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Dynamics of Joint-Action, Social Coordination and Multi-Agent Activity

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454204 Year: Pages: 379 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-420-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Coordinating one’s behavior with the behavior of other individuals is a fundamental feature of everyday social interaction. A defining feature of such behavior is that it is dynamic, that is, it evolves over time. This is true whether one considers the linguistic, gestural and non-verbal coordination that occurs between two or more individuals engaged in a conversation or the physical movement coordination that occurs when two or more people clear a dinner table or load a dishwasher together. Such behavior is also emergent and robust to sudden changes in task context or unexpected environmental or social perturbations. Accordingly, robust social action and multi-agent coordination is synergistic, with co-acting individuals adapting to each other and the environment around them in a mutual and reciprocal manner. Research investigating the behavioral dynamics of joint-action and multi-agent coordination has steadily increased over the last several decades. Spurred by several factors, including (i) the increased accessibility of technologies for recording and extracting the time-evolution of multi-agent behavior (e.g., motion tracking, eye-tracking, EEG), (ii) the development of new nonlinear techniques for analyzing behavioral and linguistic time-series data, and (iii) a growing appreciation that social cognition, perception, and action are interdependent, embodied and embedded processes, this research has not only been directed towards measuring and identifying the stable patterns of coordinated social and multi-agent activity that emerge over time, but also how these stable pattern are activated, dissolved, transformed, and exchanged over time. Not surprisingly, researchers have begun to investigate the implications of this behavioral dynamics perspective for understanding social cognitive processes as well as clinical disorders with social deficits such as autism and schizophrenia. Attempts at modeling the dynamics of social action and multi-agent behavior using various nonlinear and complex systems methods has also increased over the last several years, with many researchers demonstrating how simple low-dimensional dynamical or computational models can be employed to capture and explain the dynamics of ongoing joint-action and multi-agent behavior. A characteristic feature of these dynamical models is that they reveal how stable social action and multi-agent coordination arises naturally from the interaction of the physical, biomechanical, neural, informational, and social cognitive properties of a joint-action task context and goal, and cannot be ascribed to any one singular processes, agent, or level of analysis. The implications of these modeling endeavors for the design of robust and adaptive human-machine systems and robotic agents has not gone unnoticed, with a growing body of work now devoted to such joint-action, (bio)-inspired human-robotic interaction initiatives.

2 Defining the Term Samhandling (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch2 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"In this chapter we will demonstrate that samhandling has a different&#xD;qualitative meaning from other similar concepts. The term “samhandling” is used&#xD;by many organizations, researchers and textbook authors without clarifying the&#xD;rationale for its use (Torgersen & Steiro, 2009). The word samhandling is built on&#xD;a distinct cultural foundation. Therefore, we think it is necessary to describe Norwegian&#xD;culture briefly, to enable the reader to understand the basis of samhandling.&#xD;The chapter presents a definition of samhandling that was originally presented by&#xD;Torgersen & Steiro (2009). Samhandling is distinguished from cooperation/teamwork&#xD;by three core attributes which we can call the identity of samhandling: focus&#xD;on complementarity, exchange and utilization of the participants’ various skills,&#xD;experiences, backgrounds and cultures, and coordination of these factors in efforts&#xD;towards a common goal in a work situation or meeting. Samhandling has a higher&#xD;relative ambition level than the corresponding processes covered by the expressions&#xD;“collaboration”, “cooperation” and “coordination”. Increased complexity and&#xD;relations between stakeholders call for a focus on complementary handling in action,&#xD;that is, samhandling. The following competencies were identified in order for&#xD;good samhandling to occur: trust, assurance, well-being, belonging, clarity, time&#xD;and tolerance."&#xD;

Sub- and Supra-Second Timing: Brain, Learning and Development

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198986 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-898-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Time perception in the range of milliseconds to a few seconds is essential for many important sensory and perceptual tasks including speech perception, motion perception, motor coordination, and cross-modal interaction. For the brain to be in synchrony with the environment, the physical differences in the speeds of light and sound, as well as stimuli from other modalities such as odors, must be processed and coordinated (Pöppel & Bao 2014; Bao et al., 2015). Time is a subjective feeling that is modulated by emotional states which trigger temporal distortions (temporal dilation vs. contraction) (Wittmann et al., 2014), hence give rise to subjective time that may be different to event time as initially registered in the brain. Recent research suggests that time perception in a multisensory world is subject to prior task experience and shaped by (statistical) learning processes. Humans are active learners. That is, the engagement of the own body in a timing task within a perceptual-action loop will make a noticeable difference in timing performance, as compared to when humans only passively perceive the same perceptual scenario (Bao et al., 2015; Chen & Vroomen, 2013). This Research Topic of “Sub-and Supra-Second Timing: Brain, Learning and Development” has integrated sixteen submissions of novel research on sub- and supra-timing. We have categorized the papers in this topic into the following four themes, from which we can deduce trends of research about multisensory timing in the sub- and supra-second range:Sensory timing, interaction and reliabilityAdaptive representation of time, learning and temporal predictionSensorimotor synchronization, embodiment and coordinationPerspective of psychological moment and temporal organizationOverall, the collections in “Sub-and Supra-Second Timing: Brain, Learning and Development” show some recent trends and debates in multisensory timing research as well as provide a venue to inspire future work in multisensory timing.

24 Working Together in the Aftermath of an Unforeseen Event (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch24 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"The frame of this chapter is how clinicians and leaders employed in psychiatric&#xD;departments in hospitals experience and cope with patients who commit&#xD;suicide while undergoing treatment. The major focus is the phenomenon which in&#xD;the Bow-tie model is called “stabilization”. To explore this phenomenon in an empirical&#xD;analysis, two concepts of samhandling are introduced, these being coordination&#xD;and cooperation. These two concepts are used in an interpretation of what eight&#xD;leaders and clinicians report on how they handle working together after a patient&#xD;during treatment in a psychiatric hospital has unexpectedly committed suicide.&#xD;The findings are that leaders and clinicians have different views on what stabilization&#xD;is. Stabilization to the leaders seems to be something they can handle by using&#xD;mandatory organizational procedures of coordination. To the clinicians (psychologists&#xD;and psychiatrists) however, stabilization is less straightforward. Professional&#xD;stabilization is, to them, more important than organizational stabilization, and it&#xD;requires another form of interaction – namely, cooperation. Cooperation is, in its&#xD;simplest and purest form, a symmetrical way of working together, based on equality&#xD;in competence and an unforced relation between the parties. For the purpose of&#xD;professional stabilization, this is the form of interaction preferred by the clinicians.&#xD;However, these findings are tentative and more research is needed to elaborate why&#xD;leaders and clinicians respond as they do after a patient suicide."&#xD;

Inquisitive Semantics

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Oxford Surveys in Semantics and Pragmatics ISBN: 9780198814788 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198814788.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Subject: Philosophy --- Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-14 11:21:02
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There is an age-old tradition in linguistics and philosophy to identify the meaning of a entence with its truth-conditions. This can be explained by the fact that linguistic and philosophical investigations are usually carried out in a logical framework that was originally designed to characterize valid reasoning. Indeed, in order to determine whether an argument is valid, it suffices to know the truth-conditions of the premises and conclusion. However, argumentation is neither the sole, nor the primary function of language. One task that language more widely and ordinarily fulfils is to enable the exchange of information between conversational participants. Inquisitive semantics is a new logical framework for the analysis of this fundamental usage of language. Information exchange can be seen as a process of raising and resolving issues. Inquisitive semantics provides a new formal notion of issues, which makes it possible to model various concepts that are crucial for the analysis of linguistic information exchange in a more refined and more principled way than has been possible in previous frameworks. This book provides a detailed exposition of inquisitive semantics, and demonstrates its benefits with a range of applications in the semantic analysis of questions, coordination, modals, conditionals, and intonation.&#xD;

Coordinating Service Compositions : Model and Infrastructure for Collaborative Creation of Electronic Documents

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ISBN: 9783731500346 Year: Pages: X, 179 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000035097 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Electronic documents frequently include contributions from different human and non-human sources. The Web, for instance, offers ever-changing content and services which can perform activities during document creation. This thesis introduces a solution for collaborative document creation which maps contributions of human and non-human participants to software services. The joint flexible composition and coordination of these services leads to a novel understanding of dynamic Web-based documents.

Neurovision: Neural bases of binocular vision and coordination and their implications in visual training programs

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196555 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-655-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Binocular vision is achieved by five neurovisual systems originating in the retina but varying in their destination within the brain. Two systems have been widely studied: the retino-tectal or retino-collicular route, which subserves an expedient and raw estimate of the visual scene through the magnocellular pathway, and the retino-occipital or retino-cortical route, which allows slower but refined analysis of the visual scene through the parvocellular pathway. But there also exist further neurovisual systems: the retino-hypothalamic, retino-pretectal, and accessory optic systems, which play a crucial role in vision though they are less understood. The retino-pretectal pathway projecting onto the pretectum is critical for the pupillary or photomotor reflex. The retino-hypothalamic pathway projecting onto the suprachiasmatic nucleus regulates numerous behavioral and biological functions as well as circadian rhythms. The accessory optic system targeting terminal lateral, medial and dorsal nuclei through the paraoptic fasciculus plays a role in head and gaze orientation as well as slow movements. Taken together, these neurovisual systems involve 60% of brain activity, thus highlighting the importance of vision in the functioning and regulation of the central nervous system. But vision is first and foremost action, which makes perception impossible without movement. Binocular coordination is a prerequisite for binocular fusion of the object of interest on the two foveas, thus ensuring visual perception. The retino-collicular pathway is sufficient to elicit reflexive eye movements with short latencies. Thanks to its motor neurons, the superior colliculus activates premotor neurons, which themselves activate motor neurons of the oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nuclei. At a higher level, a cascade of neural mechanisms participates in the control of decisional eye movements. The superior colliculus is controlled by the substancia nigra pars reticulata, which is itself gated by subcortical structures such as the dorsal striatum. The superior colliculus is also inhibited by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex through a direct prefrontotectal tract. Cortical areas are crucial for the triggering of eye movements: the frontal eye field, supplementary eye field, and parietal eye field. Finally the cerebellum maintains accuracy. The focus of the present research topic, entitled Neural bases of binocular vision and coordination and their implications in visual training programs, is to review the most recent findings in brain imaging and neurophysiology of binocular vision and coordination in humans and animals with frontally-placed eyes. The emphasis is put on studies that enable transfer of knowledge toward visual training programs targeting visual field defects (e.g., hemianopia) and binocular functional disorders (e.g., amblyopia).

Perceiving and Acting in the Real World: From Neural Activity to Behavior

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450282 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-028-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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One remarkable ability of the human brain is to process large amounts of information about our surroundings to allow us to interact effectively with them. In everyday life, the most common way to interact with objects is by reaching, grasping, lifting and manipulating them. Although these may sound like simple tasks, the perceptual properties of the target object, such as its location, size, shape, and orientation all need to be processed in order to set the movement parameters that allow an accurate reach-to-grasp-to lift movement. Several brain areas work in concert to process this outstanding amount of visual information and drive the execution of a motor plan in just a few hundred milliseconds. How are these processes orchestrated? In developing this type of comprehensive knowledge about the interactions between objects perception and goal-directed actions, we have a window into the mechanisms underlying the functioning of the visuo-motor system. With this research topic we aim to further understand the neural mechanisms that mediate our interactions with the world. Therefore, we particularly encourage submission of papers that attempt to relate such findings to real-world situations by investigating behavioural and neural correlates of information processing related to eye-hand coordination and visually-guided actions, including reaching, grasping, and lifting movements. This topic welcomes submissions of original research using any relevant techniques and methods, from behavioural kinematics/kinetics, to neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), as well as neuropsychological studies.One remarkable ability of the human brain is to process large amounts of information about our surroundings to allow us to interact effectively with them. In everyday life, the most common way to interact with objects is by reaching, grasping, lifting and manipulating them. Although these may sound like simple tasks, the perceptual properties of the target object, such as its location, size, shape, and orientation all need to be processed in order to set the movement parameters that allow an accurate reach-to-grasp-to lift movement. Several brain areas work in concert to process this outstanding amount of visual information and drive the execution of a motor plan in just a few hundred milliseconds. How are these processes orchestrated? In developing this type of comprehensive knowledge about the interactions between objects perception and goal-directed actions, we have a window into the mechanisms underlying the functioning of the visuo-motor system. With this research topic we aim to further understand the neural mechanisms that mediate our interactions with the world. Therefore, we particularly encourage submission of papers that attempt to relate such findings to real-world situations by investigating behavioural and neural correlates of information processing related to eye-hand coordination and visually-guided actions, including reaching, grasping, and lifting movements. This topic welcomes submissions of original research using any relevant techniques and methods, from behavioural kinematics/kinetics, to neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), as well as neuropsychological studies.

23 Care Coordination, Samhandling and Patient Safety (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 22 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch23 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"This chapter focus on Norwegian healthcare policies and regulations for&#xD;care coordination and patient safety. The Norwegian Coordination Reform implemented&#xD;in 2012 emphasizes patient engagement, care pathways, and competence&#xD;development in municipal healthcare services. Moreover, protocols for division of&#xD;work tasks and collaboration between specialist and municipal healthcare services&#xD;are key aspects. The reform identifies fragmented health services and the lack of&#xD;coordinated care as main challenges. The authors introduce the concepts of care&#xD;coordination, continuity of care and patient handovers, and relate these to patient&#xD;safety. Results from a Norwegian observational study, identifying factors affecting&#xD;care coordination and patient safety in care transitions between hospital and municipal&#xD;care, are presented. Finally, the authors introduce relevant measures to improve&#xD;care coordination and patient safety, including the regulatory work and follow-up&#xD;of health services through nationwide audits performed by the Norwegian Board of&#xD;Health Supervision."&#xD;

Organic traffic control

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ISBN: 9783866447257 Year: Pages: XV, 279 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000024003 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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Modern cities cannot be imagined without traffic lights controlling the road network. To handle the network's changing demands efficiently, the signal plan specification needs to be shifted from the design time to the run-time of a signal system. The generic observer/controller architecture proposed for Organic Computing facilitates this shift. A two-levelled learning mechanism optimises signal plans on-line while a distributed coordination mechanism establishes green waves in the road network.

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