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Pain Management in Clinical and Health Psychology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456666 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-666-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Chronic pain is a relevant health problem frequently associated with psychological distress, dysfunctions in physical and social functioning, reductions in quality of life and elevated direct and indirect costs. Medical approach is typically useful for treating chronic pain, but also psychological contributions play an important role in pain management. In fact psychological treatments are recognized as generally effective for pain. Psychological approaches in managing pain have evolved considerably and now understanding and managing the cognitions, emotions and behaviors that accompany the situation of discomfort can actually reduce the pain intensity and the interference of pain with daily life. Psychological therapies are highly indicated both for the treatment of painful conditions and for the treatment of pain related to several neurological diseases. The reviews and meta-analyses conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of different forms of psychotherapy across several disorders, although with different levels of experimental evidence, confirmed that psychological interventions can improve the experience of patients at every age (children, adolescents, adults, seniors). Similar positive results about psychotherapy efficacy were reported in specific pain disorders such as low back pain, fibromyalgia, tension-type headache and migraine, pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis, chronic abdominal pain in adolescents, chronic orofacial pain, etc. Clinical health psychology focuses also on the study of the psychological determinants in pain patients such as the role of depression, anxiety, pain-related disability, catastrophic thinking, psychological inflexibility, coping skills, beliefs, attitudes, expectations, self-efficacy, placebo and nocebo effects, etc. Different psychological models of pain and disability (such as Fear-avoidance, Acceptance and commitment, Misdirected problem solving, Self-efficacy and Stress-diathesis models) have tried to highlight the psychological processes behind pain. The major objective of the present Research Topic is to collect new scientific evidence, clinical experiences, reviews and opinion articles about clinical health psychology and psychotherapy in pain management and treatment. Moreover this RT will focus on psychological factors, basic psychological processes and theoretical models that could have an impact in the development of persistent pain and disability and implications for different therapies, considering psychological interventions in peri-operative pain and/or preventive interventions in sub-acute pain too.

Keywords

Pain --- Pain Management --- Chronic Pain

Chronic and Recurrent Pain

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ISBN: 9783038424178 9783038424161 Year: Pages: X, 334 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-417-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-11 08:59:03
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For many years people assumed that children did not experience chronic pain. However, recent epidemiological studies show that chronic pain, defined as constant or recurrent pain lasting three months or longer, is common in childhood. Empirical studies have characterized chronic pain conditions including headaches, abdominal pain, chest pain, and musculoskeletal pains including fibromyalgia. These pain conditions are associated with school absence, emotional distress, disruption in family activities, and significantly reduced quality of life in both the affected child and their families. For some of these children, chronic pain persists from childhood into adulthood, causing substantial long-term personal and financial costs to the individual, society, and our health care systems.Despite the prevalence and serious consequences of pediatric chronic pain, it is still under-recognized and under-treated. Too often, chronic pain is treated as a symptom of something else, rather than as a separate condition requiring its own treatment. The goal of this Special Issue was to discuss recent advances in the understanding and treatment of pediatric chronic pain.The Special Issue Book contains 22 notable articles including original research, reviews, and commentaries. Together they provide an excellent overview of the field of chronic and recurrent pediatric pain as it stands in 2016–2017.

Keywords

Pain --- Pediatrics

PAIN - Novel targets and new technologies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193943 Year: Pages: 95 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-394-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The problem of clinical pain management is complex and far-reaching, as it encompasses many different types of pain, such as arthritis, musculoskeletal conditions, neuropathic pain, and visceral pain. It is widely known that many of the well-established analgesic pathways are centrally based, involving spinal and supraspinal sites. However, pain can also be effectively controlled by peripheral pathways. The analgesics market is growing and the driving forces are the aging population and need for better therapeutic benefits. There are various analgesic products that are available that can be administered by various routes, yet research is active in identifying new technologies for better drug targeting and novel targets to gain improved therapeutic efficiency. This e-Book "PAIN - Novel targets and new technologies" has brought together experts in the field of pain at the physiological, pharmacological and pharmaceutical levels to discuss novel pain targets and new pain technologies across the various types of pain. This information is presented as novel research findings, short communications and review articles. The goal of this e-Book is to generate further collaborative discussion on the future and direction of pain therapies.

Neural circuits underlying emotion and motivation: Insights from optogenetics and pharmacogenetics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195343 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-534-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Application of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic tools to study the neural circuits underlying emotional valence, feeding, arousal and motivated behaviors has provided crucial insights into brain function. Expression of light sensitive proteins into specific neurons and subsequent stimulation by light (optogenetics) to control neuronal activity or expression of designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) in specific neuronal populations with subsequent activation or suppression of neuronal activity by an otherwise inert ligand (pharmacogenetics) provides control over defined elements of neural circuits. These novel tools have provided a more in depth understanding into several questions about brain function. These include: • Regulation of sleep-wake transition by the interaction of hypocretin neurons of lateral hypothalamus and nor adrenergic neurons of the locus coruleaus • Regulation of feeding by AGRP and POMC neurons in arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus • Place preference and positive reinforcement by activation of DA neuron of VTA • Place aversion by activation of VTA GABA and lateral habenula neurons • Opposing influences on reinforcement by activation of D1 and D2 expressing medium spiny neurons of dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens The list still grows... From cell type specific manipulations to signaling properties in the cell (Dietz et al 2012) with unprecedented temporal resolution, these tools revolutionize the exploration of pathways/connectivity. Recent years also witnessed the extension of applying these tools from studying emotional valence and motivated behavior to reactivation of memory. c-fos based genetic approaches allowed us to integrate light sensitive opsins or DREADD receptor into specific neurons that are activated by certain learning events (for example fear) (Garner et al 2012; Liu et al 2012). In this Research Topic, we welcome researchers to contribute original research articles, review articles, methods and commentary on topics utilizing optogenetic and pharmacogenetic tools to study the neural circuits underlying emotional valence, motivation, reinforcement and memory. We believe the Research Topic will shine light on various questions we have about brain function by using novel optogenetic and pharmacogenetic tools and will hopefully inspire ongoing research to overcome the hurdles of using these tools to advance clinical applications.

Brain Reward & Stress Systems in Addiction

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194575 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-457-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Addiction to drugs and alcohol is a dynamic and multi-faceted disease process in humans, with devastating health and financial consequences for the individual and society-at-large. In humans, drug and alcohol use disorders (i.e., abuse and dependence) are defined by clusters of behavioral symptoms that can be modeled to various degrees in animals. Hallmark behavioral symptoms associated with drug and alcohol dependence are compulsive drug use, loss of control during episodes of drug use, the emergence of a negative emotional state in the absence of the drug, and chronic relapse vulnerability during drug abstinence. The transition to drug dependence is defined by neuroadaptations in brain circuits that, in the absence of drugs, mediate a variety of critical behavioral and physiological processes including natural reward, positive and negative emotional states, nociception, and feeding. Chronic drug exposure during the transition to dependence spurs (1) within-systems changes in neural circuits that contribute to the acute rewarding effects of the drug and (2) recruitment of brain stress systems (neuroendocrine and extra-hypothalamic). There are substantial genetic contributions to the propensity to use and abuse drugs, and drug abuse is highly co-morbid with various other psychiatric conditions (e.g., anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder) that may precede or follow the development of drug use problems. Across drugs of abuse, there are overlapping and dissociable aspects of the behavioral and neural changes that define the transition to dependence. Even within a single drug, people abuse drugs for a variety of reasons. The picture is further complicated by the fact that humans often abuse more than one drug concurrently. Even in the face of these challenges, pre-clinical and clinical research is making exponential gains into understanding the neurobiology of drug addiction. With the advent of new technologies and their combination with traditional approaches, the field is able to ask and answer addiction-related research questions in increasingly sophisticated ways. Here, we hope to assemble a collection of articles that provide an up-to-the-moment snapshot of the prevailing empirical, theoretical and technical directions in the addiction research field. We encourage submissions from all investigators working to understand the neurobiology of addiction, especially as it pertains to reward and stress pathways in the brain.

Keywords

relapse --- reward --- stress --- pain --- alcohol --- Nicotine --- Heroin --- Methamphetamine

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications

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ISBN: 9783038425380 9783038425397 Year: Pages: VIII, 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-539-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-27 12:48:49
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The issue is dedicated to applications of Deep Brain Stimulation and, in this issue, we would like to highlight the new developments that are taking place in the field. These include the application of new technology to existing indications, as well as ‘new’ indications. We would also like to highlight the most recent clinical evidence from international multicentre trials. The issue will include articles relating to movement disorders, pain, psychiatric indications, as well as emerging indications that are not yet accompanied by clinical evidence. We look forward to your expert contribution to this exciting issue.

The Role of Primary Motor Cortex as a Marker for and Modulator of Pain Control and Emotional-Affective Processing

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452613 Year: Pages: 169 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-261-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The sensory and motor cortical homunculi proposed by Walter Penfield were a major landmark for the anatomical mapping of the brain. More than 60 years after, the development of new tools to investigate brain function non-invasively has increased our knowledge about the structure and functions of the primary motor Cortex (M1) beyond motor control in both humans and animals. This book highlights the role of the motor cortex that goes way beyond motor functioning. We were interested in both theoretical and empirical contributions related to electrophysiological, pharmacological, neuroimaging, and neuromodulatory studies exploring the role of M1 on non-motor functions, such as pain, abnormal neuroplasticity that may lead to chronic pain conditions; or the relationship between M1 and mental imagery or emotion. This book is comprised of 15 articles published in this edited volume as a research topic collection in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience titled “The Role of Primary Motor Cortex as a Marker and Modulator of Pain Control and Emotional-Affective Processing.”

Music and the Functions of the Brain: Arousal, Emotions, and Pleasure

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454525 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-452-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Music impinges upon the body and the brain. As such, it has significant inductive power which relies both on innate dispositions and acquired mechanisms and competencies. The processes are partly autonomous and partly deliberate, and interrelations between several levels of processing are becoming clearer with accumulating new evidence. For instance, recent developments in neuroimaging techniques, have broadened the field by encompassing the study of cortical and subcortical processing of the music. The domain of musical emotions is a typical example with a major focus on the pleasure that can be derived from listening to music. Pleasure, however, is not the only emotion to be induced and the mechanisms behind its elicitation are far from understood. There are also mechanisms related to arousal and activation that are both less differentiated and at the same time more complex than the assumed mechanisms that trigger basic emotions. It is imperative, therefore, to investigate what pleasurable and mood-modifying effects music can have on human beings in real-time listening situations. This e-book is an attempt to answer these questions. Revolving around the specificity of music experience in terms of perception, emotional reactions, and aesthetic assessment, it presents new hypotheses, theoretical claims as well as new empirical data which contribute to a better understanding of the functions of the brain as related to musical experience.

Involvements of TRP Channels and Oxidative Stress in Pain

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455959 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-595-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Undoubtedly, pain conditions the quality of life of millions of people worldwide suffering a wide range of diseases. Major research efforts are being made by the international scientific community to determine the mechanisms underlying nociception. Growing evidence points out a complex network including oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammatory response and cation signaling. In this sense, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have attracted researchers’ attention. Expression levels are very different in tissues and cells mediating a myriad of processes in our organism. At the neurological level, it has been observed that the expression levelsof four TRP channels (TRPA1, TRPM2, TRPV1, and TRPV4) are high in neurons related to nociception, including dorsal root ganglion and trigeminal ganglia neurons. For this reason, this research field promises to shed light on this intricated matrix linking oxidative stress, calcium signaling (via TRP channels), and inflammatory signals in different pain modalities, including neuropathic pain and chemotherapy-induced peripheral pain. In such a way, all this intense research activity will enable us to design individual and rational treatment strategies for pain relief, such as the use of molecular neurosurgery.

Investigating the human brainstem with structural and functional MRI

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192472 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-247-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The brainstem is one of the least understood parts of the human brain despite its prime importance for the maintenance of basic vital functions. Owing to its role as a relay station between spinal cord, cerebellum and neocortex, the brainstem contains vital nodes of all functional systems in the central nervous system, including the visual, auditory, gustatory, vestibular, somatic and visceral senses, and the somatomotor as well as autonomic nervous systems. While the brainstem has been extensively studied in animals using invasive methods, human studies remain scarce. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive and widely available method is one possibility to access the brainstem in humans and measure its structure as well as function. The close vicinity of the brainstem to large arteries and ventricles and the small size of the anatomical structures, however, place high demands on imaging as well as data analysis methods. Nevertheless, the field of brainstem-(f)MRI has significantly advanced in the past few years, largely due to the development of several new tools that facilitate studying this critical part of the human brain. Within this scope, the goal of this Research Topic is to compile work representing the state of the art in functional and structural MRI of the human brainstem.

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