de Valencia (1900-1922)

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Book Series: Historia de las Universidades ISSN: 18860710 ISBN: 8481558214 Year: Volume: 5 Pages: 334 Language: Spanish
Publisher: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Figuerola Institute of Social Science History
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2014-07-03 12:59:12
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Los años que transcurren entre 1900 y 1922 definen la parábola de la cuestión de la autonomía en la universidad española. Una primera realidad fue la creación en 1900 del ministerio de instrucción pública y la elaboración por su ministro García Alix de un decreto de autonomía universitaria. Sin embargo el camino de ésta no iba a ser fácil, su sucesor el conde de Romanones hizo malograr la reforma. A pesar de ello los partidarios del cambio no perdieron la esperanza y en las asambleas de catedráticos de 1902 y 1905 continuaron reclamando la tan ansiada autonomía. Finalmente fue Silió en 1919 quien consiguió incoar una efímera experiencia de autonomía. Daniel Comas cuenta todo esto desde la atalaya de la Universidad de Valencia, una institución que durante esos años se encontró en la vanguardia de la reforma. Para ello ha rastreado la prensa local, el archivo universitario, las publicaciones de la universidad… y de esa manera ha reproducido cómo se vivió la cuestión de la autonomía en esa ciudad. Fue un enfrentamiento entre distintas ideologías —conservadores y liberales, monárquicos y republicanos— que se desarrolló en los distintos cuerpos de la universidad —estudiantes y profesores— y que en ocasiones consiguió cruzar el umbral del recinto universitario para interesar a otros actores de la sociedad. En este entramado afloran la alternativa de Giner, las asambleas de catedráticos, los movimientos de estudiantes, etc.

The University of California: Creating, Nurturing, and Maintaining Academic Quality in a Public University Setting

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ISBN: 9780999498002 0999498002 Year: Pages: 787 Language: English
Publisher: Center for Studies in Higher Education, University of California, Berkeley
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-26 20:59:54
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Uma politics; An ethnography of democratization in West Sumba, Indonesia, 1986-2006

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Book Series: Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde ISBN: 9789067183246 9789004253926 Year: Volume: 260 Pages: XVII, 277 p DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_393150 Language: English
Publisher: Brill
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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Democracy cannot be implemented overnight. Democratization is an often unpredictable process. This book concentrates on that political transformation in one of Indonesia’s most ‘traditional’ islands, Sumba. Why does democratization create such great opportunities for local politicians with their private agenda’s? Why does regional autonomy, as part of the national democratization program, promote socio-economic inequality in West Sumba? This book is written out of an intimate knowledge of Sumba’s social groupings. Jacqueline Vel lived in Sumba as a development worker for six years in the 1980s and has made frequent return visits for further research since then. She studied every stage of ‘transition to democracy’ in the local context, thus creating this ethnography of democratization. The book analyses themes apparent in a series of chronological events that occurred over a period of twenty years (1986-2006). Uma Politics is the sequel of Vel’s dissertation The Uma Economy, and the title refers to the uniquely Sumbanese type of network politics. The author brings together tradition with the modern economy, government and politics into an evolving, dynamic concept of political culture. Jacqueline Vel is researcher at the Van Vollenhoven Institute of law, governance and development at Leiden University. Part of the research for this book was for the Modern Indonesia Project of KITLV in Leiden and sponsored by a research fellowship of the IIAS. She is currently involved in research on land law, access to justice, and socio-legal aspects of biofuel production in Indonesia.

Aging and Self-Realization

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Book Series: Aging Studies ISBN: 9783839444221 9783839444221 Year: Language: English
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101219
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:13
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Dominant cultural narratives about later life dismiss the value senior citizens hold for society. In her cultural-philosophical critique, Hanne Laceulle outlines counter narratives that acknowledge both potentials and vulnerabilities of later life. She draws on the rich philosophical tradition of thought about self-realization and explores the significance of ethical concepts essential to the process of growing old such as autonomy, authenticity and virtue. These counter narratives aim to support older individuals in their search for a meaningful age identity, while they make society recognize its senior members as valued participants and moral agents of their own lives.

Integration and Resettlement of Refugees and Forced Migrants

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039281305 9783039281312 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-131-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Since 2017, the United States and Europe—among many other refugee-hosting countries—have made significant changes in their refugee policies. New visa restrictions, travel bans, and other regulations were imposed by national governments. At the local level, towns and cities responded in different ways: some resisted national policy by declaring themselves “sanctuary cities”, while others supported exclusionary policies. These different responses influenced refugees’ ability to settle and become integrated. The Refugees in Towns (RIT) project at Tufts University explores local urban integration experiences, drawing on the knowledge and perspectives of refugees and citizens in towns around the world. Since 2017, more than 30 RIT case studies have deepened our local knowledge about the factors that enable or obstruct integration, and the ways in which migrants and hosts co-exist, adapt, and struggle with integration. In this Special Issue, seven articles explore urban integration in towns in Europe (Frankfurt-Rödelheim, Germany; Newcastle, UK; Ambertois, France; Italy’s cities; and Belgrade, Serbia) and in North America: Bhutanese refugee-hosting US cities, and Antigonish, Canada. The papers explore how refugees and citizens interact; the role of officials and politicians in enabling or obstructing integration; the social, economic, and cultural impact of migration; and the ways—inclusive or exclusive—locals have responded.

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