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Energy metabolism and behavior in the corticotropin-releasing factor family of peptides

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195374 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-537-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General) --- Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Since Hans Selye's seminal work in the 1930s, there have been numerous advances with respect to our understanding of how the nervous and endocrine systems interact to help animals cope with stressors and how chronic stress may adversely impact health. Our modern understanding of stress essentially began in 1954 with the race to discover the hypothalamic releasing factor controlling ACTH secretion and mediating the endocrine response to stressors. Since the isolation of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in 1981, interest in CRF has focused not only on its hypophysiotropic function, but also its much broader role in coordinating many of the endocrine, behavioral and autonomic nervous system changes that occur during stress. The goal of this Research Topic is to solicit reviews and general research articles highlighting new research into stress and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the following areas: HPA axis interaction with energy regulating mechanisms during stress; and new studies on the role of CRF and urocortin and urocortins 2 and 3 in behavioral adaptation to stressors.

The Vestibular System in Cognitive and Memory Processes in Mammals

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197446 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-744-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Since the beginning of life, all plant and animal kingdoms have been developed or modified based on gravity along with atmospheric composition and solar radiation existing on Earth. Gravity is mainly encoded by the otolithic sensors of the vestibular system but its role has been largely underestimated in favor of the vestibular semicircular canals and reduced to oculomotor and postural coordination. Over the last decade, it has been demonstrated that sensory information provided by the vestibular system is crucial in spatial-memory processes in rats and humans. More recently a role in attention processes has been raised. This topic aims to report and demonstrate the role and integration of vestibular information in cognitive processes in rodent models and human at the behavioral, imaging and electrophysiological levels.

Plastid Proteostasis: Relevance of Transcription; Translation and Post-Translational Modifications

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453436 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-343-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Due to their bacterial endosymbiotic origin plastids are organelles with both nuclear-encoded and plastid-encoded proteins. Therefore, a highly integrated modulation of gene expression between the nucleus and the plastome is needed in plant cell development. Plastids have retained for the most part a prokaryotic gene expression machinery but, differently from prokaryotes and eukaryotes, they have largely abandoned transcriptional control and switched to predominantly translational control of their gene expression. Some transcriptional regulation is known to occur, but the coordinate expression between the nucleus and the plastome takes place mainly through translational regulation. However, the regulatory mechanisms of plastid gene expression (PGE) are mediated by intricate plastid-nuclear interactions and are still far from being fully understood. Although, for example, translational autoregulation mechanisms in algae have been described for subunits of heteromeric protein complexes and termed control by epistasy of synthesis (CES), only few autoregulatory proteins have been identified in plant plastids. It should be noted of course that PGE in C. reinhardtii is different from that in plants in many aspects. Another example of investigation in this research area is to understand the interactions that occur during RNA binding between nucleus-encoded RNA-binding proteins and the respective RNA sequences, and how this influences the translation initiation process. In addition to this, the plastid retains a whole series of mechanisms for the preservation of its protein balance (proteostasis), including specific proteases, as well as molecular chaperones and enzymes useful in protein folding. After synthesis, plastid proteins must rapidly fold into stable three dimensional structures and often undergo co- and posttranslational modifications to perform their biological mission, avoiding aberrant folding, aggregation and targeting with the help of molecular chaperones and proteases. We believe that this topic is highly interesting for many research areas because the regulation of PGE is not only of wide interest for plant biologists but has also biotechnological implications. Indeed, plastid transformation turns out to be a very promising tool for the production of recombinant proteins in plants, yet some limitations must still be overcome and we believe that this is mainly due to our limited knowledge of the mechanisms in plastids influencing the maintenance of proteostasis.

Work-Life Balance: Essential or Ephemeral?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452545 Year: Pages: 75 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-254-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Burn-out and suicide rates among physicians and scientists in academic medicine are at an all-time high and jeopardize the future of our entire profession. In the last 4 years alone, burn-out rates among physicians have increased by 25%. In a recent 2017 Medscape publication, burn-out rates in Critical Care physicians ranked in 9th place and Pediatricians ranked 13th among 27 subspecialties. Astonishingly, over 50% of the participants reported burn-out symptoms, with clear race and gender disparities. While men generally report higher burn-out rates than women, it is important to emphasize that response rates from women in these surveys were notoriously low and may not represent the complete picture. These numbers are even more dismal for tenured academic faculty at research-extensive universities. In this group, emotional exhaustion (i.e. high burn-out) is reported at 35% with a clear association with age and lower burn-out levels in the older tenured faculty. While no gender or racial/ethnic differences were found in this particular group, higher levels of burn-out were identified in individuals with financial responsibilities beyond a spouse and child. While it is comforting to note the increasing public interest and research activities in this field, successful approaches to ameliorate the burden and consequences of physician burn-out are still inadequately developed. Academic centers increasingly offer some type of work-life balance program to their employees but, unfortunately, these programs are frequently adopted from corporate business models and remain largely ineffective in the academic environment. It should be evident to most administrators that the stressors of academic clinicians and scientists substantially differ from those of corporate employees. Based on these observations and over 75 years of combined experience in academic medicine amongst the three editors of this Research Topic, we collected 26 manuscripts from 22 authors at different career stages and different genders, ethnicities, marital status and subspecialties to identify and stratify common and specific stressors and therapeutic approaches to ameliorate burn-out and achieve work-life balance in academic medicine. We are confident that each reader will identify with at least one, if not several, of the authors’ opinions, experiences and approaches to attain greater work-life balance and thereby avoid the consequences of burn-out in modern academic medicine.

Keywords

work-life balance --- stress --- Suicide --- academic --- physician --- Career --- Family --- lifestyle --- Health --- Well-being

Hormonal and Neuroendocrine Regulation of Energy Balance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198856 Year: Pages: 117 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-885-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Alteration in adequate energy balance maintenance results in serious disturbances such as obesity and its related metabolic disorders. In Mammals, energy balance is homeostatically controlled through hormonal and neuroendocrine systems which cooperation is based on cross-talk between central and peripheral signals. The hypothalamus as well as peripheral hormones among which adipokines from adipose tissue and thyroid hormones play a crucial role in energy homeostasis. Unraveling the physiological, cellular and molecular mechanisms through which hormonal and neuroendocrine systems regulate energy balance has been a long-standing challenge in biology and is now more necessary when considering the world-wide increasing prevalence of obesity. Indeed, recognizing and understanding the biochemical and nutrient signaling pathways contributing to the nervous and endocrine integration of physiological mechanisms involved in the normal and/or abnormal regulation of energy balance is fundamental also to the development of new, effective, and targeted treatments for obesity. Recent studies have highlighted the role of hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin-expressing neurons in the regulation of energy homeostasis by controlling energy expenditure and food intake. This is accomplished through a precise balance of production and degradation of a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, an anorexigenic neuropeptide which is degraded to an inactive form unable to inhibit food intake by the key enzyme prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP), thus suggesting that pharmacologic approaches targeting PRCP may provide a novel and effective option for the management of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders. Indeed, efforts have been made to generate potent, brain-penetrant PRCP inhibitors. Weight loss due to negative energy balance is a goal for obese subjects not always reachable by dietary caloric restriction or increased physical activity. Lipid-lowering therapies have been suggested to have potential benefits, however, the establishment of comprehensive therapeutic strategies is still awaited. Recently, it has been reported that thyroid hormone (TH)- derivatives such as 3,5-diiodothyronine and 3-iodothyronamine possess interesting biological activities, opening new perspectives in thyroid physiology and TH derivatives therapeutic usage. Moreover, several studies, focusing on the interaction between thyroid hormone (TH), the autonomic nervous system and the liver, revealed an important role for the hypothalamus in the differential effects of TH on autonomic outflow to peripheral organs controlling energy balance. This Research Topic aims to give a comprehensive and integrate view of the factors involved in the endocrine and neuroendocrine signaling in energy balance regulation to highlight their involvement into physiological processes and regulatory systems as well as their perturbation during pathological processes.

The two-way link between eating behavior and brain metabolism

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197057 Year: Pages: 197 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-705-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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This research topic collected and connected information concerning both the underlying metabolic mechanisms and consequences of eating behaviors. These two aspects are tremendously important for a better understanding of eating behavior abnormalities as well as for improving education on eating disorders and behaviors.

Aging, neurogenesis and neuroinflammation in hearing loss and protection

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196449 Year: Pages: 151 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-644-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Worldwide, 278 million people are estimated to have moderate to profound hearing loss. Age-related hearing loss, also known as presbyacusis, affects approximately half of the population over 60 years old, making it the second most common cause of disability in older people. Hearing loss occurs when the sensory cells and neurons of the cochlea degenerate and die. The vestibular system, which holds the sense of balance, shares a common embryonic origin with the cochlea and together conform the inner ear. Balance problems are a trait of ageing to the point that balance ability is considered a sensor of physical decline and vestibular degeneration is the most common cause of falls in the elderly. Still the molecular bases of ageing in the vestibular system have not been studied in detail. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the progression of age-related hearing loss (ARHL). Being noise the main environmental noxious agent for human hearing in the industrialized societies. There is no restorative treatment for deafness but functional replacement by means of prosthesis. Therefore, prevention and treatment of hearing loss is an unmet medical need. To develop innovative medical strategies against hearing loss, it is critical to understand the causes of ARHL and the essential pathways responsible for the manifestation of this complex disease. In this research topic, experts will discuss the stages and molecular elements of the damage and repair processes involved in ARHL, from cellular processes to molecules involved in aging. Oxidative stress takes a central stage as an essential element in the progression of injury and cell loss, and a target for cell protection strategies. Finally, the mechanisms of action and the potential of novel therapies for hair cell repair and protection will be discussed along with drug delivery strategies.

Evaluation of Building Resilience Under Earthquake Input Using Single, Double and Multiple Impulses

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452705 Year: Pages: 61 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-270-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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This eBook is the third in a series of books on the critical earthquake response of elastic or elastic-plastic structures under near-fault or long-duration ground motions, and includes four original research papers which were published in the specialty section Earthquake Engineering in ‘Frontiers in Built Environment’. Several extensions of the first eBook and the second eBook are included here. The first article is on the earthquake resilience of residential houses after repeated ground motions with high intensity. The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake brought a significant impact on the earthquake resilience of residential houses under repeated ground motions with high intensity in a few days. The necessary strength upgrade withstanding two repeated high-intensity ground motions was found to be 1.5. The second article is concerned with the smart enhancement of earthquake resilience of building structures under both near-fault and long-duration ground motions. A hybrid system of base-isolation and building connection control was proposed and its earthquake resilience to near-fault and long-duration ground motions was evaluated by a double impulse and a multiple impulse. It was demonstrated that the base-isolation is effective for near-fault ground motions and the building connection system using passive dampers is effective for long-duration ground motions. The third article is related to the robustness evaluation of elastic-plastic base-isolated high-rise buildings under resonant near-fault ground motions. The robustness function was introduced to evaluate quantitatively the robustness of elastic-plastic base-isolated high-rise buildings. The fourth article is an extension of the previously proposed energy balance approach to a bilinear elastic-plastic single-degree-of-freedom system under a long-duration sinusoidal ground motion. A historical difficulty in nonlinear vibration posed by Caughey (1960) and Iwan (1961) has been overcome in a smart manner after half a century. The approach presented in this eBook, together with the previous eBooks, is an epoch-making accomplishment to open the door for simpler and deeper understanding of structural reliability and resilience of built environments in the elastic-plastic and nonlinear range.

Melt Water Retention Processes in Snow and Firn on Ice Sheets and Glaciers: Observations and Modeling

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456192 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-619-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Melt takes place where the surface of glaciers or ice sheets interacts with the atmosphere. While the processes governing surface melt are fairly well understood, the pathways of the meltwater, from its origin to the moment it leaves a glacier system, remain enigmatic. It is not even guaranteed that meltwater leaves a glacier or ice sheet. On Greenland, for example, only slightly more than 50% of the meltwater runs off. The remainder mostly refreezes within the so-called firn cover of the ice sheet. This eBook contains 11 studies which tackle the challenge of understanding meltwater retention in snow and firn from various angles. The studies focus both on mountain glaciers and on the Greenland ice sheet and address challenges such as measuring firn properties, quantifying their influence on meltwater retention, modelling firn processes and meltwater refreezing as well as unravelling the mechanisms within the recently discovered Greenland firn aquifers.

Evidence in Civil Law - Latvia

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Book Series: Law & Society ISBN: 9789616842532 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.4335/978-961-6842-53-2 Language: English
Publisher: Institute for Local Self-Government and Public Procurement Maribor
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-09 21:56:58
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The national report of civil procedure in Latvia is based on review of the Latvian Civil Procedure Law, court practice, feedback by the Ministry of Justice on cooperation with the EU states as well as with third countries in various matters of jurisdiction as well as on legal science. Civil procedure includes all legal principles like disposition, right to be present and to be heard, competition of parties in gaining all necessary evidence and similar concepts to be found in almost every modern civil procedure system. However, there are certain specific features due to which Latvian process stands out. For instance, there is still a system of legal presumptions which apparently is inherited from Roman law, yet still prescribed by the Latvian Civil law (Civil code). Also certain degree of formal attitude remains as a characteristic feature of the Latvian civil procedure.

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