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Sexual Reproduction in Animals and Plants

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ISBN: 9784431545880 9784431545897 Year: Pages: 480 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-54589-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Biotechnology --- Pharmacy and materia medica --- Manufactures --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2014-03-05 12:56:57
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This book contains the proceedings of the International Symposium on the Mechanisms of Sexual Reproduction in Animals and Plants, where many plant and animal reproductive biologists gathered to discuss their recent progress in investigating the shared mechanisms and factors involved in sexual reproduction. This now is the first book that reviews recent progress in almost all fields of plant and animal fertilization. It was recently reported that the self-sterile mechanism of a hermaphroditic marine invertebrate (ascidian) is very similar to the self-incompatibility system in flowering plants. It was also found that a male factor expressed in the sperm cells of flowering plants is involved in gamete fusion not only of plants but also of animals and parasites. These discoveries have led to the consideration that the core mechanisms or factors involved in sexual reproduction may be shared by animals, plants and unicellular organisms. This valuable book is highly useful for reproductive biologists as well as for biological scientists outside this field in understanding the current progress of reproductive biology.

Innovative Medicine: Basic Research and Development

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ISBN: 9784431556503 9784431556510 Year: Pages: 339 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-55651-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-30 12:46:49
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This book is devoted to innovative medicine, comprising the proceedings of the Uehara Memorial Foundation Symposium 2014. It remains extremely rare for the findings of basic research to be developed into clinical applications, and it takes a long time for the process to be achieved. The task of advancing the development of basic research into clinical reality lies with translational science, yet the field seems to struggle to find a way to move forward. To create innovative medical technology, many steps need to be taken: development and analysis of optimal animal models of human diseases, elucidation of genomic and epidemiological data, and establishment of “proof of concept”. There is also considerable demand for progress in drug research, new surgical procedures, and new clinical devices and equipment. While the original research target may be rare diseases, it is also important to apply those findings more broadly to common diseases. The book covers a wide range of topics and is organized into three complementary parts. The first part is basic research for innovative medicine, the second is translational research for innovative medicine, and the third is new technology for innovative medicine. This book helps to understand innovative medicine and to make progress in its realization.

A Time for Metabolism and Hormones

Authors: ---
Book Series: Research and Perspectives in Endocrine Interactions ISSN: 1861-2253 ISBN: 9783319270685 9783319270692 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-27069-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-20 11:46:51
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Recent years have seen spectacular advances in the field of circadian biology. These have attracted the interest of researchers in many fields, including endocrinology, neurosciences, cancer, and behavior. By integrating a circadian view within the fields of endocrinology and metabolism, researchers will be able to reveal many, yet-unsuspected aspects of how organisms cope with changes in the environment and subsequent control of homeostasis. This field is opening new avenues in our understanding of metabolism and endocrinology. A panel of the most distinguished investigators in the field gathered together to discuss the present state and the future of the field. The editors trust that this volume will be of use to those colleagues who will be picking up the challenge to unravel how the circadian clock can be targeted for the future development of specific pharmacological strategies toward a number of pathologies.

Ranaviruses: Lethal Pathogens of Ectothermic Vertebrates

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783319137544 9783319137551 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-13755-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Therapeutics --- Biotechnology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-12 15:59:14
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This is the first book on ranaviruses. Ranaviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that cause hemorrhagic disease in amphibians, reptiles, and fish. They have caused mass die-offs of ectothermic vertebrates in wild and captive populations around the globe. There is evidence that this pathogen is emerging and responsible for population declines in certain locations. Considering that amphibians and freshwater turtles are suitable hosts and the most imperiled vertebrate taxa in the world, ranaviruses can have significant impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem function. Additionally, many fish that are raised in aquaculture facilities and traded internationally are suitable hosts; thus, the potential economic impact of ranaviruses is significant. Ranaviruses also serve as a model for replication and gene function of large double-stranded DNA viruses. There is an urgent need to assemble the contemporary information on ranaviruses and provide guidance on how to assess their threats in populations. Through the Global Ranavirus Consortium, 24 experts from six countries were organize to write this volume, the first book on ranaviruses. The book begins with a discussion on the global extent of ranaviruses, case histories of infection and disease in ectothermic vertebrates, and current phylogeny. Basic principles of ranavirus ecology and evolution are covered next, with a focus on host-pathogen interactions and how the virus emerges in its environment. There are two chapters that will discuss the molecular biology of ranaviruses, host response to infection, and the genes responsible for immune system evasion. One chapter establishes standards for testing for infection and diagnosing ranaviral disease. The book ends by providing guidance on how to design ranavirus surveillance studies and analyze data to determine risk, and discussing the role of the Global Ranavirus Consortium in organizing research and outreach activities.

Biological Information:New Perspectives

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9789814508728 Year: Pages: 584 DOI: 10.1142/8818 Language: English
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 03:49:23
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In the spring of 2011, a diverse group of scientists gathered at Cornell University to discuss their research into the nature and origin of biological information. This symposium brought together experts in information theory, computer science, numerical simulation, thermodynamics, evolutionary theory, whole organism biology, developmental biology, molecular biology, genetics, physics, biophysics, mathematics, and linguistics. This volume presents new research by those invited to speak at the conference.The contributors to this volume use their wide-ranging expertise in the area of biological information to bring fresh insights into the many explanatory difficulties associated with biological information. These authors raise major challenges to the conventional scientific wisdom, which attempts to explain all biological information exclusively in terms of the standard mutation/selection paradigm.Several clear themes emerged from these research papers: 1) Information is indispensable to our understanding of what life is; 2) Biological information is more than the material structures that embody it; 3) Conventional chemical and evolutionary mechanisms seem insufficient to fully explain the labyrinth of information that is life. By exploring new perspectives on biological information, this volume seeks to expand, encourage, and enrich research into the nature and origin of biological information.Contents:Session One — Information Theory & Biology: Introductory Comments (Robert J Marks II):Biological Information — What is It? (Werner Gitt, Robert Compton and Jorge Fernandez)A General Theory of Information Cost Incurred by Successful Search (William A Dembski, Winston Ewert and Robert J Marks II)Pragmatic Information (John W Oller, Jr)Limits of Chaos and Progress in Evolutionary Dynamics (William F Basener)Tierra: The Character of Adaptation (Winston Ewert, William A Dembski and Robert J Marks II)Multiple Overlapping Genetic Codes Profoundly Reduce the Probability of Beneficial Mutation (George Montañez, Robert J Marks II, Jorge Fernandez and John C Sanford)Entropy, Evolution and Open Systems (Granville Sewell)Information and Thermodynamics in Living Systems (Andy C McIntosh)Session Two — Biological Information and Genetic Theory: Introductory Comments (John C Sanford):Not Junk After All: Non-Protein-Coding DNA Carries Extensive Biological Information (Jonathan Wells)Can Purifying Natural Selection Preserve Biological Information? (Paul Gibson, John R Baumgardner, Wesley H Brewer and John C Sanford)Selection Threshold Severely Constrains Capture of Beneficial Mutations (John C Sanford, John R Baumgardner and Wesley H Brewer)Using Numerical Simulation to Test the “Mutation-Count” Hypothesis (Wesley H Brewer, John R Baumgardner and John C Sanford)Can Synergistic Epistasis Halt Mutation Accumulation? Results from Numerical Simulation (John R Baumgardner, Wesley H Brewer and John C Sanford)Computational Evolution Experiments Reveal a Net Loss of Genetic Information Despite Selection (Chase W Nelson and John C Sanford)Information Loss: Potential for Accelerating Natural Genetic Attenuation of RNA Viruses (Wesley H Brewer, Franzine D Smith and John C Sanford)DNA.EXE: A Sequence Comparison between the Human Genome and Computer Code (Josiah Seaman)Biocybernetics and Biosemiosis (Donald Johnson)Session Three — Theoretical Molecular Biology: Introductory Comments (Michael J Behe):An Ode to the Code: Evidence for Fine-Tuning in the Standard Codon Table (Jed C Macosko and Amanda M Smelser)A New Model of Intracellular Communication Based on Coherent, High-Frequency Vibrations in Biomolecules (L Dent)Getting There First: An Evolutionary Rate Advantage for Adaptive Loss-of-Function Mutations (Michael J Behe)The Membrane Code: A Carrier of Essential Biological Information That is Not Specified by DNA and is Inherited Apart from It (Jonathan Wells)Explaining Metabolic Innovation: Neo-Darwinism Versus Design (Douglas D Axe and Ann K Gauger)Session Four — Biological Information and Self-Organizational Complexity Theory: Introductory Comments (Bruce L Gordon):Evolution Beyond Entailing Law: The Roles of Embodied Information and Self Organization (Stuart Kauffman)Towards a General Biology: Emergence of Life and Information from the Perspective of Complex Systems Dynamics (Bruce H Weber)Readership: Academics, researchers, postgraduates and advanced undergraduates in bioinformatics. Biologists, mathematicians/statisticians, physicists and computer scientists.

High Density Lipoproteins: From Biological Understanding to Clinical Exploitation

Authors: ---
Book Series: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology ISSN: 01712004 ISBN: 9783319096643 9783319096650 Year: Volume: 224 Pages: 694 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-09665-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Manufactures --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Chemical Technology --- Business and Management --- Biotechnology --- Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-07-20 15:18:00
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n this Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology on “High Density Lipoproteins – from biological understanding to clinical exploitation” contributing authors (members of COST Action BM0904/HDLnet) summarize in more than 20 chapters our current knowledge on the structure, function, metabolism and regulation of HDL in health and several diseases as well as the status of past and ongoing attempts of therapeutic exploitation.The book is of interest to researchers in academia and industry focusing on lipoprotein metabolism, cardiovascular diseases and immunology as well as clinical pharmacologists, cardiologists, diabetologists, nephrologists and other clinicians interested in metabolic or inflammatory diseases.

Impacts of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident on Fish and Fishing Grounds

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9784431555360 9784431555377 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-55537-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Aquaculture and Fisheries --- Business and Management --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-27 16:32:42
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This book presents the results from the Japanese Fisheries Research Agency’s 3-year intensive monitoring of radionuclides in a variety of fish, plankton, benthos, and their living environments after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident in March 2011. The book reveals the dynamics of contamination processes in marine and freshwater fish, mediated by the contamination of water, sediments, and food organisms; it also clarifies the mechanisms by which large variations in the level of contamination occurs among individual fish. Most importantly, the book includes a large amount of original measurement data collected in situ and for the first time assesses diffusion of radiocesium across the Pacific using both in situ data and a numerical simulation model. Also introduced are several new approaches to evaluate the impact of the release of radionuclides, including the measurement of radiation emission from an otolith section to identify the main period of contamination in fish. The FNPP accident represents a rare instance where the environmental radioactivity level was elevated steeply through atmospheric fallout and direct discharge of radioactive water into the sea over a short period of time. Replete with precise scientific data, this book will serve as an important resource for research in fields such as fishery science, oceanography, ecology, and environmentology, and also as a solid basis for protecting fisheries from damage resulting from harmful rumors among the general public.

A Unifying Theory of Evolution Generated by Means of Information Modelling

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Book Series: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics ISSN: 09269630 18798365 ISBN: 9781614996873 9781614996880 Year: Volume: 230 Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3233/978-1-61499-688-0-i Language: English
Publisher: IOS Press
Subject: Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-08 13:32:57
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"Stringent ways of thinking, ‘conceptual frameworks’, are necessary in science. The drawback is that the associated assumptions, concepts, rules and practice may become so deeply entrenched that they turn into tacit knowledge and hence give rise to constraints in scientific thought and practice – that is, a new kind of plethora that seriously blinds and thereby hampers scientific progress. This book, 'A Unifying Theory of Evolution Generated by Means of Information Modelling', presents a methodology for describing complex knowledge domains. It applies a template information model based on a dynamic structure of interrelated functions, called the Mereon Matrix. Application of this template model to the field of evolutionary theories enabled the unification of the sometimes chaotic and competing field of evolutionary theories, large and small, seamlessly in a shared framework. The author has Masters degrees in both biochemistry and computer science, as well as a European Doctorate and PhD in health informatics and has spent 35 years in full-time research. It is her particular combination of professional experience and expertise together with the template information model which has enabled her to write this book.Whilst primarily aimed at a scientific audience, and evolutionary biologists in particular, the book will be of interest to all those looking for new approaches to exploring and explaining phenomena in nature, and because the text is largely non-technical in nature, much of the content will also be accessible to a wider readership."

Natural Computing and Beyond

Authors: ---
Book Series: Proceedings in Information and Communications Technology ISSN: 18672914 ISBN: 9784431543930 9784431543947 Year: Volume: 6 Pages: 155 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-54394-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Manufactures --- Transportation --- Computer Science --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2013-09-04 12:15:49
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This book contains the joint proceedings of the Winter School of Hakodate (WSH) 2011 held in Hakodate, Japan, March 15–16, 2011, and the 6th International Workshop on Natural Computing (6th IWNC) held in Tokyo, Japan, March 28–30, 2012, organized by the Special Interest Group of Natural Computing (SIG-NAC), the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence (JSAI). This volume compiles refereed contributions to various aspects of natural computing, ranging from computing with slime mold, artificial chemistry, eco-physics, and synthetic biology, to computational aesthetics.

Managing Protected Areas in Central and Eastern Europe Under Climate Change

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ISSN: 15740919 ISBN: 9789400779594 9789400779600 Year: Volume: 58 Pages: 308 DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-7960-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Biotechnology --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Meteorology and Climatology --- Environmental Sciences --- Pharmacy and materia medica --- Manufactures
Added to DOAB on : 2015-09-08 13:08:59
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Beginning with an overview of data and concepts developed in the EU-project HABIT-CHANGE, this book addresses the need for sharing knowledge and experience in the field of biodiversity conservation and climate change. There is an urgent need to build capacity in protected areas to monitor, assess, manage and report the effects of climate change and their interaction with other pressures. The contributors identify barriers to the adaptation of conservation management, such as the mismatch between planning reality and the decision context at site level. Short and vivid descriptions of case studies, drawn from investigation areas all over Central and Eastern Europe, illustrate both the local impacts of climate change and their consequences for future management. These focus on ecosystems most vulnerable to changes in climatic conditions, including alpine areas, wetlands, forests, lowland grasslands and coastal areas. The case studies demonstrate the application of adaptation strategies in protected areas like National Parks, Biosphere Reserves and Natural Parks, and reflect the potential benefits as well as existing obstacles. A general section provides the necessary background information on climate trends and their effects on abiotic and biotic components. Often, the parties to policy change and conservation management, including managers, land users and stakeholders, lack both expertise and incentives to undertake adaptation activities. The authors recognise that achieving the needed changes in behavior – habit – is as much a social learning process as a matter of science-based procedure. They describe the implementation of modeling, impact assessment and monitoring of climate conditions, and show how the results can support efforts to increase stakeholder involvement in local adaptation strategies. The book concludes by pointing out the need for more work to communicate the cross-sectoral nature of biodiversity protection, the value of well-informed planning in the long-term process of adaptation, the definition of acceptable change, and the motivational value of exchanging experience and examples of good practice.

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