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Marine Anthropogenic Litter

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ISBN: 9783319165097 9783319165103 Year: Pages: 447 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-16510-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Manufactures --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-12 18:20:53
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This book describes how man-made litter, primarily plastic, has spread into the remotest parts of the oceans and covers all aspects of this pollution problem from the impacts on wildlife and human health to socio-economic and political issues. Marine litter is a prime threat to marine wildlife, habitats and food webs worldwide.The book illustrates how advanced technologies from deep-sea research, microbiology and mathematic modelling as well as classic beach litter counts by volunteers contributed to the broad awareness of marine litter as a problem of global significance. The authors summarise more than five decades of marine litter research, which receives growing attention after the recent discovery of great oceanic garbage patches and the ubiquity of microscopic plastic particles in marine organisms and habitats.In 16 chapters, authors from all over the world have created a universal view on the diverse field of marine litter pollution, the biological impacts, dedicated research activities, and the various national and international legislative efforts to combat this environmental problem. They recommend future research directions necessary for a comprehensive understanding of this environmental issue and the development of efficient management strategies. This book addresses scientists, and it provides a solid knowledge base for policy makers, NGOs, and the broader public.

Rewilding European Landscapes

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ISBN: 9783319120386 9783319120393 Year: Pages: 227 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-12039-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-12 16:41:24
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Some European lands have been progressively alleviated of human pressures, particularly traditional agriculture in remote areas. This book proposes that this land abandonment can be seen as an opportunity to restore natural ecosystems via rewilding. We define rewilding as the passive management of ecological successions having in mind the long-term goal of restoring natural ecosystem processes. The book aims at introducing the concept of rewilding to scientists, students and practitioners. The first part presents the theory of rewilding in the European context. The second part of the book directly addresses the link between rewilding, biodiversity, and habitats. The third and last part is dedicated to practical aspects of the implementation of rewilding as a land management option. We believe that this book will both set the basis for future research on rewilding and help practitioners think about how rewilding can take place in areas under their management.

Ranaviruses: Lethal Pathogens of Ectothermic Vertebrates

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783319137544 9783319137551 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-13755-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Therapeutics --- Biotechnology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-12 15:59:14
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This is the first book on ranaviruses. Ranaviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that cause hemorrhagic disease in amphibians, reptiles, and fish. They have caused mass die-offs of ectothermic vertebrates in wild and captive populations around the globe. There is evidence that this pathogen is emerging and responsible for population declines in certain locations. Considering that amphibians and freshwater turtles are suitable hosts and the most imperiled vertebrate taxa in the world, ranaviruses can have significant impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem function. Additionally, many fish that are raised in aquaculture facilities and traded internationally are suitable hosts; thus, the potential economic impact of ranaviruses is significant. Ranaviruses also serve as a model for replication and gene function of large double-stranded DNA viruses. There is an urgent need to assemble the contemporary information on ranaviruses and provide guidance on how to assess their threats in populations. Through the Global Ranavirus Consortium, 24 experts from six countries were organize to write this volume, the first book on ranaviruses. The book begins with a discussion on the global extent of ranaviruses, case histories of infection and disease in ectothermic vertebrates, and current phylogeny. Basic principles of ranavirus ecology and evolution are covered next, with a focus on host-pathogen interactions and how the virus emerges in its environment. There are two chapters that will discuss the molecular biology of ranaviruses, host response to infection, and the genes responsible for immune system evasion. One chapter establishes standards for testing for infection and diagnosing ranaviral disease. The book ends by providing guidance on how to design ranavirus surveillance studies and analyze data to determine risk, and discussing the role of the Global Ranavirus Consortium in organizing research and outreach activities.

Socioeconomic and Environmental Implications of Agricultural Residue Burning: A Case Study of Punjab, India

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science ISSN: 21915547 ISBN: 9788132221463 9788132220145 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-2014-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2015-07-20 15:26:18
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This book discusses the important issue of the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of agricultural residue burning, common in agricultural practices in many parts of the world. In particular, it focuses on the pollution caused by rice residue burning using primary survey data from Punjab, India. It discusses emerging solutions to agricultural waste burning that are cost-effective in terms of both money and time. The burning of agricultural residue causes severe pollution in land, water and air and contributes to increased ozone levels and climate change in the long term. However, appropriate assessments have not been undertaken so far to demonstrate the relevant impact of agriculture-based pollution, especially residue burning. This book addresses this gap in the literature. Punjab has been used as a case study as it is the chief granary of India, contributing to 27.2 percent of the Indian national produce of rice and 43.8 percent of wheat. It is presumed that the findings from this state will be useful not only for other agricultural areas in India, but across the world. This book, therefore, sensitizes policy makers, researchers and students about the impacts of air pollution caused by agricultural residue burning---a subject not much dealt in the literature---and provides a way forward.

Impacts of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident on Fish and Fishing Grounds

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9784431555360 9784431555377 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-55537-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Aquaculture and Fisheries --- Business and Management --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-27 16:32:42
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This book presents the results from the Japanese Fisheries Research Agency’s 3-year intensive monitoring of radionuclides in a variety of fish, plankton, benthos, and their living environments after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident in March 2011. The book reveals the dynamics of contamination processes in marine and freshwater fish, mediated by the contamination of water, sediments, and food organisms; it also clarifies the mechanisms by which large variations in the level of contamination occurs among individual fish. Most importantly, the book includes a large amount of original measurement data collected in situ and for the first time assesses diffusion of radiocesium across the Pacific using both in situ data and a numerical simulation model. Also introduced are several new approaches to evaluate the impact of the release of radionuclides, including the measurement of radiation emission from an otolith section to identify the main period of contamination in fish. The FNPP accident represents a rare instance where the environmental radioactivity level was elevated steeply through atmospheric fallout and direct discharge of radioactive water into the sea over a short period of time. Replete with precise scientific data, this book will serve as an important resource for research in fields such as fishery science, oceanography, ecology, and environmentology, and also as a solid basis for protecting fisheries from damage resulting from harmful rumors among the general public.

Plant Selection for Bioretention Systems and Stormwater Treatment Practices

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Water Science and Technology ISSN: 21947244 ISBN: 9789812872449 9789812872456 Year: Pages: 59 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-287-245-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2014-11-12 12:05:42
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As cities develop, more land is converted into impervious surfaces, which do not allow water to infiltrate. Careful urban planning is needed to ensure that the hydrologic cycle and water quality of the catchment areas are not affected. There are techniques that can attenuate peak flow during rain events and reduce the amount of metals, nutrients, and bacteria that enter the urban water cycle. This brief gives a short introduction on bioretention systems and documents the effectiveness of some 36 plant species in removing water pollutants. A summary on the maintenance requirements is also presented.

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2015 (6)