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Vibrio ecology, pathogenesis and evolution

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192892 Year: Pages: 239 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-289-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Oceanography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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Abstract

Vibrios are Gram-negative bacilli that occur naturally in marine, estuarine, and freshwater systems. Some species include human and animal pathogens capable of causing gastroenteritis, wound infections, cholera, and fatal septicemia. Over the past decades, cutting edge research on Vibrio genomics has promoted a tremendous advance in our knowledge of these pathogens. Significant developments include the discovery of emerging epidemic clones, tracking the spread of new strain variants, and an intensified appreciation of the role of mobile genetic elements in antibiotic resistance spread as well as pathogenesis. Furthermore, improved understanding of the interaction of Vibrios with a variety of living organisms in the aquatic environment has documented the significant role of environmental reservoirs in their seasonal cycle favoring persistence of the pathogen during inter-epidemic periods and enhancing disease transmission. This Research Topic is dedicated to our current understanding in these areas and will bring together leading experts in the field to provide a deep overview of Vibrios ecology and evolution, and will suggest the pathway of future research in this field.

Keywords

Vibrio --- Ecology --- Genome --- evolution --- Pathogenesis

Ecology, Virulence and Detection of Pathogenic and Pandemic Vibrio Parahaemolyticus

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199129 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-912-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram negative, halophilic bacterium that occurs in the coastal and estuarine environments worldwide and is implicated in several cases of seafood-born gastroenteritis around the globe. However, not all strains of V. parahaemolyticus are pathogenic. Clinical isolates of V. parahaemolyticus most often produce either the thermostable direct haemolysin (TDH) or TDH-related haemolysin (TRH) encoded by tdh and trh genes, respectively. A pandemic clone of O3:K6 which was first detected in Kolkata (India), has been responsible for many outbreaks in Asia and the USA. With the emergence of pandemic clone of V. parahaemolyticus, this organism has assumed significance. Although most of the V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks are invariably related to seafood consumption, pathogenic strains are rarely isolated from seafood. Virulent strains producing TDH or TRH and the pandemic clone, which is responsible for most of the outbreaks (that have occurred after 1996) have been rarely isolated from seafood and other environmental samples. This could be due to the occurrence of pathogenic strains in the estuarine environment at a lower level compared to non-pathogenic strains. Another reason can be that the pathogenic stains are more sensitive to dystropic conditions in the aquatic environment and rapidly become non-culturable. Similarity in growth kinetics between virulent and non-virulent strains also made the isolation of virulent strains from the aquatic environment difficult. Several studies were done to determine the factors responsible for an increased virulence and persistance of pandemic clone. However, none of those studies were conclusive. Several researchers have proposed various genetic markers for specific detection of pandemic clone of V. parahaemolyticus. But many of those genetic markers were found to be unreliable. Recently, seven genomic islands (VPaI-1 to VPaI-7) unique to pandemic clone were identified. This Research Topic is dedicated to improve our current understanding of ecology, pathogenesis and detection of pathogenic and pandemic clone of V. parahaemolyticus, and will also strive to identify areas of future development.

Game Changer - Next Generation Sequencing and its Impact on Food Microbiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454631 Year: Pages: 302 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-463-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies (NGS) are revolutionizing the field of food microbiology. Microbial whole genome sequencing (WGS) can provide identification, characterization, and subtyping of pathogens for epidemiological investigations at a level of precision previously not possible. This allows for connections and source attribution to be inferred between related isolates that may be overlooked by traditional techniques. The archiving and global sharing of genome sequences allow for retrospective analysis of virulence genes, antimicrobial resistance markers, mobile genetic elements and other novel genes. The advent of high-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, in combination with the advantages offered by massively parallel second-generation sequencing for metagenomics, enable intensive studies on the microbiomes of food products and the impact of foods on the human microbiome. These studies may one day lead to the development of reliable culture-independent methods for food monitoring and surveillance. Similarly, RNA-seq has provided insights into the transcriptomes and hence the behaviour of bacterial pathogens in food, food processing environments, and in interaction with the host at a resolution previously not achieved through the use of microarrays and/or RT-PCR. The vast un-tapped potential applications of NGS along with its rapidly declining costs, give this technology the ability to contribute significantly to consumer protection, global trade facilitation, and increased food safety and security. Despite the rapid advances, challenges remain. How will NGS data be incorporated into our existing global food safety infrastructure? How will massive NGS data be stored and shared globally? What bioinformatics solutions will be used to analyse and optimise these large data sets? This Research Topic discusses recent advances in the field of food microbiology made possible through the use of NGS.

Drinking Water Quality and Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038977261 Year: Pages: 374 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-727-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The quality of drinking water is paramount for public health. Despite important improvements in the last decades, access to safe drinking water is not universal. The World Health Organization estimates that almost 10% of the population in the world do not have access to improved drinking water sources. Among other diseases, waterborne infections cause diarrhea, which kills nearly one million people every year, mostly children under 5 years of age. On the other hand, chemical pollution is a concern in high-income countries and an increasing problem in low- and middle-income countries. Exposure to chemicals in drinking water may lead to a range of chronic non-communicable diseases (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disease), adverse reproductive outcomes, and effects on children’s health (e.g., neurodevelopment), among other health effects. Although drinking water quality is regulated and monitored in many countries, increasing knowledge leads to the need for reviewing standards and guidelines on a nearly permanent basis, both for regulated and newly identified contaminants. Drinking water standards are mostly based on animal toxicity data, and more robust epidemiologic studies with accurate exposure assessment are needed. The current risk assessment paradigm dealing mostly with one-by-one chemicals dismisses the potential synergisms or interactions from exposures to mixtures of contaminants, particularly at the low-exposure range. Thus, evidence is needed on exposure and health effects of mixtures of contaminants in drinking water. Finally, water stress and water quality problems are expected to increase in the coming years due to climate change and increasing water demand by population growth, and new evidence is needed to design appropriate adaptation policies.This Special Issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) focuses on the current state of knowledge on the links between drinking water quality and human health.

Keywords

Vibrio pathogens --- rural water resources --- public health --- sub-Saharan Africa --- diarrhoeal disease --- HWTS implementation --- water and sanitation --- drinking water guidance --- infant exposure --- chemical risk assessment --- duration extrapolation --- acute gastroenteritis --- risk --- tap water --- time series study --- turbidity --- urban area --- water operation data --- THMs --- cancer --- effect measure modification --- drinking water --- drinking water --- exposure assessment --- sodium --- potassium --- magnesium --- calcium --- spatial variations --- Denmark --- water safety plans --- drinking water quality --- risk management --- impact assessment --- Asia-Pacific region --- diarrhea --- fever --- cough --- Nigeria --- infant health --- drinking water --- inorganic manganese --- health-based guideline --- infants --- pharmaceuticals --- human health --- environment --- drug labels --- screening method --- LTD --- uncertainty factors --- risk assessment --- risk context --- biomonitoring --- dental health --- drinking water --- fluoride --- pharmacokinetic modeling --- waterborne disease outbreak --- simulation study --- health insurance data --- space–time detection --- drinking water --- nitrate --- cancer --- adverse reproductive outcomes --- methemoglobinemia --- thyroid disease --- endogenous nitrosation --- N-nitroso compounds --- E. coli --- monitoring --- drinking water --- water safety plan --- sanitary inspection --- gravity-fed piped water scheme --- risk management --- chlorination by-product --- France --- environmental exposure --- organic matter --- tap water --- trihalomethanes --- private wells --- groundwater --- drinking water --- animal feeding operation --- fecal coliforms --- enterococci --- E. coli --- Maryland --- nitrite --- disinfection by-product --- drinking water distribution systems --- seasonality --- atrazine --- community water system --- low birth weight --- preterm birth --- small for gestational age --- water contamination --- endocrine disruptor --- drinking water --- radioactivity --- annual effective dose --- carcinogenic --- chronic kidney disease --- end-stage renal disease --- water contaminants --- zinc --- ammonia --- chemical oxygen demand --- dissolved oxygen --- arsenic

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