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25 Military Strategies for Samhandling in Unforeseen Situations (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 14 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch25 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"The purpose of this chapter is twofold. Firstly, a rather paradoxical situation&#xD;will be discussed. Even though most military practitioners seem to agree&#xD;on the characteristics of war, two almost diametrically-opposed norms for how to&#xD;samhandle have arisen: a centralized one and a decentralized one. We argue that the&#xD;decentralized approach, called Auftragstaktik, is the most effective. In the second&#xD;part of the chapter we discuss the pedagogical challenge of educating personnel to&#xD;thrive in a decentralized organization, which must operate effectively in unforeseen&#xD;and threatening environments. Based on the teachings of Moltke the Elder (1800–&#xD;1891) and the much more recent writings of Torgersen, Steiro and Saeverot (2015),&#xD;we argue that a crucial step in educating for the unforeseen is to give the students&#xD;the opportunity to solve new problems by themselves, gaining experience that is, as&#xD;far as possible, self-generated and thereby becoming more aware and confident in&#xD;dealing with new situations."&#xD;

21 Effective Cooperation Between Strangers in Unexpected and Dangerous Situations (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 14 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch21 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"This chapter aims to discuss what it takes to make people or groups that&#xD;do not know each other previously establish effective cooperation during unforeseen&#xD;events. The focus is on the formation process of “swift trust”, and the potential&#xD;prerequisites and outcomes of such trust, seen as an alternative to traditional,&#xD;history-based trust approaches that dominate the research literature of today. “Swift&#xD;trust” may enable effective cooperation even among people that are unfamiliar with&#xD;each other. This is seen as a relevant perspective because such temporal groups often&#xD;handle unforeseen and critical events. Given the limited amount of research on “swift&#xD;trust”, the chapter also aims to identify future research questions. In the analysis, I&#xD;utilize different theoretical perspectives, including the social sciences, experimental&#xD;psychology and leadership, and seek to conclude the investigation by identifying different&#xD;leadership strategies that may stimulate the formation of “swift trust”."&#xD;

17 Samhandling and Trust in Military Leadership Structures (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch17 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the importance of trust in military&#xD;samhandling. Trust serves as one of the main prerequisites for effective collaboration&#xD;(Kouzes & Posner, 2003). The Norwegian Armed Forces’ (NAF) core business is&#xD;the planning and execution of military operations (Forsvarsstaben, 2014). One of&#xD;the main tasks of the NAF is to plan for the unexpected and, ultimately, for war. The&#xD;chapter further discuss trust in military leadership, and leadership and situational&#xD;awareness. Leadership as a social interaction process that builds trust is discussed,&#xD;and samhandling is seen in a military context. A basic “trust-based model” of samhandling&#xD;is introduced and viewed in terms of internal and external framework factors.&#xD;The chapter concludes that trust is still quite an open concept, and that trust&#xD;is essential for the effective accomplishment of military missions. The basic trust&#xD;model is an attempt to underline understanding of the importance of trust in a&#xD;military planning and leadership context."&#xD;

16 Military Samhandling (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 18 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch16 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"The chapter describes and discusses interaction within the Norwegian&#xD;Armed Forces. Military interaction is understood as the dynamic and sometimes unpredictable&#xD;action undertaken when two or more services interact. The chapter explores&#xD;why interaction between military services, such as land, sea and air forces, is&#xD;difficult – and, in some circumstances, completely absent. How can inadequate interaction&#xD;between the military branches be explained? As Europe’s armed forces become&#xD;increasingly complex and sophisticated, two perspectives from organisational theory&#xD;are applied. First, an instrumental perspective is used to comprehend the problem.&#xD;Particular attention is paid to the tension between hierarchical authority and the division&#xD;of labour. Thereafter, a cultural perspective is used to comprehend inter-service&#xD;rivalry. Here, attention is paid to informal rules and regulations, or habitual ‘rules of&#xD;thumb’ that have become institutionalised over time. These ‘the behavioural patterns’&#xD;affect the way military services perceive themselves in contrast to others. The main&#xD;finding is that Norway’s Armed Forces suffer from ‘limited rationality’. This is because&#xD;Norway’s military units operate within a fragmented command structure that consists&#xD;of many different sub-organisations; individually, in times of peace in Norway, they&#xD;pursue their own myopic agendas rather than a comprehensive national objective. In&#xD;this process, the branches are also forced to compromise with each other to reach their&#xD;individual objectives. A form of limited rationality therefore arises because the Army,&#xD;Navy and Air Force act rationally. This is, however, not on the basis of what serves&#xD;Norwegian security best, but on the basis of what is rational for their specific branch."&#xD;

15 Competence for the Unforeseen (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 34 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch15 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"This study examines self-assessment of preparedness for unforeseen events&#xD;and how it varies between groups and individuals according to roles and functions&#xD;within an organization. The study has two objectives. The first is to analyse the relationship&#xD;between general self-efficacy, perceived competence in demanding situations and&#xD;social support, and based on this, to assess the efficiency of interaction (samhandling)&#xD;in organizations and preparedness for the unforeseen. The second aim is to examine&#xD;how these factors vary according to professional experience. A survey questionnaire&#xD;was completed during winter 2016/2017. All 624 respondents were male or female&#xD;employees of the Norwegian Armed Forces, based in different units, with different&#xD;levels of competence, and included commissioned and non-commissioned officers,&#xD;officer cadets and conscripts. The response rate was 77 percent, and a total of 810&#xD;personnel were approached. This study incorporates central concepts of individual&#xD;and social resources that could permit the prediction and understanding of resilient&#xD;behaviors in complex and demanding situations. Interaction was found to be the&#xD;most important predictor of preparedness for the unforeseen. This study also shows&#xD;that interaction combined with general self-efficacy and social support can account&#xD;for a considerable proportion of the variance in preparedness for the unforeseen. The&#xD;results indicate that it is possible to prepare for unforeseen events by implementing&#xD;measures that improve social factors in particular."&#xD;

13 Interaction and Risk Management in Shared Leadership (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 18 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch13 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The chapter presents a case from a government agency in Norway, where&#xD;two assistant directors share a leadership position and must interact extensively. The&#xD;main purpose is to highlight some benefits and challenges related to shared leadership&#xD;when it comes to risk prevention and handling unforeseen events. The analysis&#xD;is based on a relational perspective that emphasizes that successful interaction between&#xD;people requires complementary skills, conceptualized as relational skills. The&#xD;chapter concludes that the patterns of interaction and relational skills that develop&#xD;during shared leadership can help prevent undesirable events. This is partly because&#xD;shared leadership can provide increased capacity in identifying risks. Common&#xD;experiences in handling risks and unforeseen events may contribute to learning&#xD;that in turn provides the potential for further development of the interactional and&#xD;relational skills in shared leadership. At the same time, shared leadership entails&#xD;some risks that may impact on the prevention and handling of such events. For&#xD;instance, interactional challenges that may arise in a shared leadership may prevent&#xD;leaders from discovering potential hazards."&#xD;

7 Leading and Managing Interaction Under Risk in the Police (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 14 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch7 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"Leading interaction under risk is one of the aspects of being a leader in&#xD;the police. After the 22nd of July 2011 Norwegian terror attacks it has been pointed&#xD;out that the main explanatory factors as to why interaction under risk turned out&#xD;as it did not necessarily was due to the lack of resources, previous evaluations or&#xD;government plans but rather the lack of living up to these. In organisation theory, -&#xD;psychology and management literature, it is customary to distinguish between&#xD;expressed and actual ways to manage and lead, as well as between the structuralinstrumental&#xD;and the institutional perspective. These strands of research address&#xD;how the difference between general and overarching political aims and the execution&#xD;of the same aims in practice neither may be neither uncommon nor unexpected.&#xD;However, is it possible to expect more agreement between aims and actual&#xD;behaviour? If so, what may some of the underlying conditions for leading learning&#xD;from experience be? This chapter discusses what some of the underlying conditions&#xD;for leading and managing learning from experience in the case of interaction under&#xD;risk in the police may be. Specifically, conditions of learning located between the&#xD;expressed and executed, that is, between the institutional and cultural."&#xD;

5 Human Interaction (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch5 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"During military exercises, crisis situations give the participants mood experiences.&#xD;By exploring the concept of “mood”, our aim is to contribute to the development&#xD;of new interaction theory. We will explore three perspectives related to mood&#xD;and the possibility of changing mood: (1) A Mood-Based Perspective: Heidegger&#xD;ascribes moods a fundamental role in human life. Before a human being can think&#xD;or feel something, he or she is already attuned, already in a mood that structures&#xD;how reality appears to them; (2) A Rhetorical Perspective: Even though Heidegger&#xD;understands moods as a non-thematized horizon, our moods can nevertheless be&#xD;changed. Here we elaborate on Aristotle’s ideas on rhetoric as the first systematic&#xD;hermeneutics of the interacting, everyday human being; and (3) A Pedagogical&#xD;Perspective: Pedagogy here refers to learning about the development of humans in&#xD;society. An existential part of human existence is to sense moods and be attuned&#xD;to “the other”. Then we have the possibility of changing the mood and establishing&#xD;harmony. Finally, a conceptual model is presented to show the theoretical and practical&#xD;implications beyond the military exercise that has been the point of departure&#xD;for this text."&#xD;

Global Business Strategy: Multinational Corporations Venturing into Emerging Markets

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Book Series: Springer Texts in Business and Economics ISSN: 21924333 ISBN: 9784431554677 9784431554684 Year: Pages: 259 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-55468-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Business and Management --- Manufactures --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Chemical Engineering --- Transportation --- Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2015-09-08 13:14:16
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This book presents theories and case studies for corporations in developed nations, including Japan, for designing strategies to maximize opportunities and minimize threats in business expansion into developing nations. The case studies featured here focus on Asia, including China and India, and use examples of Japanese manufacturers. Five case studies are provided, including Hitachi Construction Machinery and Shiseido in China and Maruti Suzuki in India. These cases facilitate the reader’s understanding of the business environments in emerging economies. This volume is especially recommended for businesspeople responsible for international business development, particularly in China and India. In addition, the book serves as a useful resource for students in graduate-level courses in international management.

14 Samhandling Under Risk (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 17 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch14 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"This chapter aims to examine how samhandling and concurrent learning&#xD;work together. “Concurrent learning” is a form of simultaneous learning, where&#xD;many learning processes related to samhandling take place at the same time. Samhandling&#xD;and concurrent learning are also functional processes, in the sense that&#xD;learning also occurs through daily interaction activities or actions. At the same time,&#xD;concurrent learning and samhandling are interdependent and they are, therefore, in&#xD;a sense part of the same process (hence concurrent learning). The chapter identifies&#xD;five factors identified as important to samhandling and concurrent learning. These&#xD;are: (1) Awareness of basic assumptions regarding people; relations and teamwork&#xD;are essential; (2) Space, (3) Giving of themselves, (4) Making processes transparent&#xD;and addressing problems as early as possible, and (5) Reflection as a key to samhandling&#xD;and concurrent learning. Samhandling and concurrent learning represent a&#xD;mindset, a way of working and a form of learning, which together help to meet and/&#xD;or develop the skills needed to tackle the challenges of flexible organizations."&#xD;

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