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New frontiers in the neuropsychopharmacology of mental illness

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194049 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-404-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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In recent years, mental illnesses have become recognized as a huge emotional and financial burden to the individual, their relatives and society at large. Stress-related and mood disorders as well as psychoactive substance abuse are among the disorders associated with most disability in high income countries. Suicide, which is often attributed to some underlying mental disorders, is a leading cause of death among teenagers and young adults. At the same time, mental disorders pose some of the toughest challenges in neuroscience research. There are many different categories of mental disorder as defined and classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10). Despite the ongoing improvements of those widely used manuals, the validity and reliability of their diagnoses remain a constant debate. However, it has now become accepted by the scientific community that mental disorders can arise from multiple sources. In that regard, both clinical and animal studies looking at gene-environment interactions have helped to better understand the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology as well as the discovery of treatments for mental disorders. This Research Topic aims to cover recent progress in research studying how genetic make-up and environmental factors (such as stress paradigm or pharmacological treatment) can contribute to the development of mental disorders such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia. This Research Topic also seeks to highlight studies looking at affective-like disorders following the intake of drugs of abuse. We also welcome all research articles, review papers, brief communications, and commentary on topics related to the broad field of Neuropsychopharmacology.

Glial Plasticity in Depression

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199990 Year: Pages: 99 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-999-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Major depression is a highly prevalent disorder that poses a significant social burden in society nowadays. The pathophysiology of this disease is still poorly understood but growing evidence suggests that impaired neuron and glial plasticity may be a key underlying mechanism for the precipitation of the disorder. One of the most surprising findings in this field was the involvement of glial cells in the pathophysiology of major depression and in the action of antidepressants, namely in mechanisms related with adult neurogenesis imbalances or dendritic arborization impairments. In particular, several works refer to alterations in the morphology and numbers of astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes in the context of depression in human patients or animal models of depression. These observations were linked to functional evidences and suggested to underlie the pathophysiology of depression. Among others, these include impairments in the cross-talk between glia and neurons, changes in the level of neurotransmitter or immunoactive substances, myelination status, synapse formation, maintenance, or elimination. In addition to the implication of glia in the pathophysiology of depression, a number of studies is ascribing glia pathways to classically accepted antidepressant mechanisms. Therefore, it is noteworthy to elucidate the role of glia in the effect provided by antidepressant treatment in order to better understand secondary effects and elucidate alternative targets for treatment.

Aging and Mental Health

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451883 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-188-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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People are progressively ageing all over the world, and it is estimated that the number of persons aged 60 or over will more than triple by 2100. This emerging population will experience an inevitable rise in dementia, mental health problems and chronic diseases. According to GBD (2010), neuropsychiatric disorders among older adults account for 6.6% of the total disability (DALYs) for this age group, with 15% suffering from a mental disorder. Multiple social, psychological and biological factors are determinant of mental health, as well as life stressors. Among these, the lack of independence, limited mobility, chronic diseases, pain, frailty or other mental and physical problems require long-term care. Beyond this, the elderly are more prone to experience events such as bereavement, a drop in socio-economic status, disability, which leads to isolation, loss of independence, loneliness and psychological distress. Mental health problems and needs assessment by health-care professionals and older people themselves are under-recognised, and the stigma surrounding mental illness makes people reluctant to seek help. The early investigation and diagnosis of these situations are crucial, as well as prior management with an important combination of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions, in conjunction with caregivers' and families' support. The present book aims to contribute to the development of knowledge in Aging and Mental Health, taking different approaches from authors, coming from diverse scientific fields, with the final goal being the improvement of quality of life and healthy aging for this growing population.

Progress in Physical activity and Exercise and Affective and Anxiety Disorders: Translational Studies, Perspectives and Future Directions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194711 Year: Pages: 78 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-471-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:33
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Physical activity and exercise were receiving a great attention as a strategy of prevention and treatment of affective and some anxiety disorders. Many studies have showed the efficacy of exercise in major depression and at depressed episode of bipolar patients, as well as, some authors shows the benefits of exercise in some anxiety disorders like Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic. Despite their efficacy, little is known concerning the main mechanisms related to the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of exercise. Several studies in an animal model using Neurotrophic Factors, Oxidative Stress, Immunologic response and other biological markers reveal promising results. However, few studies were conducted in clinical samples. Additional to the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects, exercise appears improve QoL in major depressed, bipolar and anxiety patients. Theoretically, this increase may be associated with cognitive improvements, improvements at sleep quality, physical functioning, as well as other psychological issues as self-esteem, self-concept, and general well-being. The propose of this topic is to address the novelty and most recent research, related to antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of physical activity and exercise in patients with affective and anxiety disorders, as well as the issues associated with QoL improvement.The topic is looking for: – Clinical trials using exercise and physical activity as a treatment affective and anxiety disorders. – Studies investigating the optimal prescription factors (dose, volume, intensity, setting, frequency) associated with antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of physical activity and exercise for affective and anxiety disorder patients. – Original studies, comprehensive reviews, hypothesis and opinions concerning the mechanisms of antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of physical activity and exercise in affective and anxiety disorder patients. – Original studies, comprehensive reviews, hypothesis and opinions concerning other benefits of physical activity and exercise like : cognition, weight gain prevention and QoL in affective and anxiety disorder patients. – Translational research. – Studies of cost-efficacy analysis

Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197637 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-763-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Dear Readers,If you are engaged in the treatment of patients with MS (pwMS), this e-book’s aim is to offer novel insights to improve on an understanding of one of the major problems of pwMS: fatigue. Although there is increasing research into fatigue and its impact on MS, this collection of ten articles supports a better understanding of fatigue in MS patients. It explores pathophysiological concepts, provoking mechanisms, objective measurements, personality interactions, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions and summarizes clinical management. It is written by neurologists, psychologists, scientists and therapists and addresses this group of people, who deal with pwMS in private, clinical, rehabilitation or scientific settings. Its aim is to communicate high-quality information, knowledge and experience on MS to healthcare professionals, while providing global support for the international MS community.

Neuroinflammation and Behaviour

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196029 Year: Pages: 181 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-602-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The brain and immune system are involved in an intricate network of bidirectional communication. This relationship is vital for optimal physiological and psychological development and functioning but can also result in unwanted outcomes. In particular, this interaction plays an important role in cognition, mood and behaviour. Neuroinflammation is known to contribute to neurological and affective disorders including impaired learning and memory, depressive, anxiety and schizoaffective symptoms, as well as pain. The development of these conditions often occurs on the backdrop of pre-existing physical illnesses which give rise to increased activation of the immune system, such as cancer, obesity, infection and autoimmune disorders. Similarly, psychological states can alter regulation of the immune system. This has been most extensively studied in the context of stress and immune function. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that lead to the onset of inflammation-induced neuropathology and stress-induced immune suppression will contribute to the development of novel and effective treatment strategies for both the disease and its neurological side effects. In this research topic we explored the relationship between the immune system and the brain throughout life. We include both original research and review papers from animal, clinical and molecular perspectives.

Behavioral and physiological bases of attentional biases: Paradigms, participants, and stimuli

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196401 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-640-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:50:54
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Attentional biases (ABs) play a prominent role in the development and maintenance of clinically relevant symptoms of, for example, anxiety and depression. In particular, increased attentional orienting and preoccupation with biologically relevant and mood-congruent stimuli has been observed, suggesting that the visual-attentional system is overly sensitive towards threat cues and avoidant of cues of reward in these disorders. First, several experimental paradigms have been used to assess ABs, e.g., the dot probe task, the emotional stroop task, and the spatial cueing task amongst others. Yet, these paradigms are based on different theoretical backgrounds and target different stages of the attentional process. Thus, different paradigms provided converging as well as diverging evidence with regard to ABs. However, it is often not entirely clear to what extent this reflects real differences and commonalities, or is caused by differences in methodology. For example, behavioral reaction time data can only provide a snapshot of selective attention. Measuring event-related potentials, eye movements, or functional brain imaging data enables exploring the exact temporal and spatial dynamics of attentional processes. Moreover, neuroimaging data reveal specific cortical networks involved in directing attention toward a stimulus or disengaging from it. Second, ABs have been mainly discussed as symptoms of psychopathology, while results in healthy participants are still scarce; previous studies mostly compared extreme groups. However, a comprehensive theoretical and empirical account of ABs in psychopathology also requires a thorough account of ABs in the general healthy population. Moreover, the effect of gender, as an important contributing factor in processing of emotional stimuli, has also not been considered systematically in previous research. Third, a variety of stimuli has been used in the assessment of ABs. So far, mostly facial or word stimuli have been applied. However, in everyday life not only facial emotion recognition but also a fast evaluation of complex social situations is important to be effective in social interactions. Recent research started using more complex stimuli to raise ecological validity. However, the use of ecologically valid stimuli poses some methodological challenges and needs to be applied more systematically. The aim of this research topic is to integrate different paradigms and stimuli, addressing individuals from the whole range of the population continuum, and to apply different methodological approaches. It is intended to bring together expertise in stimulus selection, timing and implementing issues, advancing and broadening the overall understanding of ABs.

Reelin-Related Neurological Disorders and Animal Models

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451111 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-111-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The Reeler mutation was so named because of the alterations in gait that characterize homozygous mice. Several decades after the description of the Reeler phenotype, the mutated protein was discovered and named Reelin (Reln). Reln controls a number of fundamental steps in embryonic and postnatal brain development. A prominent embryonic function is the control of radial neuronal migration. As a consequence, homozygous Reeler mutants show disrupted cell layering in cortical brain structures. Reln also promotes postnatal neuronal maturation. Heterozygous mutants exhibit defects in dendrite extension and synapse formation, correlating with behavioral and cognitive deficits that are detectable at adult ages. The Reln-encoding gene is highly conserved between mice and humans. In humans, homozygous RELN mutations cause lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia, a severe neuronal migration disorder that is reminiscent of the Reeler phenotype. In addition, RELN deficiency or dysfunction is also correlated with psychiatric and cognitive disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism, as well as some forms of epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. Despite the wealth of anatomical studies of the Reeler mouse brain, and the molecular dissection of Reln signaling mechanisms, the consequences of Reln deficiency on the development and function of the human brain are not yet completely understood. This Research Topic include reviews that summarize our current knowledge of the molecular aspects of Reln function, original articles that advance our understanding of its expression and function in different brain regions, and reviews that critically assess the potential role of Reln in human psychiatric and cognitive disorders.

Minding Glial Cells in the Novel Understandings of Mental Illness

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451579 Year: Pages: 275 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-157-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Traditionally, abnormalities of neurons and neuronal networks including synaptic abnormalities and disturbance of neurotransmitters have dominantly been believed to be the main causes of psychiatric disorders. Recent cellular neuroscience has revealed various unknown roles of glial cells such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. These glial cells have proved to continuously contact with neurons /synapses, and have been shown to play important roles in brain development, homeostasis and various brain functions. Beyond the classic neuronal doctrine, accumulating evidence has suggested that abnormalities and disturbances of neuron-glia crosstalk may induce psychiatric disorders, while these mechanisms have not been well understood. This Research Topic of the Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience will focus on the most recent developments and ideas in the study of glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia) focusing on psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mood disorders and autism. Not only molecular, cellular and pharmacological approaches using in vitro / in vivo experimental methods but also translational research approaches are welcome. Novel translational research approaches, for example, using novel techniques such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, may lead to novel solutions. We believe that investigations to clarify the correlation between glial cells and psychiatric disorders contribute to a novel understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders and the development of effective treatment strategies.

Neuropeptides and Behaviour: From Motivation to Psychopathology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453078 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-307-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine --- Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The discovery of the involvement of neuropeptides with behaviours other than regulatory motivated ones took place in the midst of 1960’s with David de Wied’s first report on the influence of pituitary peptides on memory. This major scientific breakthrough opened a new frontier of studies in Endocrinology and its related fields, Neuroendocrinology and Psychoneuroendocrinology. Neuropeptides were initially thought to be involved in homeostatic regulation and secreted only from neurons located in the hypothalamus; they are now recognized neurotransmitters, produced in and secreted from distinct brain areas, associated with a myriad of, not only, motivated, but also psychopathological behaviours. Motivated behaviours are determinant for individual and species survival, but their expression in a large spectrum and deviations from average may give rise to a number of psychiatric conditions.

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