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Metabolomics in the Analysis of Inflammatory Diseases (Book chapter)

Book title: Metabolomics

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9789535100461 Year: DOI: 10.5772/31814 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen Grant: Wellcome Trust - 089384
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:47:01
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Most infections and traumatic injuries are cleared or repaired relatively rapidly and metabolic homoeostasis is soon restored. However, there is a broad range of inflammatory&#xD;diseases which involve chronic activation of the immune system and, as a result, chronic&#xD;persistent inflammation. We have been studying the metabolic consequences of chronic&#xD;inflammatory diseases with the aim of identifying metabolic fingerprints which may&#xD;provide clues about why the localised tissue disease persists.

Central Immune Senescence, Reversal Potentials (Book chapter)

Book title: Senescence

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535101444 Year: Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen Grant: Wellcome Trust - 079415
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:47:01
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Ageing is a complex process that affects all living organisms. Senescence is not only conceivable in multicellular organisms, but also in unicellulars. Unlike certain diseases that&#xD;have specific morbidity rates, ageing is a physiological process that affects all individuals&#xD;that live long enough (unaffected by i.e. predation or famine) to experience senescence.

Statistical Population Genomics

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Book Series: Methods in Molecular Biology ISBN: 9781071601990 Year: Pages: 468 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-0716-0199-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-29 11:21:12
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This open access volume presents state-of-the-art inference methods in population genomics, focusing on data analysis based on rigorous statistical techniques. After introducing general concepts related to the biology of genomes and their evolution, the book covers state-of-the-art methods for the analysis of genomes in populations, including demography inference, population structure analysis and detection of selection, using both model-based inference and simulation procedures. Last but not least, it offers an overview of the current knowledge acquired by applying such methods to a large variety of eukaryotic organisms. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, pointers to the relevant literature, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Statistical Population Genomics aims to promote and ensure successful applications of population genomic methods to an increasing number of model systems and biological questions.

Papers of the Conference on Genetics of Aging and Longevity 2012

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193530 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-353-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The 2nd International Conference "Genetics of aging and longevity" took place 22-25 April, 2012 in the main building of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. Top gerontologists and geneticists from 25 countries around the world discussed the current problems in many areas related to the genetics of longevity and mechanisms of aging. This Research Topic is aimed to provide a collection of articles based on the talks, reports and experimental outcomes related to the topics of the conference: "Epigenetic Changes Associated with Longevity", "Hormones and Aging", "Proximal and Cellular Mechanisms of Aging", "Nutrient Signaling, Stress Resistance and Longevity", "Identifying Longevity Genes by Mutational, QTL and Association Mapping", "Fundamental Biological Processes Central to Aging", "Interventions to Extend Lifespan and Promote Healthy Aging", "Longevity: Meta-Analysis and Informatics Approaches". Participants of the Conference submitted 20 papers belonging to Original Research Papers, Review Articles (Including Mini Reviews), Opinion and Perspective Papers. All of the submitted manuscripts were peer-reviewed by excellent Frontiers Review Editors and prepared for publication by highly efficient Frontiers team, and it is a pleasure to thank them all for their work and dedication.

Diversity and Evolution of Butterfly Wing Patterns: An Integrative Approach

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789811049552 9789811049569 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4956-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 11:57:27
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This book facilitates an integrative understanding of the development, genetics and evolution of butterfly wing patterns. To develop a deep and realistic understanding of the diversity and evolution of butterfly wing patterns, it is essential and necessary to approach the problem from various kinds of key research fields such as “evo-devo,” “eco-devo,” ”developmental genetics,” “ecology and adaptation,” “food plants,” and “theoretical modeling.”The past decade-and-a-half has seen a veritable revolution in our understanding of the development, genetics and evolution of butterfly wing patterns. In addition, studies of how environmental and climatic factors affect the expression of color patterns has led to increasingly deeper understanding of the pervasiveness and underlying mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. In recognition of the great progress in research on the biology, an international meeting titled “Integrative Approach to Understanding the Diversity of ButterflyWing Patterns (IABP-2016)” was held at Chubu University, Japan in August 2016. This book consists of selected contributions from the meeting. Authors include main active researchers of new findings of corresponding genes as well as world leaders in both experimental and theoretical approaches to wing color patterns.The book provides excellent case studies for graduate and undergraduate classes in evolution, genetics/genomics, developmental biology, ecology, biochemistry, and also theoretical biology, opening the door to a new era in the integrative approach to the analysis of biological problems.

Keywords

nymphalid --- ecology --- evolution --- genetics --- mimicry

Evolutionary Genomics

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Book Series: Methods in Molecular Biology ISBN: 9781493990740 Year: Pages: 780 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9074-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-29 11:21:11
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This open access book addresses the challenge of analyzing and understanding the evolutionary dynamics of complex biological systems at the genomic level, and elaborates on some promising strategies that would bring us closer to uncovering of the vital relationships between genotype and phenotype. After a few educational primers, the book continues with sections on sequence homology and alignment, phylogenetic methods to study genome evolution, methodologies for evaluating selective pressures on genomic sequences as well as genomic evolution in light of protein domain architecture and transposable elements, population genomics and other omics, and discussions of current bottlenecks in handling and analyzing genomic data. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include the kind of detail and expert implementation advice that lead to the best results. Authoritative and comprehensive, Evolutionary Genomics: Statistical and Computational Methods, Second Edition aims to serve both novices in biology with strong statistics and computational skills, and molecular biologists with a good grasp of standard mathematical concepts, in moving this important field of study forward.

Linear Selection Indices in Modern Plant Breeding

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783319912233 Year: Pages: 256 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-91223-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Zoology --- Botany --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:15
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This open access book focuses on the linear selection index (LSI) theory and its statistical properties. It addresses the single-stage LSI theory by assuming that economic weights are fixed and known - or fixed, but unknown - to predict the net genetic merit in the phenotypic, marker and genomic context. Further, it shows how to combine the LSI theory with the independent culling method to develop the multistage selection index theory. The final two chapters present simulation results and SAS and R codes, respectively, to estimate the parameters and make selections using some of the LSIs described. It is essential reading for plant quantitative geneticists, but is also a valuable resource for animal breeders.

New treatment perspectives in autism spectrum disorders

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195305 Year: Pages: 161 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-530-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Pediatrics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Developing novel and more effective treatments that improve quality of life for individuals with autism spectrum disorders is urgently needed. To date a wide range of behavioral interventions have been shown to be safe and effective for improving language and cognition and adaptive behavior in children and adolescents with ASD. However many people with ASD can receive additional benefit from targeted pharmacological interventions. One of the major drawback in setting up therapeutics intervention is the remarkable individual differences found across individuals with ASD. As a matter of fact the medications that are currently available address only symptoms associated with ASD and not the core domains of social and communication dysfunction. The pathogenesis paradigm shift of ASD towards synaptic abnormalities moved the research to pathway to disease that involve multiple systems and that are becoming the forefront of ASD treatment and are pointing toward the development of new targeted treatments. Some new therapeutics have been tested and others are being studied. In this context single gene disorders frequently associated with ASD such as Rett Syndrome, Fragile X and Tuberous Sclerosis have been of significant aid as neurobiology of these disorders is more clear and has a potential to shed light on the altered signaling in ASD. However much research is needed to further understand the basic mechanisms of disease and the relationship to idiopathic ASD. Clinical trials in children are underway with agents directed to core symptoms and to the associated disorders in the search of new therapeutics and progress are expected with possible new option for therapeutics in ASD in the upcoming future. Children and Adolescents with ASD and their families can provide important information about their experience with new treatments and this should be a priority for future research. In addition, research performed on genetic mouse models of ASD will keep on providing useful information on the molecular pathways disrupted in the disease, thus contributing to identify novel drug targets.

Refining Prevention: Genetic and Epigenetic Contributions

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198085 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-808-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Currently, most prevention efforts are framed as universal interventions. However, despite the demonstrated efficacy of many prevention programs, variability in response is the rule with some participants responding very little and others accounting for the bulk of the positive impact of the program. Better understanding the processes associated with better and worse response to prevention is a critical first step in refining and adapting existing programs, or alternatively designing new prevention programs with enhanced outcomes. Because vulnerabilities to substance use, emotional problems, risky sexual behavior and other behavioral problems are influenced by a combination of environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors, mediated in part through psychological processes (Kreek et al., 2005; Rutter et al., 2006), the study of genetic and epigenetic vulnerability and susceptibility factors provides an important starting point for efforts to address this critical need. A growing body of research on differential genetic susceptibility indicates that efforts to enhance prevention impact may benefit from consideration of the contribution of individualgenetic differences to treatment response (Brody et al., 2013). In addition, the recent expansion of genetic research to include a focus on epigenetic change provides considerable promise for the development of indicated prevention and individually tailored prevention efforts. However, before this promise can be realized, a number of theoretical and practical challenges remain. Thus, through this special section, we provide a foundation for a new era of prevention research in which the principles of prevention science are combined with genomic science. In the current special section we bring together authors to deal with genetic and epigenetically driven processes relevant to depression, substance abuse, and sexual risk taking. Together they comment on, and provide data relevant to, assessment, research and statistical methods, The papers help to inform the development of a new generation of prevention programs that go beyond universal programs and sensitively target key processes while providing greater precision regarding prediction of population-level impact.

Why vaccines to HIV, HCV and Malaria have so far failed - Challenges to developing vaccines against immunoregulating pathogens

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199662 Year: Pages: 157 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-966-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Despite continuous progress in the development of anti-viral and anti-bacterial/parasite drugs, the high cost of medicines and the potential for re-infection, especially in high risk groups, suggest that protective vaccines to some of the most dangerous persistent infections are still highly desirable. There are no vaccines available for HIV, HCV and Malaria, and all attempts to make a broadly effective vaccine have failed so far. In this Research Topic we look into why vaccines have failed over the years, and what we have learn from these attempts. Rather than only showing positive results, this issue aims to reflect on failed efforts in vaccine development. Coming to understand our limitations will have theoretical and practical implications for the future development of vaccines to these major global disease burdens.

Keywords

Vaccine --- Infectious Disease --- HIV --- HCV --- Malaria --- influenza --- immunology --- Genetics

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