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La fusion nucléaire : de la recherche fondamentale à la production d'énergie ?

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ISBN: 9782868838629 Year: Language: French
Publisher: EDP SCIENCES
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2014-07-31 10:42:58
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L'énergie est LA préoccupation géopolitique majeure des Etats depuis 1973. L'environnement et la pollution est celle de la Planète (ou presque...) depuis les années 90. Or le lien entre énergie et environnement est avéré; et l'émission de gaz à effet de serre affecte le climat. Le monde scientifique se trouve face à un énorme défi : soit permettre à tous d'accéder à l'énergie selon les modalités existantes, soit inventer un nouveau mode de production énergétique indispensable au développement. Si l'énergie issue de la fission d'éléments lourds est maîtrisée depuis un demi-siècle tant au plan militaire que civil, il en va très différemment de l'énergie issue de la fusion des éléments légers (hydrogène, deutérium et tritium). En effet, cette fusion ne peut intervenir qu'à des températures très élevées, ce qui pose des problèmes inédits.Les recherches ont permis de réaliser la fusion pendant quelques secondes, établissant que la méthode est possible. L'isolation des volumes où se produit la fusion se fait selon deux voies : la voie du confinement magnétique, dont les réacteurs Tokamaks ont montré la faisabilité, et la voie du confinement inertiel, dont le principe a été vérifié. Il faut noter cependant que toutes ces expériences consomment jusqu'à présent plus d'énergie qu'elles n'en produisent. Même si la faisabilité de la fusion est chose établie, son exploitation industrielle reste encore très éloignée.L'importance des travaux dans chacune de ces voies implique une coopération internationale qui s'est organisée autour de la voie du confinement magnétique : Iter et IFMIF associent la Communauté européenne, le Japon, les États-Unis, la Chine, la Russie, la Corée et l'Inde. Il n'est pas du rôle de l'Académie des sciences de dégager le poids relatif que les États doivent consacrer aux énergies renouvelables, aux économies d'énergie et aux travaux scientifiques prospectifs, mais il est raisonnable d'aborder cette question de la fusion en tant que telle. C'est pourquoi ce rapport en présente les caractéristiques essentielles en faisant le point sur les connaissances scientifiques et techniques acquises, et sur les pistes des recherches à entreprendre avant de pouvoir construire des usines productrices d'énergie.Cet ouvrage a regroupé des spécialistes engagés dans les travaux les plus théoriques et dans les expériences de confinement magnétique et de confinement inertiel. L'Académie a souhaité en outre présenter les conséquences immédiates, pour la France, de son association avec les partenaires d'Iter.

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Environment

Hormones, santé publique et environnement

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ISBN: 9782868838957 Year: Language: French
Publisher: EDP SCIENCES
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2014-07-31 10:30:49
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Dans le monde d'aujourd'hui, presque tous les événements naturels extrêmes pourraient être qualifiés de désastre. Sur les 25 catastrophes les plus couteuses depuis 1970, toutes sont survenues après 1987 et 23 d'entre elles sont liées aux conditions climatiques.Et cela n'arrive pas qu'aux autres. La France, elle non plus, n'est pas épargnée : 88 morts et 9 milliards d'euros de dégats pour les tempêtes de décembre 1999, près de 15000 décès pour la canicule du 1er au 20 aout 2003. La récente tempête Xynthia, avec ses ruptures de digues, a provoqué 53 morts, s'ajoutant à tant d'autres tragédies survenues dans des zones inondables, et nous interrogeant. Sommes-nous prêts par exemple à affronter une crue comparable à celle de 1910 dans le Paris de demain ?Dans le contexte actuel de changement climatique, nous savons que nous devons nous préparer à des événements extrêmes plus dangereux, quelquefois inédits. Ces événements voient leurs effets amplifiés par le développement urbain, le surpeuplement des zones littorales et l'anthropisation des milieux naturels. Ils représentent de véritables « trappes à pauvreté » pour les pays les plus pauvres de la Planète.C'est l'objet de ce rapport de l'Académie des Sciences qui analyse la question de ces événements climatiques extrêmes et de leurs conséquences prévisibles sur les systèmes économiques, sociaux, sanitaires et de sécurité.Un réel besoin d'anticipation existe donc : notre pays est-il prêt à y répondre ? Participe-t-il suffi samment aux actions internationales visant à réduire les risques ? Dispose-t-il d'une information scientifique appropriée ?Henri Décamps, membre de l'Académie des sciences, est un spécialiste de la biologie intégrative. Directeur de plusieurs programmes d'étude internationaux (Union Européenne, UNESCO, il suit de près les questions liés à l'écologie et au climat. Il a animé au sein de l'Académie des sciences ce groupe de travail, composés de plusieurs dizaines de scientifiques.

Keywords

Health --- environment

Centrales nucléaires et environnement - Prélèvements d'eau et rejets

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9782759809134 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_519657 Language: French
Publisher: EDP SCIENCES
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2014-07-31 09:06:00
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Environment, nuclear power Plant, pollution, rejection, water

MARE-WINT: New Materials and Reliability in Offshore Wind Turbine Technology

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ISBN: 9783319390949 9783319390956 Year: Pages: 432 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-39095-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Mechanical Engineering --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-13 19:40:29
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This book provides a holistic, interdisciplinary overview of offshore wind energy, and is a must-read for advanced researchers. Topics, from the design and analysis of future turbines, to the decommissioning of wind farms, are covered. The scope of the work ranges from analytical, numerical and experimental advancements in structural and fluid mechanics, to novel developments in risk, safety & reliability engineering for offshore wind.The core objective of the current work is to make offshore wind energy more competitive, by improving the reliability, and operations and maintenance (O&M) strategies of wind turbines. The research was carried out under the auspices of the EU-funded project, MARE-WINT. The project provided a unique opportunity for a group of researchers to work closely together, undergo multidisciplinary doctoral training, and conduct research in the area of offshore wind energy generation. Contributions from expert, external authors are also included, and the complete work seeks to bridge the gap between research and a rapidly-evolving industry.

Keywords

renewable --- green --- energy --- environment --- law --- policy

Marginality: Addressing the Nexus of Poverty, Exclusion and Ecology

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789400770607 9789400770614 Year: Pages: 389 DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-7061-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Manufactures --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2013-09-04 12:11:17
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This book takes a new approach on understanding causes of extreme poverty and promising actions to address it. Its focus is on marginality being a root cause of poverty and deprivation. “Marginality” is the position of people on the edge, preventing their access to resources, freedom of choices, and the development of capabilities. The book is research based with original empirical analyses at local, national, and local scales; book contributors are leaders in their fields and have backgrounds in different disciplines. An important message of the book is that economic and ecological approaches and institutional innovations need to be integrated to overcome marginality. The book will be a valuable source for development scholars and students, actors that design public policies, and for social innovators in the private sector and non-governmental organizations.​

The greening of golf: Sport, globalization and the environment

Authors: ---
Book Series: Globalizing Sport Studies ISBN: 9781526107039 Year: Pages: 288 Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-04 11:01:13
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Golf is a major global industry. It is played by more than 60 million people worldwide, and there are more than 32,000 courses across the globe in 140 countries. This book looks at the power relationships in and around golf, examining whether the industry has demonstrated sufficient leadership on environmental matters for the government to be able to trust them to make decisions with implications for public health. It is the first comprehensive study of the varying impacts of golf on the environment, and is based on extensive empirical research, including interviews with major stakeholders in the golf industry and members of protest groups. The authors examine golf as a sport and as a global industry, drawing on three discrete literatures – the study of sport as a global social movement, environmental sociology and the study of corporate environmentalism.

eAccess to Justice

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Book Series: Law, Technology and Media ISBN: 9780776624297 9780776624303 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_628141 Language: English
Publisher: Les Presses de l’Université d’Ottawa | University of Ottawa Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 100674
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-05 11:01:31
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How can we leverage digitization to improve access to justice, without compromising the fundamental principles of our legal system? eAccess to Justice describes the many challenges that come with the integration of information and communication technologies into our courtrooms, and explores lessons learned from digitization projects from around the world.Edited by Jane Bailey and Valerie Steeves. Contributions by Trevor Scott Milford; Akane Kanai; Assumpta Ndengeyingoma; Jacquelyn Burkell; Madelaine Saginur; Priscilla M. Regan; Diana L. Sweet; Jessica Ringrose; Laura Harvey; Jordan Fairbairn; Andrea Slane; Shaheen Shariff; Ashley DeMartini; Gillian Angrove; Matthew Johnson; Sarah Heath; Betsy Rosenblatt; Rebecca Tushnet; and Leslie Regan Shade. Keywords: Privacy, identity, equality, online environment, women, cyberfeminism, policy

Sustainable Living with Environmental Risks

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9784431548034 9784431548041 Year: Pages: 286 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-54804-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Business and Management --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2014-04-15 16:02:11
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We are not free from environmental risks that accompany the development of human societies. Modern economic development has accelerated environmental pollution, caused loss of natural habitats, and modified landscapes. These environmental changes have impacted natural systems: water and heat circulation, nutrient cycling, and biodiversity. These changes in natural systems degrade ecosystem services and subsequently increase environmental risks for humans. Environmental risks, therefore, are not only human health risks by pollution, climatic anomalies and natural disasters, but also degradation of ecosystem services on which most people are relying for their lives. We cannot entirely eliminate the risks, because it is not possible to attain zero impact on the environment, but we need to find a mechanism that minimizes environmental risks for human sustainably. This is the idea of the interdisciplinary framework of “environmental risk management” theory, which advocates harmony between economic development and environmental conservation. Based on this theory, the Sustainable Living with Environmental Risk (SLER) programme, adopted by the Japanese Ministry of Education (MEXT) as one of its strategic programmes, has been training graduate students at the Yokohama National University, Japan, from 2009 to 2013 to become future environmental leaders who will take the initiative in reducing the level of environmental risks and in protecting natural resources in the developing nations of Asia and Africa. This book provides students and teachers of this new academic field with a comprehensive coverage of case studies of environmental risks and their practical management technologies not only in Japan but also in developing nations in Asia and Africa.

Welcome to the Green Village

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ISBN: 9781614992837 9781614992844 Year: Pages: 60 DOI: 10.3233/978-1-61499-284-4-i Language: English
Publisher: IOS Press
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2013-10-11 12:49:49
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A sustainable world can only be achieved by an open collaboration between science, business and the public. That is why we create the Green Village: an innovative, lively, interactive & challenging environment where entrepreneurs, innovators, companies, artists, teachers and visitors can meet, work and play to develop, apply and experience innovative sustainable products and solutions. In the Green Village you will find Future Labs for paradigm-shifting system research, resulting in icon projects such as the Car Park Power Plant, the Harp and the Energy Wall. The Green Village will be sustainably powered by the Engines, with ‘heart’, ‘veins’ and ‘lungs’ that supply energy and water, treat waste water and solid waste into useful new products and provide energy and transport fuels like electricity and hydrogen. It will also house the Greentech Store, an innovative co-making shop for 3D printing, apps, crowd funding & more. And it will be the stage for many sustainability Events: exhibitions, shows, contests, workshops, games, challenges, conferences, etcetera.The Green Village is located at Delft Campus, enabled by Delft University of Technology and empowered by a lively online community of scientists, entrepreneurs and you! Its vision: “Creating a sustainable, lively and entrepreneurial environment where we discover, learn and show how to solve society’s urgent challenges”.

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