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The Social Nature of Emotions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199099 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-909-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Emotion is a defining aspect of the human condition. Emotions pervade our social and professional lives, they affect our thinking and behavior, and they profoundly shape our relationships and social interactions. Emotions have traditionally been conceptualized and studied as individual phenomena, with research focusing on cognitive and expressive components and on physiological and neurological processes underlying emotional reactions. Over the last two decades, however, an increasing scholarly awareness has emerged that emotions are inherently social – that is, they tend to be elicited by other people, expressed at other people, and regulated to influence other people or to comply with social norms (Fischer & Manstead, 2008; Keltner & Haidt, 1999; Parkinson, 1996; Van Kleef, 2009). Despite this increasing awareness, the inclusion of the social dimension as a fundamental element in emotion research is still in its infancy (Fischer & Van Kleef, 2010). We therefore organized this special Research Topic on the social nature of emotions to review the state of the art in research and methodology and to stimulate theorizing and future research. The emerging field of research into the social nature of emotions has focused on three broad sets of questions. The first set of questions pertains to how social-contextual factors shape the experience, regulation, and expression of emotions. Studies have shown, for instance, that the social context influences the emotions people feel and express (Clark, Fitness, & Brissette, 2004; Doosje, Branscombe, Spears, & Manstead, 2004; Fischer & Evers, 2011). The second set of questions concerns social-contextual influences on the recognition and interpretation of emotional expressions. Studies have shown that facial expressions are interpreted quite differently depending on the social context (e.g., in terms of status, culture, or gender) in which they are expressed (Elfenbein & Ambady, 2002; Hess & Fischer, 2013; Mesquita & Markus, 2004; Tiedens, 2001). The third set of questions has to do with the ways in which people respond to the emotional expressions of others, and how such responses are shaped by the social context. Studies have shown that emotional expressions can influence the behavior of others, for instance in group settings (Barsade, 2002; Cheshin, Rafaeli & Bos, 2011; Heerdink, Van Kleef, Homan, & Fischer, 2013), negotiations (Sinaceur & Tiedens, 2006; Van Kleef, De Dreu, & Manstead, 2004), and leadership (Sy, Côté, & Saavedra, 2005; Van Kleef, Homan, Beersma, & Van Knippenberg, 2010). This Research Topic centers around these and related questions regarding the social nature of emotions, thereby highlighting new research opportunities and guiding future directions in the field. We bring together a collection of papers to provide an encyclopedic, open-access snapshot of the current state of the art of theorizing and research on the social nature of emotion. The state of the art work that is presented in this e-book helps advance the understanding of the social nature of emotions. It brings together the latest cutting-edge findings and thoughts on this central topic in emotion science, as it heads toward the next frontier.

Inner Experiences: Theory, Measurement, Frequency, Content, and Functions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197712 Year: Pages: 163 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-771-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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One fundamental topic of scientific inquiry in psychology is the study of what William James called the 'stream of consciousness', our ongoing experience of the world and ourselves from within—our inner experiences. These internal states (aka "stimulus-independent thoughts") include inner speech, mental imagery, feelings, sensory awareness, internally produced sounds or music, unsymbolized thinking, and mentalizing (thinking about others' mental states). They may occur automatically during mind-wandering (daydreaming) and resting-state episodes, and may focus on one's past, present, or future ("mental time travel" - e.g., autonoetic consciousness). Inner experiences also may take the form of intrusive or ruminative thoughts. The types, characteristics, frequency, content, and functions of inner experiences have been studied using a variety of traditional methods, among which questionnaires, thought listing procedures (i.e., open-ended self-reports), thinking aloud techniques, and daily dairies. Another approach, articulatory suppression, consists in blocking participants' use of verbal thinking while completing a given task; deficits indicate that inner speech plays a causal role in normal task completion. Various thought sampling approaches have also been developed in an effort to gather more ecologically valid data. Previous thought sampling studies have relied on beepers that signal participants to report aspects of their inner experiences at random intervals. More recent studies are exploiting smartphone technology to easily and reliably probe randomly occurring inner experiences in large samples of participants. These various measures have allowed researchers to learn some fundamental facts about inner experiences. To illustrate, it is becoming increasingly clear that prospection (future-oriented thinking) greatly depends on access to autobiographical memory (past-oriented thinking), where recollection of past scenes is used as a template to formulate plausible future scenarios. The main goal of the present Research Topic was to offer a scientific platform for the dissemination of current high-quality research pertaining to inner experiences. Although data on all forms of inner experiences were welcome, reports on recent advances in inner speech research were particularly encouraged. Here are some examples of topics of interest: (1) description and validation of new scales, inventories, questionnaires measuring any form of inner experience; (2) novel uses or improvements of existing measures of inner experiences; (3) development of new smartphone technology facilitating or broadening the use of cell phones to sample inner experiences; (4) frequency, content, and functions of various inner experience; (5) correlations between personality or cognitive variables and any aspects of inner experiences; (6) philosophical or theoretical considerations pertaining to inner experiences; and (7) inner experience changes with age.

Environmental Governance in Latin America

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ISBN: 9781137574084 9781137505729 Year: Pages: 338 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-137-50572-9 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Environmental Technology --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-15 10:49:41
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This book is open access under a CC-BY license. The contributors investigate a broad range of emerging socio-environmental challenges faced by contemporary Latin America. By using environmental governance as an overarching analytical concept, they cross territorial, sectorial, and institutional boundaries to address the nature/society nexus.

Keywords

governance --- society --- environment

International Comparative Studies in Mathematics: Lessons for Improving Students’ Learning

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: ICME-13 Topical Surveys ISSN: 2366-5947 ISBN: 9783319424132 9783319424149 Year: Pages: 36 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-42414-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Education --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-06 14:38:40
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This open access book examines the cultural and educational factors that influence how successfully students learn mathematics; focuses on international comparative studies as a means of generating theories and improving students’ learning; and discusses four valuable lessons that can be learned from international comparative studies with regard to improving students’ learning.

The Plight of Older Workers: Labor Market Experience after Plant Closure in the Swiss Manufacturing Sector

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Book Series: Life Course Research and Social Policies ISSN: 2211-7776 ISBN: 9783319397528 9783319397542 Year: Pages: 195 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-39754-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Economics --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-14 10:13:43
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This open access book examines the economic, social, and psychological consequences of manufacturing plant closure at the individual level. Using an original data set of over 1,200 workers from Switzerland who lost their manufacturing jobs after the financial crisis of 2008, the author analyzes the determinants of reemployment, the sector of reemployment, and the change in wages over a two year period. In addition, coverage also explores how plant closure affects the social relationship between a displaced worker and his or her significant other, which includes a discussion of the coping strategies on the household level as well as how changes in a worker's social and occupational life affects overall satisfaction. Readers will discover that the burden of structural change disproportionately falls on the shoulders of workers aged 55 and older who often face substantial barriers when trying to return to employment. A larger portion of this group experience long-term unemployment and those who do manage to find a new job often suffer disproportionate wage loss.This result is intriguing in the context of the current demographic change and contradicts the common assumption that young and low-qualified individuals are at greatest risk of unemployment. Advanced age—and not low education—appears to be the primary obstacle to workers finding job satisfaction after being laid off because of market conditions.

Reconsidering Constitutional Formation I National Sovereignty: A Comparative Analysis of the Juridification by Constitution

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Book Series: Studies in the History of Law and Justice ISBN: 9783319424040 9783319424057 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-42405-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 339529
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-20 11:01:37
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This open access book can be downloaded from link.springer.comLegal studies and consequently legal history focus on constitutional documents, believing in a nominalist autonomy of constitutional semantics. Reconsidering Constitutional Formation in the late 18th and 19th century, kept historic constitutions from being simply log-books for political experts through a functional approach to the interdependencies between constitution and public discourse. Sovereignty had to be ‘believed’ by the subjects and the political élites. Such a communicative orientation of constitutional processes became palpable in the ‘religious’ affinities of the constitutional preambles. They were held as ‘creeds’ of a new order, not only due to their occasional recourse to divine authority, but rather due to the claim for eternal validity contexts of constitutional guarantees. The communication dependency of constitutions was of less concern in terms of the preamble than the constituents’ big worries about government organisation. Their indecisiveness between monarchical and popular sovereignty was established through the discrediting of the Republic in the Jacobean reign of terror and the ‘renaissance’ of the monarchy in the military resistance against the French revolutionary and later Napoleonic campaigns. The constitutional formation as a legal act of constituting could therefore defend the monarchy from the threat of the people (Albertine Statute 1848), could be a legal decision of a national constituent assembly (Belgian Constitution 1831), could borrow from the old liberties (Polish May Constitution 1791) or try to remain in between by referring to the Nation as sovereign (French September Constitution 1791, Cádiz Constitution 1812). Common to all contexts is the use of national sovereignty as a legal starting point. The consequent differentiation between constituent and constituted power manages to justify the self-commitment of political power in legal terms. National sovereignty is the synonym for the juridification of sovereignty by means of the constitution. The novelty of the constitutions of the late 18th and 19th century is the normativity, the positivity of the constitutional law as one unified law, to be the measure for the legality of all other law. Therefore ReConFort will continue with the precedence of constitution. (www.reconfort.eu)

Open Education

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781783742806 Year: Pages: 378 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0103 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-22 11:01:43
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"This insightful collection of essays explores the ways in which open education can democratise access to education for all. It is a rich resource that offers both research and case studies to relate the application of open technologies and approaches in education settings around the world. Global in perspective, this book argues strongly for the value of open education in both the developed and developing worlds. Through a mixture of theoretical and practical approaches, it demonstrates that open education promotes ideals of inclusion, diversity, and social justice to achieve the vision of education as a fundamental human right. A must-read for practitioners, policy-makers, scholars and students in the field of education."

African Disability Rights Yearbook Volume 4 2016

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ISSN: 2311-8970 ISBN: 24137138 Year: Pages: 337 Language: English
Publisher: Pretoria University Law Press (PULP)
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-09 12:11:33
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About the publicationThe African Disability Rights Yearbook addresses disability rights within the foundational structure laid down by the inaugural issue. The structure comprises a tripartite division between: articles; country reports; and shorter commentaries on recent regional and sub-regional developments.The African Disability Rights Yearbook aims to advance disability scholarship. Coming in the wake of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, it is the first peer-reviewed journal to focus exclusively on disability as human rights on the African continent. It provides an annual forum for scholarly analysis on issues pertaining to the human rights of persons with disabilities.It is also a source for country-based reports as well as commentaries on recent developments in the field of disability rights in the African region.The African Disability Rights Yearbook publishes peer-reviewed contributions dealing with the rights of persons with disabilities and related topics, with specific relevance to Africa, Africans and scholars of Africa.The Yearbook appears annually under the aegis of the Centre for Human Rights, Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria.The Yearbook is an open access online publication, see www.adry.up.ac.zaAbout the editors:Charles Ngwena is Professor, Department of Constitutional Law and Legal Philosophy, Faculty of Law, University of the Free State, South Africa.Ilze Grobbelaar‐du Plessis is a senior lecturer and holds the degrees BIuris LLB LLM LLD from the University of Pretoria.Helene Combrinck is Associate Professor at the Centre for Disability Law and Policy, University of the Western Cape.Serges Djoyou Kamgais is Senior Lecturer at TMALI (UNISA).Table of ContentsStigma as barrier to the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in AfricaMark MostertRealising the inclusion of youth with disabilities in political and public life in KenyaLucianna ThuoReading ‘disability’ into the non-discrimination clause of the Nigerian ConstitutionNgozi Chuma UmehLegislative mechanisms for combating violence against children with disabilities in selected African jurisdictions: A critical appraisalEnoch ChilembaMy right to know: Developing sexuality education resources for learners with intellectual disability in the Western Cape, South AfricaRebecca JohnsColleen Adnams(Re)thinking sexual access for adolescents with disabilities in South Africa: Balancing rights and protectionPaul ChappellThe development and use of Sign Language in South African schools: The denial of inclusive educationWillene HolnessImplementing article 33 of CRPD: Tanzanian approachAbdallah PossiSECTION B: COUNTRY REPORTSAngolaEduardo KapapeloGabonChristophe TchudjoVictorine Maptue ToguemSenegalAbdoulaye ThiamSeydi Ababacar Sy SowSECTION C: REGIONAL DEVELOPMENTSThe jurisprudence of the committee on the rights of persons with disabilities and its implications for AfricaInnocentia MgijimaThe right to work and employment in Southern Africa: A commentary on how selected employment laws fare against article 27 of the CRPDDianah MsipaBOOK REVIEWDon Kulick & Jens Rydström Loneliness and its opposite: Sex, disability, and the ethics of engagement (2015)Paul Chappell

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