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A Small Nation in the Turmoil of the Second World War

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ISBN: 9789058677594 Year: DOI: 10.11116/SNTSWW Language: English
Publisher: Leuven University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102278
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-01 12:31:58
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This monograph presents an in-depth analysis of Belgium’s monetary and financial history during the Second World War. Exploring Belgium’s financial and business links with Germany, France, The Netherlands, Great Britain, the United States, and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the study focuses on the roles played by the Central Bank and private bankers in Brussels, by the Belgian government in exile in London, and by the Belgian minister plenipotentiary in New York. Among the subjects arising are: German attempts to plunder Belgium and Belgian resistance strategies; the peripeteia of the Belgian gold reserve; the role of the Belgian Congo; Belgium’s participation in the discussions leading up to the Bretton Woods conference; and the negotiations for creating a Customs Union, blueprint for the 1958 Treaty of Rome. The final part of the book analyzes the famous monetary reform devised by Belgian Minister of Finance Camille Gutt at the liberation of the country in September 1944.

Paris in the Dark

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ISBN: 9781478090281 9781478007531 9781478006923 9781478006114 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.1215/9781478090281 Language: English
Publisher: Duke University Press
Subject: Performing Arts
Added to DOAB on : 2020-03-28 11:21:03
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In Paris in the Dark Eric Smoodin takes readers on a journey through the streets, cinemas, and theaters of Paris to sketch a comprehensive picture of French film culture during the 1930s and 1940s. Drawing on a wealth of journalistic sources, Smoodin recounts the ways films moved through the city, the favored stars, and what it was like to go to the movies in a city with hundreds of cinemas. In a single week in the early 1930s, moviegoers might see Hollywood features like King Kong and Frankenstein, the new Marlene Dietrich and Maurice Chevalier movies, and any number of films from Italy, Germany, and Russia. Or they could frequent the city's ciné-clubs, which were hosts to the cinéphile subcultures of Paris. At other times, a night at the movies might result in an evening of fascist violence, even before the German Occupation of Paris, while after the war the city's cinemas formed the space for reconsolidating French film culture. In mapping the cinematic geography of Paris, Smoodin expands understandings of local film exhibition and the relationships of movies to urban space.

Macht Arbeit Frei?

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Book Series: Jews of Poland ISBN: 9781618115966 9781618119087 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Academic Studies Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101117
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:04
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This book examines the forced labor of Jews in the General Government of Occupied Poland from 1939-1943. Specifically, it traces the bureaucratic understanding and use the terms "labor" and "work" in the General Government; it also examines how these terms figured in the lives of Jews, for whom "labor"''s original understanding as a means of subsistence came to be redefined as a means of survival. The changing meaning of other key terms are examined in detail; these include, among others, "forced labor" (Zwangsarbeit), "slave labor" (Sklavenarbeit). The volume carefully analyzes the modus operandi of the Nazi system of power, in which bureaucracy ballooned, there were conflicts of interest between different institutions, and there was a total destruction of human and moral values, which led to extensive degeneration.

American Visions of the Netherlands East Indies/Indonesia

Authors: ---
Book Series: American Studies ISBN: 9789053564790 Year: Pages: 382 DOI: 10.5117/9789053564790 Language: Undetermined
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Subject: Political Science --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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The authors of this book challenge the view that was current among many people in the Netherlands during the period 1945-1949 that the American government and its foreign policymakers unequivocally backed the Indonesian Republic's struggle for independence. The same myth of America's political endorsement of Indonesians' quest for independence continues to reverberate in the United States itself. In fact, ex-President Clinton repeated the story as recently as 1995 when he wrote to ex-President Suharto that in the post-World War II era, President Truman and the U.S. Congress had actively supported Indonesia 'as the nation was being born'. On the basis of research in American, Indonesian, Dutch, and Australian diplomatic records and in the archives of the United Nations, Gouda and Brocades Zaalberg describe and analyze American visions of the Dutch East Indies/Indonesia from the 1920s to December 1949, when the Kingdom of the Netherlands relinquished its sovereignty over the archipelago in southeast Asia to the United States fo Indonesia. Their historical analysis suggests that the American diplomatic establishment was not as ignorant of conditions in the Indonesian archipelago as many Dutch people assumed, both before and after World War II. They also chronicle the unfolding of America's steady but tactic backing of its faithful Dutch ally in northern Europe until early 1949, when U.S. assessments of the regions in the world where the Cold War might ignite into a 'Hot War' began to incorporate the anti-colonial, nationalist struggles in Indonesia and Vietnam.

One Hundred Years of Chemical Warfare: Research, Deployment, Consequences

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783319516639 9783319516646 Year: Pages: 408 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51664-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-29 14:31:06
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On April 22, 1915, the German military released 150 tons of chlorine gas at Ypres, Belgium. Carried by a long-awaited wind, the chlorine cloud passed within a few minutes through the British and French trenches, leaving behind at least 1,000 dead and 4,000 injured. This chemical attack, which amounted to the first use of a weapon of mass destruction, marks a turning point in world history. The preparation as well as the execution of the gas attack was orchestrated by Fritz Haber, the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry in Berlin-Dahlem. During World War I, Haber transformed his research institute into a center for the development of chemical weapons (and of the means of protection against them).Bretislav Friedrich and Martin Wolf (Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, the successor institution of Haber’s institute) together with Dieter Hoffmann, Jürgen Renn, and Florian Schmaltz (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science) organized an international symposium to commemorate the centenary of the infamous chemical attack. The symposium examined crucial facets of chemical warfare from the first research on and deployment of chemical weapons in WWI to the development and use of chemical warfare during the century hence. The focus was on scientific, ethical, legal, and political issues of chemical weapons research and deployment — including the issue of dual use — as well as the ongoing effort to control the possession of chemical weapons and to ultimately achieve their elimination.The volume consists of papers presented at the symposium and supplemented by additional articles that together cover key aspects of chemical warfare from 22 April 1915 until the summer of 2015.

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