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Animals and Medicine: The Contribution of Animal Experiments to the Control of Disease

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ISBN: 9781783741182 9781783741199 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0055 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-06-10 13:31:46
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Animals and Medicine: The Contribution of Animal Experiments to the Control of Disease offers a detailed, scholarly historical review of the critical role animal experiments have played in advancing medical knowledge. Laboratory animals have been essential to this progress, and the knowledge gained has saved countless lives—both human and animal. Unfortunately, those opposed to using animals in research have often employed doctored evidence to suggest that the practice has impeded medical progress. This volume presents the articles Jack Botting wrote for the Research Defence Society News from 1991 to 1996, papers which provided scientists with the information needed to rebut such claims. Collected, they can now reach a wider readership interested in understanding the part of animal experiments in the history of medicine—from the discovery of key vaccines to the advancement of research on a range of diseases, among them hypertension, kidney failure and cancer.This book is essential reading for anyone curious about the role of animal experimentation in the history of science from the nineteenth century to the present.

The Treatment of Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) in New Era of Personalised Medicine

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195435 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-543-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality in Canada and USA. Majority of the patients present in advanced stage of the disease and of these only about 2% will be alive at 5 years. NSCLC is the most common form of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 87% of cases. Systemic chemotherapies have been used to treat metastatic NSCLC for decades, but the improvements of outcomes have reached a plateau. Recent advances in understanding signalling pathways for malignant cells, their interconections,the importance of various receptors and biomarkers and the interplay between various oncogenes have led to the development of targeted treatments that are improving both efficacy and safety of the treatments. Knowledge about the advantages of treatments with the targeted agents in metastatic NSCLC is growing rapidly. Combining various targeted agents or sequencing them properly will be important in the era of personalised medicine and overcoming development of the resistence to various targeted agents will be challenging. The importance of a team work,from the diagnosis through various treatments, to supportive care, from the interventional radiologists, pneumologists or surgeons, who have to obtain a satisfactory tumor tissue specimen, to pathologists, radiation and medical oncologists, to supportive care specialists, will be described in our publications. We will cover completely present and future approaches to personalised medicine in this rapidly evolving field of metastatic NSCLC.

Pediatric Integrative Medicine: An Emerging Field of Pediatrics

ISBN: 9783038420620 9783038420637 Year: Pages: 172 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 07:30:21
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Pediatric integrative medicine is a specialty that blends conventional medicine with evidence-based complementary therapies. Research shows that use of integrative medicine is common in children, especially in those living with chronic illness. Knowledge in several important areas of pediatric integrative medicine has expanded exponentially over the last decade. Despite this progress, many pediatricians and practitioners who work with children remain unaware of developments in this field.The goal of this special issue is to: define pediatric integrative medicine in its modern context, provide a history of the field’s evolution, highlight areas where research for its use in children is most robust at this time, and identify areas where research is lacking or evolving. Models of the use of integrative medicine in clinical pediatrics will be examined. Bioethics, informed consent, and provider credentialing will be discussed.Some of the most exciting clinical applications of integrative medicine in pediatrics include the use of mind-body medicine therapies such as guided imagery, hypnosis, and biofeedback for the treatment of pain. Mitigation of toxic stress and its health manifestations in children are another area of great potential application of the mind-body therapies. Other areas include integrative approaches to chronic illness, such as cancer, asthma, arthritis, bowel disease, and other chronic conditions where conventional therapies are necessary, yet leave treatment gaps that can be filled with evidence-based integrative therapies targeting lifestyle elements such as nutrition, sleep, physical activity, and social support that are often overlooked in this patient population. Integrative approaches have great potential in preventative heath. Conditions such as obesity and the metabolic syndrome affect a sobering number of children across all age ranges. Few successful treatment models exist for this patient population. Healthy lifestyle measures learned early in life can be a critical factor in providing a foundation for lifelong health for the child and family. Successful models for the use of integrative medicine in these patient populations are needed and will be explored.

Genetics and epigenetics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195732 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-573-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Women drinking during pregnancy can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), which may feature variable neurodevelopmental deficits, facial dysmorphology, growth retardation, and learning disabilities. Research suggests the human brain is precisely formed through an intrinsic, genetic-cellular expression that is carefully orchestrated by an epigenetic program. This program can be influenced by environmental inputs such as alcohol. Current research suggests the genetic and epigenetic elements of FASD are heavily intertwined and highly dependent on one another. As such, now is the time for investigators to combine genetic, genomic and epigenetic components of alcohol research into a centralized, accessible platform for discussion. Genetic analyses inform gene sets which may be vulnerable to alcohol exposure during early neurulation. Prenatal alcohol exposure indeed alters expression of gene subsets, including genes involved in neural specification, hematopoiesis, methylation, chromatin remodeling, histone variants, eye and heart development. Recently, quantitative genomic mapping has revealed loci (QTLs) that mediate alcohol-induced phenotypes identified between two alcohol-drinking mouse strains. One question to consider is (besides the role of dose and stage of alcohol exposure) why only 5% of drinking women deliver newborns diagnosed with FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)? Studies are ongoing to answer this question by characterizing genome-wide expression, allele-specific expression (ASE), gene polymorphisms (SNPs) and maternal genetic factors that influence alcohol vulnerability. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy, which can lead to FASD, has been used as a model to resolve the epigenetic pathway between environment and phenotype. Epigenetic mechanisms modify genetic outputs through alteration of 3D chromatin structure and accessibility of transcriptional machinery. Several laboratories have reported altered epigenetics, including DNA methylation and histone modification, in multiple models of FASD. During development DNA methylation is dynamic yet orchestrated in a precise spatiotemporal manner during neurulation and coincidental with neural differentiation. Alcohol can directly influence epigenetics through alterations of the methionine pathway and subsequent DNA or histone methylation/acetylation. Alcohol also alters noncoding RNA including miRNA and transposable elements (TEs). Evidence suggests that miRNA expression may mediate ethanol teratology, and TEs may be affected by alcohol through the alteration of DNA methylation at its regulatory region. In this manner, the epigenetic and genetic components of FASD are revealing themselves to be mechanistically intertwined. Can alcohol-induced epigenomic alterations be passed across generations? Early epidemiological studies have revealed infants with FASD-like features in the absence of maternal alcohol, where the fathers were alcoholics. Novel mechanisms for alcohol-induced phenotypes include altered sperm DNA methylation, hypomethylated paternal allele and heritable epimutations. These studies predict the heritability of alcohol-induced epigenetic abnormalities and gene functionality across generations. We opened a forum to researchers and investigators the field of FASD to discuss their insights, hypotheses, fresh data, past research, and future research themes embedded in this rising field of the genetics and epigenetics of FASD. This eBook is a product of the collective sharing and debate among researchers who have contributed or reviewed each subject.

Adult neurogenesis twenty years later: physiological function versus brain repair

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194940 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-494-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The discovery that mammalian brains contain neural stem cells which perform adult neurogenesis - the production and integration of new neurons into mature neural circuits - has provided a fully new vision of neural plasticity. On a theoretical basis, this achievement opened new perspectives for therapeutic approaches in restorative and regenerative neurology. Nevertheless, in spite of striking advancement concerning the molecular and cellular mechanisms which allow and regulate the neurogenic process, its exploitation in mammals for brain repair strategies remains unsolved. In non-mammalian vertebrates, adult neurogenesis also contributes to brain repair/regeneration. In mammals, neural stem cells do respond to pathological conditions in the so called "reactive neurogenesis", yet without substantial regenerative outcome. Why, even in the presence of stem cells in the brain, we lack an effective reparative outcome in terms of regenerative neurology, and which factors hamper the attainment of this goal? Essentially, what remains unanswered is the question whether (and how) physiological functions of adult neurogenesis in mammals can be exploited for brain repair purposes.

Oxytocin's routes in social behavior: Into the 21st century

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196968 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-696-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Our brain is endowed with an incredible capacity to be social, to trust, to cooperate, to be altruistic, to feel empathy and love. Nevertheless, the biological underpinnings of such behaviors remain partially hardwired. Seminal research in rodents has provided important insights on the identification of specific genes in modulating social behaviors, in particular, the arginine vasopressin receptor and the oxytocin receptor genes. These genes are involved in regulating a wide range of social behaviors, mother-infant interactions, social recognition, aggression and socio-sexual behavior. Remarkably, we now know that these genes contribute to social behavior in a broad range of species from voles to humans. Indeed, advances in human non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and genetics have enabled scientists to begin to elucidate the neurobiological basis of the complexity of human social behaviors using "pharmacological fMRI" and "imaging genetics". Over the past few years, there has been a strong interest focused on the role of oxytocin in modulating human social behaviors with translational relevance for understanding neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia and depression, in which deficits in social perception and social recognition are key phenotypes. The convergence of this interdisciplinary research is beginning to reveal the complex nature of oxytocin’s actions. For instance, the way that oxytocin does influence social functioning is highly related to individual differences in social experiences, but also to the inter-individual variability in the receptor distribution of this molecule in the brain. Remarkably, despite the increasing evidence that oxytocin has a key role in regulating human social behavior, we still lack of knowledge on the core mechanisms of action of this molecule. Understanding its fundamental actions is a crucial need in order to target optimal therapeutic strategies for human social disorders. The originality of this Research Topic stands on its translational focus on bridging the gap between fundamental knowledge acquired from oxytocin research in voles and monkeys and recent clinical investigations in humans. For instance, what are the key animal findings that can import further knowledge on the mechanisms of actions of this molecule in humans? What are the key experiences that can be performed in the animal model in order to answer significant science gaps in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders? Hence, within this Research Topic, we will review the current state of the field, identify where the gaps in knowledge are, and propose directions for future research. This issue will begin with a comparative review that examines the role of this peptide in diverse animal models, which highlights the adaptive value of oxytocin’s function across multiple species. Then, a series of reviews will examine the role of oxytocin in voles, primates, and humans with an eye toward revealing commonalities in the underlying brain circuits mediating oxytocin’s effects on social behavior. Next, there will be a translational review highlighting the evidence for oxytocin’s role in clinical applications in psychopathology. Hence, via the continuum of basic to translational research areas, we will try to address the important gaps in our understanding of the neurobiological routes of social cognition and the mechanisms of action of the neuropeptides that guide our behaviors and decisions.

Mechanics of Biomaterials

ISBN: 9783038421283 9783038421276 Year: Pages: 286 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-10 11:55:10
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The mechanical behavior of biomedical materials and biological tissues are important for their proper function. This holds true, not only for biomaterials and tissues whose main function is structural such as skeletal tissues and their synthetic substitutes, but also for other tissues and biomaterials. Moreover, there is an intimate relationship between mechanics and biology at different spatial and temporal scales. It is therefore important to study the mechanical behavior of both synthetic and livingbiomaterials. This Special Issue aims to serve as a forum for communicating the latest findings and trends in the study of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials.

Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry between Imaging and Endoradiotherapy

ISBN: 9783038420842 9783038420859 Year: Pages: 256 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 09:15:21
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Positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and the combined imaging modalities realised in the en-vogue hybrid technologies PET/CT and PET/MR represent the state-of-the-art diagnostic imaging technologies in nuclear medicine which are used for the highly sensitive non-invasive imaging of biological processes at the subcellular and molecular level in a respective patient for the visualisation of rather early disease states or for early inspection of treatment response after chemotherapy, radiation- or radioendotherapy.Radiolabelled molecules, bearing a “radioactive lantern”, function as so called Radiopharmaceuticals which have to be compliant with the pharmaceuticals act, and can be termed as “food” of nuclear medicine. In general, the specialised field Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry focusses on the development, synthesis and radiolabelling of aforementioned “food”, such as small molecules, biotechnology-derived antibodies or (cyclised) (oligo)peptides which are used to address clinically relevant biological “downstream” targets such as receptors, enzymes, transport systems and others. Addressing “upstream” targets such as DNA- and RNA-fragments using corresponding radioactive substrates represents a further feasible strategy.Originally, Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry descends from radiochemistry and radiopharmacy as well as nuclear chemistry and uses methods finally aiming at the production of radioactive substances for human application which are essential for non-invasive in vivo imaging by means of the aforementioned scintigraphic methods PET or SPECT.The cornerstone for applicable radiochemistry in nuclear medicine was set by the Hungarian chemist George Charles de Hevesy who received the Nobel Prize in 1943 for his work on the radioindicator principle. This principle is based on the idea that the absolute amount of the administered substance is below the dose needed to induce a pharmacodynamic effect. Nowadays, a radioactive substance that can be traced in vivo as it moves through the living organism is termed radiotracer or radiopharmaceutical. As mentioned above, the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals is measured non-invasively reflecting functional or molecular disorders without pharmacologically affecting the organism.In the era of personalised medicine the diagnostic potential of radiopharmaceuticals is directly linked to a subsequent individual therapeutic approach called radioendotherapy. Depending on the “radioactive lantern” (gamma or particle emitter) used for radiolabelling of the respective tracer molecule, the field Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry can contribute to the set-up of an in vivo “theranostic” approach especially in tumour patients by offering tailor-made (radio)chemical entities labelled either with a diagnostic or a therapeutic radionuclide.To succeed in the design of targeted high-affinity radiopharmaceuticals that can measure the alteration of receptors serving at the same time as biological targets for individualised radioendotherapy several aspects need to be considered: (i) reasonable pharmacological behaviour (especially pharmacokinetics adjusted to the physical half-life of the used radionuclide), (ii) ability to penetrate and cross biological membranes, (iii) usage of chemical as well as biological amplification strategies (e.g. pretargeting, biological trapping of converted ligands, change of the physicochemical behaviour of the radiopharmaceutical after target interaction, combination with biotransporters and heterodimer approaches), (iv) availability of radiopharmaceuticals with high specific activities and in vivo stability.

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Schizophrenia: A Consequence of Gene-Environment Interactions?

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195312 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-531-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Schizophrenia is a multi-factorial disease characterized by a high heritability and environmental risk factors (e.g. stress and cannabis use). In recent years, an increasing number of researchers worldwide have started investigating the ‘two-hit hypothesis’ of schizophrenia predicting that genetic and environmental risk factors interactively cause the development of the disorder. This work is starting to produce valuable new animal models and reveal novel insights into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Eventually, it might help advance studies of the molecular pathways involved in this mental disorder and propose more specific molecular medicine. However, the complexity of this multi-factorial line of research has also caused difficulties in data interpretation and comparison. Our research topic is intended to cover past and current directions in research dedicated to the understanding and measurement of gene-environment interactions (GxE) in schizophrenia, the neurobiological and behavioural consequences of such interactions as well as the challenges and limitations one encounters when working on complex aetiological systems.

Antimicrobial Peptides

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ISBN: 9783038420729 9783038420736 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-073-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 10:29:38
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Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are gene-encoded, ancient (and important) mediators of innate host defense that exert direct or indirect antimicrobial action as well as possessing other important biologic activities (e.g., neutralization of endotoxin and anti-biofilm action) that help to protect vertebrates, invertebrates and plants from invading pathogens. While the emergence of multi-antibiotic resistant pathogens (and the desperate need to develop new anti-infectives) has been a recent force driving the field, interest in AMPs has an earlier origin in studies of how phagocytes kill bacteria by oxygen-independent processes. AMPs responsible for such killing of microbes by rabbit and human neutrophils were later purified by Ganz, Selsted and Lehrer, which they termed defensins; at the time of this writing, literally thousands of defensin-based publications can be found in the scientific literature! The initial reports on defensins and the earlier report by Boman’s group on the purification and action of an insect AMP represented a historical and defining point for the AMP field as they, in hindsight, demanded the recognition of AMP research as a unique discipline that has important linkages to other important fields of medicine, especially those of microbiology, infectious diseases and immunology. On a personal note, I remember conferences on phagocytes and host defense in the early 1980s where the topic of AMPs was relegated to one short session in a five day period! Now, we have hundreds of international “AMPologists” with expertise in chemistry, biochemistry, molecular and structural biology, cell biology, microbiology, pharmacology, or medicine who have built their research careers around AMPs and can now attend international conferences dedicated to advances in AMP research.

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