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Information und Nutzen der medizinischen Diagnostik

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Book Series: Allokation im marktwirtschaftlichen System ISBN: 9783631451991 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3726/b14076 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:17
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Im Mittelpunkt der vorliegenden Arbeit steht die theoretische Analyse des Wohlfahrtseffekts, den der Einsatz der medizinischen Diagnostik beim Patienten auslösen kann. Die Abbildung dieses Nutzeneffekts erfolgt in einem entscheidungstheoretischen Ansatz, der es zugleich gestattet, die Bedeutung wichtiger Einflußgrößen wie z.B. der medizinischen Ausgangslage oder der diagnostischen Information zu diskutieren. Darüber hinaus möchte die Arbeit einen Beitrag zur Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse diagnostischer Maßnahmen leisten, indem der Nutzen für den Patienten mit Hilfe eines speziellen Zahlungsbereitschaftskonzepts dargestellt und eingehend untersucht wird.

Keywords

Diagnostik --- Information --- medizinischen --- Nutzen --- Ried

Agency Theory: Methodology, Analysis

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Book Series: Forschungsergebnisse der Wirtschaftsuniversitaet Wien ISBN: 9783631529737 Year: Pages: 241 DOI: 10.3726/b13920 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:25
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Designing a contract is often more of an economic than a legal problem. A good contract protects parties against opportunistic behavior while providing motivation to cooperate. This is where economics and, especially contract theory, may prove helpful by enhancing our understanding of incentive issues. The purpose of this book is to provide specific tools which will help to write better contracts in real world environments. Concentrating on moral hazard literature, this book derives a tentative checklist for drafting contracts. As an economic contribution to a field traditionally considered an art rather than a science, this treatment also gives much attention to methodological issues.

Artificial Neural Networks as Models of Neural Information Processing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454013 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-401-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Modern neural networks gave rise to major breakthroughs in several research areas. In neuroscience, we are witnessing a reappraisal of neural network theory and its relevance for understanding information processing in biological systems. The research presented in this book provides various perspectives on the use of artificial neural networks as models of neural information processing. We consider the biological plausibility of neural networks, performance improvements, spiking neural networks and the use of neural networks for understanding brain function.

Zentrale versus dezentrale Internalisierung externer Effekte bei unvollstaendiger Information

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Book Series: Finanzwissenschaftliche Schriften ISBN: 9783631479445 Year: Pages: 205 DOI: 10.3726/b13813 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Ecology --- Environmental Sciences --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:30
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Können externe Effekte in Gegenwart unvollständiger Information über ihre Nutzen und Kosten im Rahmen privater Verhandlungen vollständig internalisiert werden, oder sollte besser der Staat für eine effiziente Ressourcenallokation sorgen? Die vorliegende Arbeit versucht, mit Hilfe neuerer informationsökonomischer Methoden Antworten auf diese Frage zu geben. Es zeigt sich, daß zentrale Regulierungsmaßnahmen gerade vor dem Hintergrund des Informationsproblems an Bedeutung gewinnen.

Entity-Oriented Search

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Book Series: The Information Retrieval Series ISBN: 9783319939353 Year: Pages: 351 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-93935-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:16
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This open access book covers all facets of entity-oriented search—where “search” can be interpreted in the broadest sense of information access—from a unified point of view, and provides a coherent and comprehensive overview of the state of the art. It represents the first synthesis of research in this broad and rapidly developing area. Selected topics are discussed in-depth, the goal being to establish fundamental techniques and methods as a basis for future research and development. Additional topics are treated at a survey level only, containing numerous pointers to the relevant literature. A roadmap for future research, based on open issues and challenges identified along the way, rounds out the book. The book is divided into three main parts, sandwiched between introductory and concluding chapters. The first two chapters introduce readers to the basic concepts, provide an overview of entity-oriented search tasks, and present the various types and sources of data that will be used throughout the book. Part I deals with the core task of entity ranking: given a textual query, possibly enriched with additional elements or structural hints, return a ranked list of entities. This core task is examined in a number of different variants, using both structured and unstructured data collections, and numerous query formulations. In turn, Part II is devoted to the role of entities in bridging unstructured and structured data. Part III explores how entities can enable search engines to understand the concepts, meaning, and intent behind the query that the user enters into the search box, and how they can provide rich and focused responses (as opposed to merely a list of documents)—a process known as semantic search. The final chapter concludes the book by discussing the limitations of current approaches, and suggesting directions for future research. Researchers and graduate students are the primary target audience of this book. A general background in information retrieval is sufficient to follow the material, including an understanding of basic probability and statistics concepts as well as a basic knowledge of machine learning concepts and supervised learning algorithms.

Digitale Transformation

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Book Series: Informationsmanagement und digitale Transformation ISBN: 9783658226244 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-658-22624-4 Language: German
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:21
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Dieses Open Access-Buch gibt eine Einführung in die Grundlagen der digitalen Transformation. Es werden aktuelle technologische Trends sowie Auswirkungen auf den Wettbewerb und die Geschäftsmodellentwicklung erläutert. Außerdem werden anhand empirischer Umfragen sowie Fallstudien aus der Praxis die Chancen und Risiken digitaler Transformationsprojekte aufgezeigt. Die Ergebnisse helfen Unternehmen dabei, Technologiepotentiale abzuschätzen und frühzeitig zukunftsweisende Technologiekompetenzen aufzubauen.

Clinical Text Mining: Secondary Use of Electronic Patient Records

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ISBN: 9783319785028 9783319785035 Year: Pages: 181 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-78503-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Riksbankens Jubileumsfond; Stockholm University
Subject: Medical technology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 15:52:54
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This open access book describes the results of natural language processing and machine learning methods applied to clinical text from electronic patient records.It is divided into twelve chapters. Chapters 1-4 discuss the history and background of the original paper-based patient records, their purpose, and how they are written and structured. These initial chapters do not require any technical or medical background knowledge. The remaining eight chapters are more technical in nature and describe various medical classifications and terminologies such as ICD diagnosis codes, SNOMED CT, MeSH, UMLS, and ATC. Chapters 5-10 cover basic tools for natural language processing and information retrieval, and how to apply them to clinical text. The difference between rule-based and machine learning-based methods, as well as between supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods, are also explained. Next, ethical concerns regarding the use of sensitive patient records for research purposes are discussed, including methods for de-identifying electronic patient records and safely storing patient records. The book’s closing chapters present a number of applications in clinical text mining and summarise the lessons learned from the previous chapters.The book provides a comprehensive overview of technical issues arising in clinical text mining, and offers a valuable guide for advanced students in health informatics, computational linguistics, and information retrieval, and for researchers entering these fields.

Supercomputing Frontiers: 4th Asian Conference, SCFA 2018, Singapore, March 26-29, 2018, Proceedings

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Book Series: Theoretical Computer Science and General Issues ISBN: 9783319699523 9783319699530 Year: Volume: 10776 Pages: 293 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69953-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: National Supercomputing Centre (NSCC), Singapore
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-20 15:24:25
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It constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th Asian Supercomputing Conference, SCFA 2018, held in Singapore in March 2018. Supercomputing Frontiers will be rebranded as Supercomputing Frontiers Asia (SCFA), which serves as the technical programme for SCA18. The technical programme for SCA18 consists of four tracks: Application, Algorithms & LibrariesProgramming System SoftwareArchitecture, Network/Communications & ManagementData, Storage & VisualisationThe 20 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed nd selected from 60 submissions.

Autonomous Control for a Reliable Internet of Services: Methods, Models, Approaches, Techniques, Algorithms, and Tools

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Book Series: Computer Communication Networks and Telecommunications ISBN: 9783319904146 9783319904153 Year: Volume: 10768 Pages: 401 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-90415-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: European Commission; Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 15:36:56
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This open access book was prepared as a Final Publication of the COST Action IC1304 “Autonomous Control for a Reliable Internet of Services (ACROSS)”. The book contains 14 chapters and constitutes a show-case of the main outcome of the Action in line with its scientific goals. It will serve as a valuable reference for undergraduate and post-graduate students, educators, faculty members, researchers, engineers, and research strategists working in this field.The explosive growth of the Internet has fundamentally changed the global society. The emergence of concepts like SOA, SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, NaaS, and Cloud Computing in general has catalyzed the migration from the information-oriented Internet into an Internet of Services (IoS). This has opened up virtually unbounded possibilities for the creation of new and innovative services that facilitate business processes and improve the quality of life. However, this also calls for new approaches to ensuring the quality and reliability of these services. The objective of this book is, by applying a systematic approach, to assess the state-of-the-art and consolidate the main research results achieved in this area.

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