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Rio, Tokyo Paralympic Games and beyond: How to Prepare Athletes with Motor Disabilities for Peaking

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451715 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-171-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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In 1960, the 9th Annual International Stoke Mandeville Games were supported, for the first time, by the Italian Olympic Committee. Taking place six days after the Closing Ceremony of the XVII Olympic Games, the paralympic games for disabled athletes were born. From Roma in 1960 to London in 2012, the Paralympic Games grew in terms of athletes’ number from 400 to 4,237, and now brings together more than 164 nations (Perret, 2015). The word “Paralympic” derives from the Greek preposition “para” (beside or alongside) and the word “Olympic”. Paralympics want to be the parallel Games to the Olympics and illustrate how the two movements exist side-by-side (Paralympics – History of the Movement, 2016). Now taking place after the Olympics Games, the Paralympic Games are the pinnacle of the career of athletes with physical impairments and have become the second largest sport event in the world (Perret, 2015; Paralympics – History of the Movement, 2016; Gold and Gold, 2011). The first statement of the vision of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), i.e. “to create the conditions for athlete empowerment through self-determination” (Paralympics – History of the Movement, 2016; International Paralympic Committee, 2016), shows the importance of the place of the athlete with an impairment at the heart of the Paralympic Movement. The ultimate aim of the IPC is « to enable Paralympic athletes to achieve sporting excellence and inspire and excite the world. » (International Paralympic Committee, 2016). The performance level of athletes with an impairment improved to a point that, in the present days, sport news and world sport movements focus on the potential advantage of artificial limbs among athletes with amputations and their integration in able-bodied competitions (Burkett, 2010). However, they do not represent the totality of athletes with an impairment at the Paralympic Games. Athletes with other physical impairments (visual deficit, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy or else) are eligible to compete. These impairments induce typical functional and physiological (e.g., cardiovascular, thermoregulatory) responses to exercise. For example, spinal cord injury (athletes with tetraplegia or paraplegia) causes thermoregulatory impairment (Goosey-Tolfrey et al., 2008) and individuals with cerebral palsy have also demonstrated higher thermal and metabolic strain than matched controls during treadmill walking in the heat (Maltais et al., 2004). Thus, hyperthermia among these athletes with an impairment alters their performance compared to their Olympic counterparts (Bhambhani, 2002). Mechanical performance analysis, the description of physiological responses according to the functional impairment or else the response to training and the relationship between laboratory and field testing responses are different parts of a package introduced here to address the aim of the IPC: to enable Paralympic athletes to achieve sporting excellence (Paralympics – History of the Movement, 2016; International Paralympic Committee, 2016).

Keywords

Paralympics --- performance --- Disability --- Athletes --- heat

Health and Children with Disabilities

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453573 Year: Pages: 88 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-357-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Articles within this e-book are focused on the health of children with disabilities. Various frameworks have been used to articulate the dynamic interaction of the individual, environment and the task as it relates to child health. A majority of the contributing authors in this special topic are researchers within the field of adapted physical activity. This field embraces a broad perspective of inclusiveness and attitudes of acceptance.

Aging and Mental Health

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451883 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-188-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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People are progressively ageing all over the world, and it is estimated that the number of persons aged 60 or over will more than triple by 2100. This emerging population will experience an inevitable rise in dementia, mental health problems and chronic diseases. According to GBD (2010), neuropsychiatric disorders among older adults account for 6.6% of the total disability (DALYs) for this age group, with 15% suffering from a mental disorder. Multiple social, psychological and biological factors are determinant of mental health, as well as life stressors. Among these, the lack of independence, limited mobility, chronic diseases, pain, frailty or other mental and physical problems require long-term care. Beyond this, the elderly are more prone to experience events such as bereavement, a drop in socio-economic status, disability, which leads to isolation, loss of independence, loneliness and psychological distress. Mental health problems and needs assessment by health-care professionals and older people themselves are under-recognised, and the stigma surrounding mental illness makes people reluctant to seek help. The early investigation and diagnosis of these situations are crucial, as well as prior management with an important combination of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions, in conjunction with caregivers' and families' support. The present book aims to contribute to the development of knowledge in Aging and Mental Health, taking different approaches from authors, coming from diverse scientific fields, with the final goal being the improvement of quality of life and healthy aging for this growing population.

Numerical Development - From cognitive functions to neural underpinnings

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194247 Year: Pages: 281 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-424-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Living at the beginning of the 21st century requires being numerate, because numerical abilities are not only essential for life prospects of individuals but also for economic interests of post-industrial knowledge societies. Thus, numerical development is at the core of both individual as well as societal interests. There is the notion that we are already born with a very basic ability to deal with small numerosities. Yet, this often called “number sense” seems to be very restricted, approximate, and driven by perceptual constraints. During our numerical development in formal (e.g., school) but also informal contexts (e.g., family, street) we acquire culturally developed abstract symbol systems to represent exact numerosities – in particular number words and Arabic digits – refining our numerical capabilities. In recent years, numerical development has gained increasing research interest documented in a growing number of behavioural, neuro-scientific, educational, cross-cultural, and neuropsychological studies addressing this issue. Additionally, our understanding of how numerical competencies develop has also benefitted considerably from the advent of different neuro-imaging techniques allowing for an evaluation of developmental changes in the human brain. In sum, we are now starting to put together a more and more coherent picture of how numerical competencies develop and how this development is associated with neural changes as well. In the end, this knowledge might also lead to a better understanding of the reasons for atypical numerical development which often has grieve consequences for those who suffer from developmental dyscalculia or mathematics learning disabilities. Therefore, this Research Topic deals with all aspects of numerical development: findings from behavioural performance to underlying neural substrates, from cross-sectional to longitudinal evaluations, from healthy to clinical populations. To this end, we included empirical contributions using different experimental methodologies, but also theoretical contributions, review articles, or opinion papers.

Experimental models of early exposure to alcohol: a way to unravel the neurobiology of mental retardation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194728 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-472-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Pediatrics --- Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:33
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Excessive alcohol drinking represents a major social and public health problem for several countries. Alcohol abuse during pregnancy leads to a complex syndrome referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), chiefly characterized by mental retardation. The effects of early exposure to ethanol can be reproduced in laboratory animals and this helped to answer several key questions concerning the human pathology. The interest of experimental models of FASD is twofold. First, they increase our knowledge about the dose and modality of alcohol consumption able to induce damaging effects on the developing brain. Second, experimental models of FASD can provide useful hints to elucidate the basic mechanisms leading to the intellectual disability. In fact, experimental exposure to alcohol can be carried out during discrete, often very restricted, time windows. As a consequence, FASD models, though depending on the multifaceted interference of alcohol with several molecular pathways, can provide valuable information about which specific developmental periods and brain areas are critically involved in the genesis of mental retardation. Putting together data obtained through several experimental paradigms of alcohol exposure and those deriving from other genetic and non-genetic models, one can figure out to what extent different types of mental retardation share common pathogenetic mechanisms. The present Research Topic is aimed at establishing the state of the art of the current research on experimental FASD, focusing on differences and homologies with other types of intellectual disability. The ultimate goal is to find out a common roadmap in view of future therapeutical approaches.

The Role of Play in Child Assessment and Intervention

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452590 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-259-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Play is a ubiquitous and universal aspect of early childhood. Although it may take different forms throughout development and across cultures, decades of research have found play to be related to important, positive outcomes. Play provides children with valuable cognitive, emotional, and interpersonal learning opportunities. It can act as a mode of communication for young children and allows them to practice ways of managing complex interpersonal interactions. Specific aspects of play, such as children’s creativity in pretend play, have been associated with resilience and coping. The significance of play in childhood has led to its frequent use in the assessment of child development and in the implementation of child and parent-child psychological and educational interventions. Historically, however, the validity and efficacy of these interventions have not been rigorously evaluated. Further, few assessment and intervention models have included parents, teachers, and other key caregivers, but have focused only on the child. This Research Topic will bring together the most current literature on the use of play in child assessment and intervention.

Active Aging and Disease Management

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456819 Year: Pages: 121 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-681-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Population aging and the associated burden of chronic diseases are one of the main challenges in public health worldwide.This Research Topic on "Active Aging and Disease Management" provides a comprehensive overview of population aging through fourteen comprehensive papers. Chapter 1 discusses an overview of health systems in active and healthy aging, while Chapter 2 focuses on the role of lifestyles, exercise and new technologies. Chapter 3 debates psychological and cognitive issues in aging and finally in Chapter 4, an older people self assessment is proposed and the role of communities and supporters are highlighted. We think that real social and health care integration at community level could be the key point to deliver effective health promotion and preventive intervention. Enjoy the reading!

Molecular, Cellular and Model Organism Approaches for Understanding the Basis of Neurological Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451739 Year: Pages: 183 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-173-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has resulted in a remarkable increase our understanding of human and animal neurological disorders through the identification of disease causing or protective sequence variants. However, in many cases, robust disease models are required to understand how changes at the DNA, RNA or protein level affect neuronal and synaptic function, or key signalling pathways. In turn, these models may enable understanding of key disease processes and the identification of new targets for the medicines of the future. This e-book contains original research papers and reviews that highlight either the impact of next-generation sequencing in the understanding of neurological disorders, or utilise molecular, cellular, and whole-organism models to validate disease-causing or protective sequence variants.

Education for Children with disabilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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ISBN: 9783319607672 Year: Pages: 213 Seiten Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 468
Added to DOAB on : 2017-09-09 11:01:45
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The book discusses the influence of environmental factors, especially relationships and attitudes, on the education for children with disabilities in Addis Ababa/ Ethiopia. By including the voices of children, parents and teachers, a special focus has been put on family and issues of educational equity. Additionally, the significance of looking at cultural and societal backgrounds when analysing the efforts of implementing inclusive education is emphasised.

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