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Fluid Balance, Hydration, and Athletic Performance

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781482223286 Year: Pages: 461 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Biology --- Public Health --- Medicine (General) --- Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-24 23:59:26
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Fluid Balance, Hydration, and Athletic Performance presents a comprehensive review of aspects relating to body fluid balance, rehydration, sport, and physical exercise. The content is scientifically supported, practical, and suitably written for a range of audiences, including academics (professors and students) and sports and health professionals (coaches, physical educators, nutritionists, and physicians), as well as athletes and individuals involved in physical activities. Compared to other books previously published in this area, this book does not limit body hydration issues to the average or elite adult athlete. Rather, it addresses aspects relevant to a range of individuals of different ages (adolescents and master athletes) competing in various sports. In recognition of the growing number of individuals with specific medical conditions who have been exercising more and even participating in competitive sports, separate chapters on prevalent diseases or medical conditions associated with risks of body fluid homeostasis also are presented. To achieve such a complete and qualified publication, the book is written by top experts and professionals experienced in their respective research areas. It presents the basics of fluid balance and provides updates on controversial fluid intake-related issues such as hyponatremia, optimal recovery, intermittent sports, and perceptual responses.

Keywords

Athletic --- Balance --- Fluid --- Hydration --- Performance

Energy metabolism and behavior in the corticotropin-releasing factor family of peptides

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195374 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-537-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General) --- Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Since Hans Selye's seminal work in the 1930s, there have been numerous advances with respect to our understanding of how the nervous and endocrine systems interact to help animals cope with stressors and how chronic stress may adversely impact health. Our modern understanding of stress essentially began in 1954 with the race to discover the hypothalamic releasing factor controlling ACTH secretion and mediating the endocrine response to stressors. Since the isolation of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in 1981, interest in CRF has focused not only on its hypophysiotropic function, but also its much broader role in coordinating many of the endocrine, behavioral and autonomic nervous system changes that occur during stress. The goal of this Research Topic is to solicit reviews and general research articles highlighting new research into stress and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the following areas: HPA axis interaction with energy regulating mechanisms during stress; and new studies on the role of CRF and urocortin and urocortins 2 and 3 in behavioral adaptation to stressors.

Nutrition and Performance in Sport : Science at the Tip of the Fork

Author:
ISBN: 9782865802562 DOI: 10.4000/books.insep.1754 Language: English
Publisher: INSEP-Éditions
Subject: Sports Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:36
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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How to recover properly with food? How to eat during a trip abroad or during a training course in altitude? What to do to preserve your bone health? How to conciliate the ramadan and the training? How to lose weight cleverly? What sugars? What proteins?... As regards nutrition, athletes and their coaches ask themselves a lot of questions, and each of them deserves a clear answer! This is the main objective of this book, which gathered the world's greatest specialists of sports nutrition in order to bring the eagerly expected answers... Indeed, when the competition is tighter than ever, empiricism is no longer enough: the victory, which always depends on minute subtleties, requires rational choices, especially regarding food. And if sports victory is a legitimate aim, it should not be pursued at the expense of health: even today, athletes still put it at stake. Thereby, this is the second objective of this book: learning how to conciliate performance and body respect...

Keywords

balance --- performance --- research --- sport --- health --- nutrition

Balancing the self

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781526132123 Year: Pages: 368 Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 100601/Z/12/Z
Subject: Medicine (General) --- History --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-04 10:28:02
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Concepts of ‘balance’ have been central to modern politics, medicine and society. Yet, while many health, environmental and social challenges are discussed globally in terms of imbalances in biological, social and ecological systems, strategies for addressing modern excesses and deficiencies have focused almost exclusively on the agency of the individual. Balancing the Self explores the diverse ways in which balanced and unbalanced selfhoods have been subject to construction, intervention and challenge across the long twentieth century. Through original chapters on subjects as varied as obesity control, fatigue and the regulation of work, and the physiology of exploration in extreme conditions, the volume analyses how concepts of balance and rhetorics of empowerment and responsibility have historically been used for a variety of purposes, by a diversity of political and social agencies. Historicising present-day concerns, as well as uncovering the previously hidden interests of the past, this volume’s wide-ranging discussions of health governance, subjectivity and balance will be of interest to historians of medicine, sociologists, social policy analysts, and social and political historians alike.

The Vestibular System in Cognitive and Memory Processes in Mammals

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197446 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-744-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Since the beginning of life, all plant and animal kingdoms have been developed or modified based on gravity along with atmospheric composition and solar radiation existing on Earth. Gravity is mainly encoded by the otolithic sensors of the vestibular system but its role has been largely underestimated in favor of the vestibular semicircular canals and reduced to oculomotor and postural coordination. Over the last decade, it has been demonstrated that sensory information provided by the vestibular system is crucial in spatial-memory processes in rats and humans. More recently a role in attention processes has been raised. This topic aims to report and demonstrate the role and integration of vestibular information in cognitive processes in rodent models and human at the behavioral, imaging and electrophysiological levels.

Plastid Proteostasis: Relevance of Transcription; Translation and Post-Translational Modifications

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453436 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-343-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Due to their bacterial endosymbiotic origin plastids are organelles with both nuclear-encoded and plastid-encoded proteins. Therefore, a highly integrated modulation of gene expression between the nucleus and the plastome is needed in plant cell development. Plastids have retained for the most part a prokaryotic gene expression machinery but, differently from prokaryotes and eukaryotes, they have largely abandoned transcriptional control and switched to predominantly translational control of their gene expression. Some transcriptional regulation is known to occur, but the coordinate expression between the nucleus and the plastome takes place mainly through translational regulation. However, the regulatory mechanisms of plastid gene expression (PGE) are mediated by intricate plastid-nuclear interactions and are still far from being fully understood. Although, for example, translational autoregulation mechanisms in algae have been described for subunits of heteromeric protein complexes and termed control by epistasy of synthesis (CES), only few autoregulatory proteins have been identified in plant plastids. It should be noted of course that PGE in C. reinhardtii is different from that in plants in many aspects. Another example of investigation in this research area is to understand the interactions that occur during RNA binding between nucleus-encoded RNA-binding proteins and the respective RNA sequences, and how this influences the translation initiation process. In addition to this, the plastid retains a whole series of mechanisms for the preservation of its protein balance (proteostasis), including specific proteases, as well as molecular chaperones and enzymes useful in protein folding. After synthesis, plastid proteins must rapidly fold into stable three dimensional structures and often undergo co- and posttranslational modifications to perform their biological mission, avoiding aberrant folding, aggregation and targeting with the help of molecular chaperones and proteases. We believe that this topic is highly interesting for many research areas because the regulation of PGE is not only of wide interest for plant biologists but has also biotechnological implications. Indeed, plastid transformation turns out to be a very promising tool for the production of recombinant proteins in plants, yet some limitations must still be overcome and we believe that this is mainly due to our limited knowledge of the mechanisms in plastids influencing the maintenance of proteostasis.

Work-Life Balance: Essential or Ephemeral?

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452545 Year: Pages: 75 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-254-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Burn-out and suicide rates among physicians and scientists in academic medicine are at an all-time high and jeopardize the future of our entire profession. In the last 4 years alone, burn-out rates among physicians have increased by 25%. In a recent 2017 Medscape publication, burn-out rates in Critical Care physicians ranked in 9th place and Pediatricians ranked 13th among 27 subspecialties. Astonishingly, over 50% of the participants reported burn-out symptoms, with clear race and gender disparities. While men generally report higher burn-out rates than women, it is important to emphasize that response rates from women in these surveys were notoriously low and may not represent the complete picture. These numbers are even more dismal for tenured academic faculty at research-extensive universities. In this group, emotional exhaustion (i.e. high burn-out) is reported at 35% with a clear association with age and lower burn-out levels in the older tenured faculty. While no gender or racial/ethnic differences were found in this particular group, higher levels of burn-out were identified in individuals with financial responsibilities beyond a spouse and child. While it is comforting to note the increasing public interest and research activities in this field, successful approaches to ameliorate the burden and consequences of physician burn-out are still inadequately developed. Academic centers increasingly offer some type of work-life balance program to their employees but, unfortunately, these programs are frequently adopted from corporate business models and remain largely ineffective in the academic environment. It should be evident to most administrators that the stressors of academic clinicians and scientists substantially differ from those of corporate employees. Based on these observations and over 75 years of combined experience in academic medicine amongst the three editors of this Research Topic, we collected 26 manuscripts from 22 authors at different career stages and different genders, ethnicities, marital status and subspecialties to identify and stratify common and specific stressors and therapeutic approaches to ameliorate burn-out and achieve work-life balance in academic medicine. We are confident that each reader will identify with at least one, if not several, of the authors’ opinions, experiences and approaches to attain greater work-life balance and thereby avoid the consequences of burn-out in modern academic medicine.

Keywords

work-life balance --- stress --- Suicide --- academic --- physician --- Career --- Family --- lifestyle --- Health --- Well-being

Process Simulation of Technical Precipitation Processes - The Influence of Mixing

Author:
ISBN: 9783731507352 Year: Pages: XXIII, 209 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000076187 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
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This work develops and shows up methods to tackle multi-scale challenges in particle formation during precipitation crystallization. Firstly, molecular, micro- and meso-scale interactions in confined impinging jet mixers are investigated and simulatively predicted. Secondly, to build up on developed methods, macroscale as present for instance in stirred tank reactors is added to the considerations.

Wind Systems and Energy Balance in the Dead Sea Valley

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Book Series: Wissenschaftliche Berichte des Instituts für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie ISSN: 1795619 ISBN: 9783731506997 Year: Volume: 74 Pages: VII, 206 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000072084 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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A new measurement concept was developed to determine the amount, variability and governing factors of evaporation from the Dead Sea. Additionally, a suitable indirect method to calculate evaporation is presented. Results show that vapour pressure deficit and wind speed are governing evaporation and that the diurnal cycle is determined by three distinct diurnal wind systems. The occurrence frequency and intensity of the wind systems are determined by local differential cooling and heating.

Hormonal and Neuroendocrine Regulation of Energy Balance

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198856 Year: Pages: 117 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-885-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Alteration in adequate energy balance maintenance results in serious disturbances such as obesity and its related metabolic disorders. In Mammals, energy balance is homeostatically controlled through hormonal and neuroendocrine systems which cooperation is based on cross-talk between central and peripheral signals. The hypothalamus as well as peripheral hormones among which adipokines from adipose tissue and thyroid hormones play a crucial role in energy homeostasis. Unraveling the physiological, cellular and molecular mechanisms through which hormonal and neuroendocrine systems regulate energy balance has been a long-standing challenge in biology and is now more necessary when considering the world-wide increasing prevalence of obesity. Indeed, recognizing and understanding the biochemical and nutrient signaling pathways contributing to the nervous and endocrine integration of physiological mechanisms involved in the normal and/or abnormal regulation of energy balance is fundamental also to the development of new, effective, and targeted treatments for obesity. Recent studies have highlighted the role of hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin-expressing neurons in the regulation of energy homeostasis by controlling energy expenditure and food intake. This is accomplished through a precise balance of production and degradation of a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, an anorexigenic neuropeptide which is degraded to an inactive form unable to inhibit food intake by the key enzyme prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP), thus suggesting that pharmacologic approaches targeting PRCP may provide a novel and effective option for the management of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders. Indeed, efforts have been made to generate potent, brain-penetrant PRCP inhibitors. Weight loss due to negative energy balance is a goal for obese subjects not always reachable by dietary caloric restriction or increased physical activity. Lipid-lowering therapies have been suggested to have potential benefits, however, the establishment of comprehensive therapeutic strategies is still awaited. Recently, it has been reported that thyroid hormone (TH)- derivatives such as 3,5-diiodothyronine and 3-iodothyronamine possess interesting biological activities, opening new perspectives in thyroid physiology and TH derivatives therapeutic usage. Moreover, several studies, focusing on the interaction between thyroid hormone (TH), the autonomic nervous system and the liver, revealed an important role for the hypothalamus in the differential effects of TH on autonomic outflow to peripheral organs controlling energy balance. This Research Topic aims to give a comprehensive and integrate view of the factors involved in the endocrine and neuroendocrine signaling in energy balance regulation to highlight their involvement into physiological processes and regulatory systems as well as their perturbation during pathological processes.

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