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Advances in Plant-Hemipteran Interactions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453214 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-321-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Hemipterans encompass a large group of insect pests of plants that utilize mouthparts which are modified for piercing and consuming fluids from plants. In addition, hemipterans vector viral and bacterial diseases of plants. This book brings together a set of reviews and research papers that showcase the the range of activities being undertaken to advance our understanding of the multi-organismal interaction between plant, hemipterans and microbes.

Replication-Competent Reporter-Expressing Viruses

ISBN: 9783038422587 9783038422594 Year: Pages: XVI, 322 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-10-31 16:58:45
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Recombinant viruses expressing reporter fluorescent or bioluminescent proteins are an excellent option to evaluate the dynamics of viral infection progression in both cultured cells and/or validated animal models of viral infection. Reporter proteins are valid surrogates for direct detection of infected cells in vitro and in vivo, without the use of secondary methodologies to identify infected cells. By eliminating the need of secondary labeling, tractable replicating-competent, reporter-expressing viruses provide an ideal approach to monitor viral infections in real time, representing a significant advance in the study of the biology of viruses, to evaluate vaccination approaches, and to identify new therapeutics against viral infections using high-throughput screening settings. In this Special Issue “Replication-Competent Reporter-Expressing Viruses” we review replication-competent, reporter-expressing viruses belonging to different families, methods of characterization, and applications to facilitate the study of in vitro and in vivo viral infections. We also seek to discuss disadvantages and limitations associated with these reporter-expressing viruses. Finally, we provide rational future perspectives and additional avenues for the development, characterization, and applications of recombinant, reporter-expressing, competent viruses.

Emerging Approaches for Typing, Detection, Characterization, and Traceback of Escherichia coli

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451357 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-135-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Pathogenic Escherichia coli strains cause a large number of diseases in humans, including diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, urinary tract infections, and neonatal meningitis, while in animals they cause diseases such as calf scours and mastitis in cattle, post-weaning diarrhea and edema disease in pigs, and peritonitis and airsacculitis in chickens. The different E. coli pathotypes are characterized by the presence of specific sets of virulence-related genes. Therefore, it is not surprising that pathogenic E. coli constitutes a genetically heterogeneous family of bacteria, and they are continuing to evolve. Rapid and accurate molecular methods are critically needed to detect and trace pathogenic E. coli in food and animals. They are also needed for epidemiological investigations to enhance food safety, as well as animal and human health and to minimize the size and geographical extent of outbreaks. The serotype of E. coli strains has traditionally been determined using antisera raised against the >180 different O- (somatic) and 53 H- (flagellar) antigens. However, there are many problems associated with serotyping, including: it is labor-intensive and time consuming; cross reactivity of the antisera with different serogroups occurs; antisera are available only in specialized laboratories; and many strains are non-typeable. Molecular serotyping targeting O-group-specific genes within the E. coli O-antigen gene clusters and genes that are involved in encoding for the different flagellar types offers an improved approach for determining the E. coli O- and H-groups. Furthermore, molecular serotyping can be coupled with determination of specific sets of virulence genes carried by the strain offering the possibility to determine O-group, pathotype, and the pathogenic potential simultaneously. Sequencing of the O-antigen gene clusters of all of the known O-groups of E. coli is now complete, and the sequences have been deposited in the GenBank database. The sequence information has revealed that some E. coli serogroups have identical sequences while others have point mutations or insertion sequences and type as different serogroups in serological reactions. There are also a number of other ambiguities in serotyping that need to be resolved. Furthermore, new E. coli O-groups are being identified. Therefore, there is an essential need to resolve these issues and to revise the E. coli serotype nomenclature based on these findings. There are emerging technologies that can potentially be applied for molecular serotyping and detection and characterization of E. coli. On a related topic, the genome sequence of thousands of E. coli strains have been deposited in GenBank, and this information is revealing unique markers such as CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and virulence gene markers that could be used to identify E. coli pathotypes. Whole genome sequencing now provides the opportunity to study the role of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution and emergence of pathogenic E. coli strains. Whole genome sequencing approaches are being investigated for genotyping and outbreak investigation for regulatory and public health needs; however, there is a need for establishing bioinformatics pipelines able to handle large amounts of data as we move toward the use of genetic approaches for non-culture-based detection and characterization of E. coli and for outbreak investigations.

Emerging Approaches for Typing, Detection, Characterization, and Traceback of Escherichia coli, 2nd Edition

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454334 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-433-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Pathogenic Escherichia coli strains cause a large number of diseases in humans, including diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, urinary tract infections, and neonatal meningitis, while in animals they cause diseases such as calf scours and mastitis in cattle, post-weaning diarrhea and edema disease in pigs, and peritonitis and airsacculitis in chickens. The different E. coli pathotypes are characterized by the presence of specific sets of virulence-related genes. Therefore, it is not surprising that pathogenic E. coli constitutes a genetically heterogeneous family of bacteria, and they are continuing to evolve. Rapid and accurate molecular methods are critically needed to detect and trace pathogenic E. coli in food and animals. They are also needed for epidemiological investigations to enhance food safety, as well as animal and human health and to minimize the size and geographical extent of outbreaks. The serotype of E. coli strains has traditionally been determined using antisera raised against the >180 different O- (somatic) and 53 H- (flagellar) antigens. However, there are many problems associated with serotyping, including: it is labor-intensive and time consuming; cross reactivity of the antisera with different serogroups occurs; antisera are available only in specialized laboratories; and many strains are non-typeable. Molecular serotyping targeting O-group-specific genes within the E. coli O-antigen gene clusters and genes that are involved in encoding for the different flagellar types offers an improved approach for determining the E. coliO- and H-groups. Furthermore, molecular serotyping can be coupled with determination of specific sets of virulence genes carried by the strain offering the possibility to determine O-group, pathotype, and the pathogenic potential simultaneously. Sequencing of the O-antigen gene clusters of all of the known O-groups of E. coli is now complete, and the sequences have been deposited in the GenBank database. The sequence information has revealed that some E. coli serogroups have identical sequences while others have point mutations or insertion sequences and type as different serogroups in serological reactions. There are also a number of other ambiguities in serotyping that need to be resolved. Furthermore, new E. coli O-groups are being identified. Therefore, there is an essential need to resolve these issues and to revise the E. coli serotype nomenclature based on these findings. There are emerging technologies that can potentially be applied for molecular serotyping and detection and characterization of E. coli. On a related topic, the genome sequence of thousands of E. coli strains have been deposited in GenBank, and this information is revealing unique markers such as CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and virulence gene markers that could be used to identify E. coli pathotypes. Whole genome sequencing now provides the opportunity to study the role of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution and emergence of pathogenic E. coli strains. Whole genome sequencing approaches are being investigated for genotyping and outbreak investigation for regulatory and public health needs; however, there is a need for establishing bioinformatics pipelines able to handle large amounts of data as we move toward the use of genetic approaches for non-culture-based detection and characterization of E. coli and for outbreak investigations.

The Identification of the Genetic Components of Autism Spectrum Disorders 2017

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ISBN: 9783038425205 9783038425212 Year: Pages: X, 462 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-27 12:54:46
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This textbook is dedicated to the study of genetic factors contributing to autism and includes a collection of original research and review articles related to this topic. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include a collection of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three recognized behavioral domains involving difficulties in communication, social interaction and repetitive behavior. ASD affects 1 to 2 percent of children and is on the increase worldwide. Significant genetic contributions and mechanisms underlie the causation of ASD. Advances in genetic technology and better awareness have led to a diagnosis of 50 to 70 percent of individuals with ASD primarily due to chromosomal abnormalities, submicroscopic deletions or duplications now identified with high-resolution microarray analysis, next-generation DNA (exome) sequencing of gene variants or mutations, recognized single gene disorders or metabolic disturbances. Through discovery by searching genomic databases and peer-reviewed research articles, nearly 800 genes have been identified to contribute to ASD. Highlights in the field of autism research, discovery and identification of genetic components with characterization will be addressed. Furthermore, reviews of current understanding of the causes and diagnostic approaches for ASD and related syndromes will be presented along with discussion of psychiatric/behavior comorbidities and related features, environmental risk factors, parental attitudes and treatment.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters

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ISBN: 9783038976080 9783038976097 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-609-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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This Special Issue on Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters features 11 articles on the monitoring and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in natural aquatic systems (i.e., reservoirs, rivers), and effluent discharge from water treatment plants to assess the effectiveness of AMR removal and resulting loads in treated waters.&nbsp;Some of the key elements of AMR studies presented in this Special Issue highlight the underlying drivers of AMR contamination in the environment and the evaluation of the hazard imposed on aquatic organisms in receiving environments through ecological risk assessments. As described in this Issue, screening antimicrobial peptide (AMP) libraries for biofilm disruption and antimicrobial candidates are promising avenues for the development of new treatment options to eradicate resistance.

New Directions in Dental Anthropology: Paradigms, methodologies and outcomes

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9780987171870 Year: Pages: 147 DOI: 10.1017/9780987171870 Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Anthropology
Added to DOAB on : 2012-05-14 07:35:12
License: University of Adelaide Press

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This book contains papers arising from a symposium held during a combined meeting of The International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences (IUAES), The Australian Anthropological Society (AAS) and The Association of Social Anthropologists of Aotearoa New Zealand at the University of Western Australia from July 5-8th, 2011. It follows on from a recently published Special Issue Supplement of Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 54, December 2009 that contains papers from an International Workshop on Oral Growth and Development held in Liverpool in 2007 and edited by Professor Alan Brook. Together, these two publications provide a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art approaches to study dental development and variation, and open up opportunities for future collaborative research initiatives, a key aim of the International Collaborating Network in Oro-facial Genetics and Development that was founded in Liverpool in 2007. The aim of the symposium held at The University of Western Australia in 2011 was to emphasise some of the powerful new strategies offered by the science of dental anthropology to elucidate the historical lineage of human groups and also to reconstruct environmental factors that have acted on the teeth by analysing dental morphological features. In recent years, migration, as well as increases and decreases in the size of different human populations, have been evident as a result of globalisation. Dental features are also changing associated with changes in nutritional status, different economic or social circumstances, and intermarriage between peoples. Dental anthropological studies have explored these changes with the use of advanced techniques and refined methodologies. New paradigms are also evolving in the field of dental anthropology. When considered together with the recent special issue of Archives of Oral Biology that highlighted the importance of research approaches focused at both the molecular and phenotypic levels, it is clear that we have now reached a very exciting stage in our ability to address key questions and issues about the normal and abnormal development of the dentition, as well as the diseases that commonly affect our teeth and gums.

Plant Development and Organogenesis: From Basic Principles to Applied Research

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ISBN: 9783039281268 9783039281275 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-127-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Plant Sciences --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The way plants grow and develop organs significantly impacts the overall performance and yield of crop plants. The basic knowledge now available in plant development has the potential to help breeders in generating plants with defined architectural features to improve productivity. Plant translational research effort has steadily increased over the last decade due to the huge increase in the availability of crop genomic resources and Arabidopsis-based sequence annotation systems. However, a consistent gap between fundamental and applied science has yet to be filled. One critical point often brought up is the unreadiness of developmental biologists on one side to foresee agricultural applications for their discoveries, and of the breeders to exploit gene function studies to apply to candidate gene approaches when advantageous on the other. In this book, both developmental biologists and breeders make a special effort to reconcile research on the basic principles of plant development and organogenesis with its applications to crop production and genetic improvement. Fundamental and applied science contributions intertwine and chase each other, giving the reader different but complementary perspectives from only apparently distant corners of the same world.

Keywords

wheat-rye hybrids --- genes of reproductive isolation --- stem apical meristem --- molecular marker --- Rht18 --- reduced height --- wheat --- semi-dwarf --- linkage map --- CLE --- CLV --- WUS --- stem cells --- meristem --- SAM --- signaling --- locule --- Arabidopsis --- auxin --- HD-Zip transcription factors --- light environment --- photoreceptors --- wounding --- root plasticity --- hydrogen peroxide --- protoxylem --- plant development and organogenesis --- proline biosynthesis --- RolD --- rol genes --- Vasculature --- Organogenesis --- Development --- Brassicaceae --- Asteraceae --- flowering time --- photoperiod --- vernalization --- ambient temperature --- gibberellins --- age --- plant breeding --- grass --- ligule --- organogenesis --- boundaries --- shoot meristem --- morphogenesis --- molecular regulation --- cell wall --- cytoskeleton --- Arabidopsis --- root --- stem cells --- root development --- differentiation --- ground tissue --- radial patterning --- proximodistal patterning --- Plant in vitro cultures --- somatic cell selection --- hairy roots --- rol genes --- Agrobacterium rhizogenes --- genetic transformation --- recalcitrant species --- KNOX transcription factors --- plant development --- tree phase change --- transformation --- morphogenic --- embryogenesis --- meristem formation --- organogenesis --- GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3) IAA-amido synthase group II --- root apical meristem --- auxin --- cytokinin --- lateral root cap --- auxin minimum --- auxin conjugation --- plant development and organogenesis --- translational research --- crop productivity --- genetic improvement --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- regulatory networks --- phytohormones --- rol genes --- plant cell and tissue culture

Genetic Determinants of Human Longevity

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039216789 9783039216796 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-679-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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In the last two decades, due to the continuous increase of lifespans in Westernsocieties, and the consequent growing of the elderly population, have witnessedan increase in the number of studies on biological and molecular factors able topromote healthy aging and reach longevity. The study of the genetic componentof human longevity demonstrated that it accounts for 25% of intra populationphenotype variance. The efforts made to characterize the genetic determinantssuggested that the maintenance of cellular integrity, inflammation, oxidativestress response, DNA repair, as well as the use of nutrients, represent the mostimportant pathways correlated with a longer lifespan. However, although aplethora of variants were indicated to be associated with human longevity, onlyvery few were successfully replicated in different populations, probably becauseof population specificity, missing heritability as well as a complex interactionamong genetic factors with lifestyle and cultural factors, which modulate theindividual chance of living longer. Thus, many challenges remain to be addressedin the search for the genetic components of human longevity. This Special Issue isaimed to unify the progress in the analysis of the genetic determinants of humanlongevity, to take stock of the situation and point to future directions of the field.We invite submissions for reviews, research articles, short-communicationsdealing with genetic association studies in human longevity, including all types ofgenetic variation, as well as the characterization of longevity-related genes.

Plant Genetics and Molecular Breeding

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ISBN: 9783039211753 9783039211760 Year: Pages: 628 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-176-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The development of new plant varieties is a long and tedious process involving the generation of large seedling populations for the selection of the best individuals. While the ability of breeders to generate large populations is almost unlimited, the selection of these seedlings is the main factor limiting the generation of new cultivars. Molecular studies for the development of marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategies are particularly useful when the evaluation of the character is expensive, time-consuming, or with long juvenile periods. The papers published in the Special Issue “Plant Genetics and Molecular Breeding” report highly novel results and testable new models for the integrative analysis of genetic (phenotyping and transmission of agronomic characters), physiology (flowering, ripening, organ development), genomic (DNA regions responsible for the different agronomic characters), transcriptomic (gene expression analysis of the characters), proteomic (proteins and enzymes involved in the expression of the characters), metabolomic (secondary metabolites), and epigenetic (DNA methylation and histone modifications) approaches for the development of new MAS strategies. These molecular approaches together with an increasingly accurate phenotyping will facilitate the breeding of new climate-resilient varieties resistant to abiotic and biotic stress, with suitable productivity and quality, to extend the adaptation and viability of the current varieties.

Keywords

sugarcane --- cry2A gene --- particle bombardment --- stem borer --- resistance --- NPK fertilizers --- agronomic traits --- molecular markers --- quantitative trait loci --- common wild rice --- Promoter --- Green tissue-specific expression --- light-induced --- transgenic chrysanthemum --- WRKY transcription factor --- salt stress --- gene expression --- DgWRKY2 --- Cucumis sativus L. --- RNA-Seq --- DEGs --- sucrose --- ABA --- drought stress --- Aechmea fasciata --- squamosa promoter binding protein-like --- flowering time --- plant architecture --- bromeliad --- Oryza sativa --- endosperm development --- rice quality --- WB1 --- the modified MutMap method --- abiotic stress --- Cicer arietinum --- candidate genes --- genetics --- heat-stress --- molecular breeding --- metallothionein --- Brassica --- Brassica napus --- As3+ stress --- broccoli --- cytoplasmic male sterile --- bud abortion --- gene expression --- transcriptome --- RNA-Seq --- sesame --- genome-wide association study --- yield --- QTL --- candidate gene --- cabbage --- yellow-green-leaf mutant --- recombination-suppressed region --- bulk segregant RNA-seq --- differentially expressed genes --- marker–trait association --- haplotype block --- genes --- root traits --- D-genome --- genotyping-by-sequencing --- single nucleotide polymorphism --- durum wheat --- bread wheat --- complex traits --- Brassica oleracea --- Ogura-CMS --- iTRAQ --- transcriptome --- pollen development --- rice --- OsCDPK1 --- seed development, starch biosynthesis --- endosperm appearance --- Chimonanthus praecox --- nectary --- floral scent --- gene expression --- Prunus --- flowering --- bisulfite sequencing --- genomics --- epigenetics --- breeding --- AP2/ERF genes --- Bryum argenteum --- transcriptome --- gene expression --- stress tolerance --- SmJMT --- transgenic --- Salvia miltiorrhiza --- overexpression --- transcriptome --- phenolic acids --- Idesia polycarpa var --- glycine --- FAD2 --- linoleic acid --- oleic acid --- anther wall --- tapetum --- pollen accumulation --- OsGPAT3 --- rice --- cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) --- phytohormones --- differentially expressed genes --- pollen development --- Brassica napus --- Rosa rugosa --- RrGT2 gene --- Clone --- VIGS --- Overexpression --- Tobacco --- Flower color --- Anthocyanin --- sugarcane --- WRKY --- subcellular localization --- gene expression pattern --- protein-protein interaction --- transient overexpression --- soybean --- branching --- genome-wide association study (GWAS) --- near-isogenic line (NIL) --- BRANCHED1 (BRC1) --- TCP transcription factor --- Zea mays L. --- MADS transcription factor --- ZmES22 --- starch --- flowering time --- gene-by-gene interaction --- Hd1 --- Ghd7 --- rice --- yield trait --- Oryza sativa L. --- leaf shape --- yield trait --- molecular breeding --- hybrid rice --- nutrient use efficiency --- quantitative trait loci (QTLs), molecular markers --- agronomic efficiency --- partial factor productivity --- P. suffruticosa --- R2R3-MYB --- overexpression --- anthocyanin --- transcriptional regulation --- ethylene-responsive factor --- Actinidia deliciosa --- AdRAP2.3 --- gene expression --- waterlogging stress --- regulation --- Chrysanthemum morifolium --- WUS --- CYC2 --- gynomonoecy --- reproductive organ --- flower symmetry --- Hs1pro-1 --- cZR3 --- gene pyramiding --- Heterodera schachtii --- resistance --- tomato --- Elongated Internode (EI) --- QTL --- GA2ox7 --- n/a

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