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Chapter Identifying, Classifying and Searching Graphic Symbols in the NOTAE System (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783030399054 Year: Pages: 12 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-39905-4_12 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 786572
Subject: Bibliography
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-25 23:58:56
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The use of graphic symbols in documentary records from the 5th to the 9th century has so far received scant attention. What we mean by graphic symbols are graphic signs (including alphabetical ones) drawn as a visual unit in a written text and representing something other or something more than a word of that text. The Project NOTAE represents the first attempt to investigate these graphic entities as a historical phenomenon from Late Antiquity to early medieval Europe in any written sources containing texts generated for pragmatic purposes (contracts, petitions, official and private letters, lists etc.). Identifying and classifying graphic symbols on such documents is a task that requires experience and knowledge of the field, but software applications may come in help by learning to recognize symbols from previously annotated documents and suggesting experts potential symbols and likely classification in newly acquired documents to be validated, thus easing the task. This contribution introduces the NOTAE system that, in addition to the aforementioned task, provides non expert users with tools to explore the documents annotated by experts.

MAPPING MAnagement and Processing of images for Population ImagiNG

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452606 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-260-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Several recent papers underline methodological points that limit the validity of published results in imaging studies in the life sciences and especially the neurosciences (Carp, 2012; Ingre, 2012; Button et al., 2013; Ioannidis, 2014). At least three main points are identified that lead to biased conclusions in research findings: endemic low statistical power and, selective outcome and selective analysis reporting. Because of this, and in view of the lack of replication studies, false discoveries or solutions persist. To overcome the poor reliability of research findings, several actions should be promoted including conducting large cohort studies, data sharing and data reanalysis. The construction of large-scale online databases should be facilitated, as they may contribute to the definition of a “collective mind” (Fox et al., 2014) facilitating open collaborative work or “crowd science” (Franzoni and Sauermann, 2014). Although technology alone cannot change scientists’ practices (Wicherts et al., 2011; Wallis et al., 2013, Poldrack and Gorgolewski 2014; Roche et al. 2014), technical solutions should be identified which support a more “open science” approach. Also, the analysis of the data plays an important role. For the analysis of large datasets, image processing pipelines should be constructed based on the best algorithms available and their performance should be objectively compared to diffuse the more relevant solutions. Also, provenance of processed data should be ensured (MacKenzie-Graham et al., 2008). In population imaging this would mean providing effective tools for data sharing and analysis without increasing the burden on researchers. This subject is the main objective of this research topic (RT), cross-listed between the specialty section “Computer Image Analysis” of Frontiers in ICT and Frontiers in Neuroinformatics. Firstly, it gathers works on innovative solutions for the management of large imaging datasets possibly distributed in various centers. The paper of Danso et al. describes their experience with the integration of neuroimaging data coming from several stroke imaging research projects. They detail how the initial NeuroGrid core metadata schema was gradually extended for capturing all information required for future metaanalysis while ensuring semantic interoperability for future integration with other biomedical ontologies. With a similar preoccupation of interoperability, Shanoir relies on the OntoNeuroLog ontology (Temal et al., 2008; Gibaud et al., 2011; Batrancourt et al., 2015), a semantic model that formally described entities and relations in medical imaging, neuropsychological and behavioral assessment domains. The mechanism of “Study Card” allows to seamlessly populate metadata aligned with the ontology, avoiding fastidious manual entrance and the automatic control of the conformity of imported data with a predefined study protocol. The ambitious objective with the BIOMIST platform is to provide an environment managing the entire cycle of neuroimaging data from acquisition to analysis ensuring full provenance information of any derived data. Interestingly, it is conceived based on the product lifecycle management approach used in industry for managing products (here neuroimaging data) from inception to manufacturing. Shanoir and BIOMIST share in part the same OntoNeuroLog ontology facilitating their interoperability. ArchiMed is a data management system locally integrated for 5 years in a clinical environment. Not restricted to Neuroimaging, ArchiMed deals with multi-modal and multi-organs imaging data with specific considerations for data long-term conservation and confidentiality in accordance with the French legislation. Shanoir and ArchiMed are integrated into FLI-IAM1, the national French IT infrastructure for in vivo imaging.

Keywords

Database --- Infrastructure --- Data --- Workflow --- Neuroimaging --- Image Analysis --- Brain --- MRI

Phenomics

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456079 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-607-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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"Phenomics" is an emerging area of research whose aspiration is the systematic measurement of the physical, physiological and biochemical traits (the phenome) belonging to a given individual or collection of individuals. Non-destructive or minimally invasive techniques allow repeated measurements across time to follow phenotypes as a function of developmental time. These longitudinal traits promise new insights into the ways in which crops respond to their environment including how they are managed.To maximize the benefit, these approaches should ideally be scalable so that large populations in multiple environments can be sampled repeatedly at reasonable cost. Thus, the development and validation of non-contact sensing technologies remains an area of intensive activity that ranges from Remote Sensing of crops within the landscape to high resolution at the subcellular level. Integration of this potentially highly dimensional data and linking it with variation at the genetic level is an ongoing challenge that promises to release the potential of both established and under-exploited crops.

Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Effective Radiotherapy Delivery

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198498 Year: Pages: 111 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-849-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is a new radiotherapy technology that combines the rapid dose fall off associated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and daily tumor imaging allowing for high precision tumor dose delivery and effective sparing of surrounding normal organs. The new radiation technology requires close collaboration between radiologists, nuclear medicine specialists, and radiation oncologists to avoid marginal miss. Modern diagnostic imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans, positron emission tomography with Computed Tomograpgy (PET-CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows the radiation oncologist to target the positive tumor with high accuracy. As the tumor is well visualized during radiation treatment, the margins required to avoid geographic miss can be safely reduced , thus sparing the normal organs from excessive radiation. When the tumor is located close to critical radiosensitive structures such as the spinal cord, IGRT can deliver a high dose of radiation to the tumor and simultaneously decreasing treatment toxicity, thus potentially improving cure rates and patient quality of life. During radiotherapy, tumor shrinkage and changes of normal tissues/volumes can be detected daily with IGRT. The volume changes in the target volumes and organs at risk often lead to increased radiation dose to the normal tissues and if left uncorrected may result in late complications. Adaptive radiotherapy with re-planning during the course of radiotherapy is therefore another advantage of IGRT over the conventional radiotherapy techniques. This new technology of radiotherapy delivery provides the radiation oncologist an effective tool to improve patient quality of life. In the future, radiation dose-escalation to the residual tumor may potentially improve survival rates. Because the treatment complexity, a great deal of work is required from the dosimetry staff and physicists to ensure quality of care. Preliminary clinical results with IGRT are encouraging but more prospective studies should be performed in the future to assess the effectiveness of IGRT in improving patient quality of life and local control. In this Frontiers Research Topic, we encourage submission of original papers and reviews dealing with imaging for radiotherapy planning, the physics and dosimetry associated with IGRT, as well as the clinical outcomes for cancer treatment with IGRT for all tumor sites.

Frammenti di Napoli

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Book Series: UrbsHistoriaeImago. Storia e immagine dei territori, dei centri urbani e delle architetture ISSN: 2611-5468 ISBN: 9788868870492 Year: Volume: 4 Pages: 144 DOI: 10.6093/978-88-6887-049-2 Language: Italian
Publisher: FedOA - Federico II University Press
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-21 10:00:23
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[English]:This work intends to collect the results of studies and researches which contribute to strengthening the knowledge of the area and in documenting all these shades that converge on qualifying in a cultural entity as collective heritage: the single heritages, through knowledge can obtain in this way not only an adequate representation. It is thus not by chance, that this book is dedicated to the city of Naples, a city with a strong and complex identity, with classical roots, full of conflict and eager to confrontations; the artistic and cultural heritage that this city preserves, almost a catalogue of the entire Mediterranean civilization, of which it is the symbol, is made of great testimonies, but also of small fragments, of layers and mixtures, which together converge on the culture of ‘making a system’ aimed at the creation of a territory network, at the bringing closer and understanding of single cultural identities, at a best mutual perception. [Italiano]: Questo lavoro raccoglie gli esiti di studi e ricerche volti a rafforzare la conoscenza del luogo e a documentare tutte quelle sfumature che concorrono a qualificare una entità culturale come bene collettivo. I singoli oggetti dello spazio urbano, seppur diversi l’uno dall’altro, ora per dimensioni, ora per tipologia, ora per epoca, attraverso l’indagine analitica, possono ottenere non solo una rappresentazione adeguata ma anche e soprattutto una necessaria divulgazione. E non a caso questo lavoro è dedicato alla città di Napoli, una città dalla identità forte e complessa, dalle radici classiche, piena di conflitti e desiderosa di confronto; il patrimonio artistico e culturale che questa città custodisce, quasi un catalogo dell’intera civiltà mediterranea di cui è simbolo, è fatto di grandi testimonianze ma anche di piccoli frammenti, di commistioni e stratificazioni che, tutti insieme, concorrono alla cultura del ‘fare sistema’ finalizzata alla creazione di una rete di attenzione al territorio, all’avvicinamento e alla comprensione delle singole identità culturali, alla migliore percezione reciproca. Ogni oggetto o frammento può essere ricomposto nell’insieme più ampio della città e concorre a descrivere un racconto per immagini, per grafie, per segni.

Ambisonics

Authors: ---
Book Series: Springer Topics in Signal Processing ISBN: 9783030172077 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-17207-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Mathematics --- Music
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:14
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This open access book provides a concise explanation of the fundamentals and background of the surround sound recording and playback technology Ambisonics. It equips readers with the psychoacoustical, signal processing, acoustical, and mathematical knowledge needed to understand the inner workings of modern processing utilities, special equipment for recording, manipulation, and reproduction in the higher-order Ambisonic format. The book comes with various practical examples based on free software tools and open scientific data for reproducible research. The book’s introductory section offers a perspective on Ambisonics spanning from the origins of coincident recordings in the 1930s to the Ambisonic concepts of the 1970s, as well as classical ways of applying Ambisonics in first-order coincident sound scene recording and reproduction that have been practiced since the 1980s. As, from time to time, the underlying mathematics become quite involved, but should be comprehensive without sacrificing readability, the book includes an extensive mathematical appendix. The book offers readers a deeper understanding of Ambisonic technologies, and will especially benefit scientists, audio-system and audio-recording engineers. In the advanced sections of the book, fundamentals and modern techniques as higher-order Ambisonic decoding, 3D audio effects, and higher-order recording are explained. Those techniques are shown to be suitable to supply audience areas ranging from studio-sized to hundreds of listeners, or headphone-based playback, regardless whether it is live, interactive, or studio-produced 3D audio material.

Using Noise to Characterize Vision

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197538 Year: Pages: 127 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-753-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Noise has been widely used to investigate the processing properties of various visual functions (e.g. detection, discrimination, attention, perceptual learning, averaging, crowding, face recognition), in various populations (e.g. older adults, amblyopes, migrainers, dyslexic children), using noise along various dimensions (e.g. pixel noise, orientation jitter, contrast jitter). The reason to use external noise is generally not to characterize visual processing in external noise per se, but rather to reveal how vision works in ordinary conditions when performance is limited by our intrinsic noise rather than externally added noise. For instance, reverse correlation aims at identifying the relevant information to perform a given task in noiseless conditions and measuring contrast thresholds in various noise levels can be used to understand the impact of intrinsic noise that limits sensitivity to noiseless stimuli. Why use noise? Since Fechner named it, psychophysics has always emphasized the systematic investigation of conditions that break vision. External noise raises threshold hugely and selectively. In hearing, Fletcher used noise in his famous critical-band experiments to reveal frequency-selective channels in hearing. Critical bands have been found in vision too. More generally, the big reliable effects of noise give important clues to how the system works. And simple models have been proposed to account for the effects of visual noise. As noise has been more widely used, questions have been raised about the simplifying assumptions that link the processing properties in noiseless conditions to measurements in external noise. For instance, it is usually assumed that the processing strategy (or mechanism) used to perform a task and its processing properties (e.g. filter tuning) are unaffected by the addition of external noise. Some have suggested that the processing properties could change with the addition of external noise (e.g. change in filter tuning or more lateral masking in noise), which would need to be considered before drawing conclusions about the processing properties in noiseless condition. Others have suggested that different processing properties (or mechanisms) could be solicited in low and high noise conditions, complicating the characterization of processing properties in noiseless condition based on processing properties identified in noise conditions. The current Research Topic probes further into what the effects of visual noise tell us about vision in ordinary conditions. Our Editorial gives an overview of the articles in this special issue.

Kommunikation und Bildverarbeitung in der Automation

Authors: ---
Book Series: Technologien für die intelligente Automation ISBN: 9783662598955 Year: Pages: 364 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-59895-5 Language: English|German
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-29 11:21:06
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In diesem Open-Access-Tagungsband sind die besten Beiträge des 9. Jahreskolloquiums "Kommunikation in der Automation" (KommA 2018) und des 6. Jahreskolloquiums "Bildverarbeitung in der Automation" (BVAu 2018) enthalten. Die Kolloquien fanden am 20. und 21. November 2018 in der SmartFactoryOWL, einer gemeinsamen Einrichtung des Fraunhofer IOSB-INA und der Technischen Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe statt. Die vorgestellten neuesten Forschungsergebnisse auf den Gebieten der industriellen Kommunikationstechnik und Bildverarbeitung erweitern den aktuellen Stand der Forschung und Technik. Die in den Beiträgen enthaltenen anschaulichen Beispiele aus dem Bereich der Automation setzen die Ergebnisse in den direkten Anwendungsbezug.

Computational Systems Biology of Pathogen-Host Interactions

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198214 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-821-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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A thorough understanding of pathogenic microorganisms and their interactions with host organisms is crucial to prevent infectious threats due to the fact that Pathogen-Host Interactions (PHIs) have critical roles in initiating and sustaining infections. Therefore, the analysis of infection mechanisms through PHIs is indispensable to identify diagnostic biomarkers and next-generation drug targets and then to develop strategic novel solutions against drug-resistance and for personalized therapy. Traditional approaches are limited in capturing mechanisms of infection since they investigate hosts or pathogens individually. On the other hand, the systems biology approach focuses on the whole PHI system, and is more promising in capturing infection mechanisms. Here, we bring together studies on the below listed sections to present the current picture of the research on Computational Systems Biology of Pathogen-Host Interactions:- Computational Inference of PHI Networks using Omics Data- Computational Prediction of PHIs- Text Mining of PHI Data from the Literature- Mathematical Modeling and Bioinformatic Analysis of PHIs Computational Inference of PHI Networks using Omics Data Gene regulatory, metabolic and protein-protein networks of PHI systems are crucial for a thorough understanding of infection mechanisms. Great advances in molecular biology and biotechnology have allowed the production of related omics data experimentally. Many computational methods are emerging to infer molecular interaction networks of PHI systems from the corresponding omics data. Computational Prediction of PHIs Due to the lack of experimentally-found PHI data, many computational methods have been developed for the prediction of pathogen-host protein-protein interactions. Despite being emerging, currently available experimental PHI data are far from complete for a systems view of infection mechanisms through PHIs. Therefore, computational methods are the main tools to predict new PHIs. To this end, the development of new computational methods is of great interest. Text Mining of PHI Data from Literature Despite the recent development of many PHI-specific databases, most data relevant to PHIs are still buried in the biomedical literature, which demands for the use of text mining techniques to unravel PHIs hidden in the literature. Only some rare efforts have been performed to achieve this aim. Therefore, the development of novel text mining methods specific for PHI data retrieval is of key importance for efficient use of the available literature. Mathematical Modeling and Bioinformatic Analysis of PHIs After the reconstruction of PHI networks experimentally and/or computationally, their mathematical modeling and detailed computational analysis is required using bioinformatics tools to get insights on infection mechanisms. Bioinformatics methods are increasingly applied to analyze the increasing amount of experimentally-found and computationally-predicted PHI data. Acknowledgements: We, editors of this e-book, acknowledge Emrah Nikerel (Yeditepe University, Turkey) and Arzucan Özgür (Bogaaziçi University, Turkey) for their contributions during the initiation of the Research Topic.

Imidž, dialog, eksperiment - polja sovremennoj russkoj poezii

Authors: ---
Book Series: Neuere Lyrik. Interkulturelle und interdisziplinaere Studien ISBN: 9783866883710 Year: Pages: 610 DOI: 10.3726/b12310 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:11
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Sbornik, predstavljaemyj vnimaniju čitatelej, soderžit materialy meždunarodnoj konferencii "Imidž - dialog - eksperiment: polja sovremennoj russkoj poezii", provedennoj pri podderžke Nemeckogo naučno-issledovatel'skogo obščestva v marte 2010 goda. Vključennye v sbornik stat'i posvjaščeny stanovleniju kanona sovremennoj russkoj poezii, metodologii istorii literatury i analizu konkretnych poetičeskich proizvedenij. V sbornike zatragivajutsja voprosy tvorčestva ne tol'ko priznannych klassikov sovremennoj literatury - D. Prigova, O. Sedakovoj, E. Švarca, A. Voznesenskogo, no i poka čto menee izučennych vidnych poetov, takich kak E. Mnacakanovoj, E. Fanajlovoj, V. Pavlovoj, A. Rodionova, I. Kovalevoj, I. Kamenkovič, S. Tichomirova. Materialy sbornika pozvoljajut vyjavit' profil' i stanovlenie novych tečenij: neoavangarda, metarealizma, "ženskogo pis'ma", internet-poezii. Kategorii, nazvannye v zaglavii sbornika, - Imidž, Dialog, Eksperiment, Polja - dajut funkcional'nye orientiry v izučenii složnych vzaimootnošenij meždu različnymi napravlenijanmi russkoj poezii poslednich tridcati let.

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