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Agricultural Input Subsidies: The Recent Malawi Experience

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ISBN: 9780199683529 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199683529.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: OAPEN-UK
Subject: Economics --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2013-10-11 21:10:22
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Agricultural input subsidies were a major feature of development policies in rural economies until the 1980s. Continuing rural poverty with low productivity and fertilizer use in smallholder staple crops has led to their resurgence in Africa. These subsidies are, however, controversial with claims of both large food security benefits and unsustainable, inefficient resource use. This book reviews current theory and evidence on the strengths and weaknesses of these programmes and the effects of programme context, design, and implementation. Theoretical arguments for agricultural subsidies are based on input promotion where farmers’ private costs (benefits) are higher (lower) than wider economic costs (benefits). These arguments, and concerns about inefficiency and diversion, are reviewed and extended to consider input affordability constraints and ‘smart’ rationing and targeting. Recent programmes in Africa have a variety of generally producer-focused objectives, with varied implementation and programme outcomes. Most pay little attention to consumer interests and potential contributions to wider growth. A detailed examination of Malawi’s controversial agricultural input subsidy programme follows. Drawing on a wide range of information sources, the political and agro-economic contexts of the programme are examined, with evidence on its implementation and impacts from 2005 to 2011. Positive impacts are recorded on beneficiaries’ production, incomes, food consumption, school enrolment, child health, and reduced need for earnings from undertaking casual labour for others. There is evidence of indirect economy-wide impacts, but this is not as strong as might be expected. Targeting and graduation are identified as critically important issues requiring continuing attention.

Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789

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ISBN: 9789198469844 Year: Pages: 296 Language: English
Publisher: Lund University Press
Subject: History --- Political Science --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-04 10:28:03
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French subsidies played a central role in European politics from Charles VIII’s invasion of Italy in 1494 until the French Revolution. French kings attempted to frustrate what they viewed as a Habsburg bid to pursue universal monarchy. During the seventeenth century, the French monarchy would embrace the payment of subsidies on a different scale than previously, using alliances in which subsidies played a prominent role to pursue crucial aspects of royal policy. Louis XIII made alliances promising subsidies to support the United Provinces’ resumed war against the king of Spain, and for the Danish, Swedish, and various German princes to fight against the Holy Roman Emperor. Louis XIV continued some of these subsidies and used subsidies as a tool in order to implement his own politics. When Louis XIV appeared to Dutch and some English statesmen as aspiring to Universal monarchy, the Dutch and particularly the English used the tool of subsidies to frustrate the French monarch. During the eighteenth century, principally the French and the British, but also the Austrians, used subsidies to procure allies and attempt to maintain the balance of power. The subsidy system prompted significant debates about the legal, political, and moral implications, and was sometimes a source of political conflict between competing power groupings within states. The book argues that participation in the French system of subsidies neither necessarily accelerated nor necessarily retarded state development; but such participation could undoubtedly change political dynamics, the creation of institutions, and the form of states that would emerge.

Adopting Circular Economy Current Practices and Future Perspectives

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ISBN: 9783039283422 9783039283439 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-343-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The development of a closed-loop cycle is a necessary condition so as to develop a circular economy model as an alternative to the linear model, in order to maintain the value of products and materials for as long as possible. For this motive, the definition of the value must be demonstrated for both the environment and the economy. The presence of these analyses should be associated with the social dimension and the human component. A strong cooperation between social and technical profiles is a new challenge for all researchers. End of life of products attract a lot of attention, and the final output could be the production of technologies suitable for managing this waste.

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