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Deep Carbon in Earth: Early Career Scientist Contributions to the Deep Carbon Observatory

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453634 Year: Pages: 221 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-363-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography --- Chemistry (General) --- Microbiology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Since its inception, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) has coalesced a multidisciplinary and international group of researchers focused on understanding and quantifying Earth’s deep carbon budget. Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe, and understanding carbon chemistry under a variety of environmental conditions impacts all aspects of planetary sciences, including planet formation, the form and function of planetary interiors, and the origin and diversity of life. DCO recognizes that is integrating and promoting the contributions of early career scientists are integral to the advancement of knowledge regarding the quantities, movements, origins, and forms of Earth’s deep carbon through field, experimental, analytical, and computational research. Early career scientists represent the future of deep carbon science and contribute substantially to ongoing research by implementing innovative ideas, challenging traditional working schemes, and bringing a globally interconnected perspective to the scientific community. This research topic highlights the contributions at the forefront of deep carbon research by DCO Early Career Scientist community. The manuscripts of this Frontiers e-volume bear evidence of the rapid advances in deep carbon science, and highlights the importance of approaching this field from a plethora of different angles integrating disciplines as diverse as mineralogy, geochemistry and microbiology. This integration is fundamental in understanding the movements and transformations of carbon across its deep cycle.

Chocolate and Health: Friend or Foe?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454112 Year: Pages: 77 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-411-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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In the ancient past, cocoa has been appreciated as a high-calorie food to boost energy in soldiers and for its undefined medicinal and mystical properties. During other times, chocolate has been considered as the forbidden “food of God”: a treasure of pleasure for the mind and the soul. The overall perception of the consumer for chocolate was of a “charming” and appealing food with lots of negative aspects related to high sugar content leading to consider chocolate as “junk food” for its “obesigen” calories. Recently, in association with the renewed interest of nutrition science in alternative source of health-promoting foods and ingredients, a large body of research has been conducted to unravel the pro and cons of cocoa in relation to human health. Epidemiological evidences indicate that cocoa consumption helps preventing cardiovascular disease for its high content in bioactive flavonoids. Clinical trials show that chocolate consumption might improve vascular function, decreasing platelet aggregation and display an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. The putative protective action of cocoa seems to be multi-factorial and involving different aspects of vascular, antioxidant and endothelial function. However, the mechanism(s) that account for the benefits of cocoa it is still unclear.The aim of this Research Topic is therefore to provide the reader with an objective picture of the state of art on the association between cocoa and health, mainly through the evidences of human trials; overwhelmingly considered the golden standard for nutritional science. The Research Topic will cover the analysis of the manufacturing processes of the chocolate and the antioxidant effects in humans as well as the majority of the putative health effects of chocolate and cocoa, such as anti-inflammatory properties, effect on immunity, platelet aggregation, blood pressure, endothelial function and cognitive behavior. Unraveling the functional properties of cocoa will help to understand if the 'food of God' is a primordial gift for the health of mankind.

Less and Non-invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring Techniques

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456857 Year: Pages: 66 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-685-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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In the perioperative setting and in intensive care medicine, early and effective hemodynamic management including fluid therapy and administration of vasoactive drugs to maintain vital organ perfusion and oxygen delivery is mandatory. Understanding the different approaches in the management of critically ill patients during the resuscitation and further management is essential to initiate adequate context- and time-specific interventions. Optimization of hemodynamic variables to achieve a balance between organ oxygen delivery and consumption is a cornerstone. In general, cardiac output (i.e., the blood flow) is considered a major determinant of oxygen supply and thus its monitoring is regarded helpful. However, indicators of oxygen requirements are equally necessary to assess adequacy of oxygen supply. Currently, more and more less or even totally non-invasive monitoring systems have been developed and clinically introduced, but they require validation in particular clinical settings. Cardiac output monitors and surrogates of organ oxygenation only enable to adequately guide management, as patient’s outcome is determined by acquisition and interpretation of accurate measurements, and finally, suitable management decisions.This Research Topic focuses on the currently available techniques, especially the less and non-invasive ones, in the field of hemodynamic monitoring in the perioperative setting and in critically ill patients while summarizing their advantages and limitations.

Wound Care

ISBN: 9783038420446 9783038420453 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 192 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:51:13
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Wounds and the many associated problems have challenged health care providers for centuries and today, despite the wealth of knowledge available, neither the incidence nor prevalence of wounds is reducing. Furthermore, in view of our changing demographic profile and the projected increase in the older population it is likely that wound management will become an ever increasing burden to the individual, health care services and society as a whole. The annual incidence of wounds in the EU-27 is approximately 4 million, and between 25% and 50% of acute hospital beds are occupied by patients with a wound, with up to 60% of these representing non-healing wounds (infected surgical wounds, pressure ulcers, leg/foot ulcers) The increasing prevalence and incidence of non-wounds healing is closely linked with quality of care and, as such, these rising figures reduce society’s confidence in the health service’s ability to deliver care that is timely, appropriate and effective. Thus, for those involved in this specialist area of clinical practice, the fundamental goal is to improve clinical outcomes, reduce the burden of wounds and improve health related quality of life.In this Special Issue “Wound Care” in Healthcare, we invited submission of manuscripts exploring contemporary issues in wound care. By devoting a special issue to wound care, we endeavoured to provide readers with a comprehensive reference source, outlining key areas of interest in this important aspect of clinical practice. The response to the call for manuscripts was fantastic and, as a result, we were able to include both original qualitative and quantitative research papers in addition to review papers, thereby providing readers with a wealth of valuable information pertinent to wound care.

Compartment Syndrome

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ISBN: 9783030223311 9783030223304 Year: Pages: 181 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-22331-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-01 11:36:08
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Compartment syndrome is a complex physiologic process with significant potential harm, and though an important clinical problem, the basic science and research surrounding this entity remains poorly understood. This unique open access book fills the gap in the knowledge of compartment syndrome, re-evaluating the current state of the art on this condition. The current clinical diagnostic criteria are presented, as well as the multiple dilemmas facing the surgeon. Pathophysiology, ischemic thresholds and pressure management techniques and limitations are discussed in detail. The main surgical management strategy, fasciotomy, is then described for both the upper and lower extremities, along with wound care. Compartment syndrome due to patient positioning, in children and polytrauma patients, and unusual presentations are likewise covered. Novel diagnosis and prevention strategies, as well as common misconceptions and legal ramifications stemming from compartment syndrome, round out the presentation.Unique and timely, Compartment Syndrome: A Guide to Diagnosis and Management will be indispensable for orthopedic and trauma surgeons confronted with this common yet challenging medical condition.

Extracellular Nucleotides in the Regulation of Kidney Functions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195046 Year: Pages: 77 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-504-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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ATP is normally regarded as the major source of fuel for the energy-demanding processes within cells; however, ATP and other nucleotides (such as ADP, UTP, UDP) can be released from cells, where they act as autocrine or paracrine signaling molecules to affect cellular and tissue functions. In response to various stimuli, ATP and other nucleotides are released from cells in a regulated fashion, either by exocytosis of nucleotide-containing vesicles, or through channels in the plasma membrane. This process occurs in virtually every organ or cell in the body. The cellular effects of these extracellular nucleotides are mediated through specific membrane receptors (P2X and P2Y). These nucleotide signals can be terminated by rapid degradation of the ligand molecules by ecto-nucleotidases (e.g., NTPDases and NPPs). Many of the molecular components essential to nucleotide signaling have been cloned and characterized in detail, and their crystal structures are beginning to emerge. The collected data on extracellular nucleotides suggest a vivid and dynamic signaling system that is modulated by the expression and sensitivity of specific receptors on cells, and by the regulated release and extracellular degradation of ATP and other nucleotides; thus creating a microenvironment of highly regulated paracrine or autocrine control mechanisms. Within the kidney, extracellular nucleotides have emerged as potent modulators of glomerular, tubular, and microvascular functions. These functions include, but are not limited to, tubular transport of water and sodium, tubuloglomerular feedback and auto-regulation, regulation of blood pressure and the microcirculation, oxidative stress, and cell proliferation/ necrosis/apoptosis. Moreover, studies have also uncovered the interaction of nucleotide signaling with other mediators of renal function, such as vasopressin, aldosterone, nitric oxide, prostaglandins, angiotensin II, and the ATP-break down product adenosine. These insights have provided a more comprehensive and cohesive picture of the role of extracellular nucleotides in the regulation of renal function in health and disease. The availability of transgenic mouse models of the key proteins involved in nucleotide signaling has markedly enhanced our understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological roles of the different components of the system in the kidney. Although at a preliminary stage, the pathophysiological significance of this system in the kidney holds the key for the development of an entirely new class of drugs for the treatment of disease conditions, including disorders of water and/or sodium homeostasis, hypertension, acute kidney injury, etc. Thus, the regulation of renal function by extracellular nucleotides is clearly emerging as a distinct field and discipline in renal physiology and pathophysiology that has the potential to develop new drug treatments. In this e-book, we bring together a spectrum of excellent papers by leading experts in the field which present and discuss the latest developments and state-of-the-art technologies.Last but not least, we thank all the authors for contributing their valuable work and the Frontiers in Physiology Editorial Office for bringing out this e-book.

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