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Chapter 28 Genomics in emerging and developing economies (Book chapter)

Book title: Routledge Handbook of Genomics, Health and Society

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781138211957 9781315451695 Year: Pages: 12 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-28 11:01:58
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Low and middle-income countries have become a site of increasing research interest and investment with the transnational expansion and spread of genomic knowledge and technologies (Kumar 2012, Seguin et al. 2008). This reflects a dynamic terrain in which genomics is being harnessed to address a range of healthcare challenges.

Starting with the End in Mind by Developing Diagnostics around User Needs (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9781498772938 Year: Pages: 14 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:46:28
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As discussed in this chapter, the commercialization and adoption bottlenecks for these moderately complex diagnostics cannot be overcome by technological innovation alone, particularly in the highly regulated and payer-limited healthcare and public health markets. Diagnostics, unlike other clinical products, is not an intervention but a decision-aid that guides the use (or nonuse) of an intervention. It is important that the value proposition for any technology-centric innovation in diagnostics include a strong link to a gained efficiency in making a specific decision. Any assay developed without context to the system, users, decision points, and downstream interventions resembles one that is more targeted to the research community, rather than clinical care or public health.

KfW Water Symposium 2009

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ISBN: 9781780401515 Year: DOI: 10.2166/9781780401515 Language: English
Publisher: IWA Publishing
Subject: Environmental Technology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-16 11:02:28
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"The central objective of the International Year of Sanitation was to put the global community on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goals MDG sanitation target. However, one year later, it is still difficult to keep sanitation high on the agenda, while practical action is required to encourage demand driven and sustainable solutions. With the support of the German Ministry for Development and Cooperation and together with the European Investment Bank EIB and the French Development Agency AFD, KfW organised a two day Symposium to specifically address ways in which financing institutions can better promote the achievement of the MDG sanitation target. More than 70 experts from various backgrounds explored the challenges of sanitation and discussed ways to further develop innovative financing mechanisms for improved hygiene, sanitation and wastewater management in low-income countries. Four thematic areas were tackled by detailed background papers, presentations and high-level open floor discussions. Session 1: Financing Change in Personal Hygiene Behaviour and Demand Creation for Sanitation Motivation This section contains a rapid review of past experiences in developed countries and the evolution of methods used in developing countries to change hygiene and sanitation behaviors, including successes and failures. Relative costs and impacts, the role of institutional arrangements and actors, as well as approaches for linking hygiene behavior change and sanitation demand creation (so called software investments) with hardware investments are examined. Finally, considerations and opportunities for development banks and other financing agencies to become engaged in the scale-up of hygiene behavior change and sanitation demand creation approaches which have demonstrated success are presented. Session 2: Targeting the Poor with Facilities and Improved Services Motivation The interventions that can help poor people to access sanitation goods and services are examined. The focus is on three types of interventions: the use of low-cost technologies, the use of micro-credit and the use of targeted public finance (or subsidies) to reduce the funding gap that poor people face to meet the capital and recurrent costs of sustainable sanitation. Targeted public finance, performance assessment, effectiveness, sustainability, public funding strategies and performance are analysed. Session 3: Urban Spaces - How to Provide and Finance Service to Peri-urban Areas New approaches to meet sanitation challenges arising from absolute population growth and rapid urbanization are examined from a technical point of view. Simplified solutions and semi-centralised supply and treatment systems are examined in detail and with the help of examples. Session 4: The Potential Role of Utilities in Sanitation Provision for Peri-urban Areas and Poor Target Groups The question why sanitation service provision by local government authorities is poor is addressed. Examples of how water supply and sanitation utilities are being encouraged to support peri-urban areas and poor target groups with the provision of sanitation services are provided. The difficulties of utilities to provide piped water and sewers in a commercially viable manner is addressed. The role of local government authorities, of the regulatory framework, of education and public awareness is highlighted. A theme that appeared in all four sessions concerned the process of project design by development banks. Recommendations to improve it in order to best tackle sanitation issues were as follows: 1. address the entire sanitation chain 2. plan for all urban areas including informal housing areas and slums 3. ensure the sustainable operation of all sections of the sanitation chain (long-term effectiveness). For the full proceedings and the main findings and recommendations, please visit www.iwaponline.com to download free of charge."

Measuring Poverty and Wellbeing in Developing Countries

Authors: ---
Book Series: WIDER Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9780198744818 9780198744801 Year: Pages: 384 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198744801.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: UNU WIDER
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-27 11:01:19
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Detailed analyses of poverty and wellbeing in developing countries, based on household surveys, have been ongoing for more than three decades. The large majority of developing countries now regularly conduct a variety of household surveys, and their information base with respect to poverty and wellbeing has improved dramatically. Nevertheless, appropriate measurement of poverty remains complex and controversial. This is particularly true in developing countries where (i) the stakes with respect to poverty reduction are high; (ii) the determinants of living standards are often volatile; and (iii) related information bases, while much improved, are often characterized by significant non-sample error. It also remains, to a surprisingly high degree, an activity undertaken by technical assistance personnel and consultants based in developed countries. This book seeks to enhance the transparency, replicability, and comparability of existing practice. It also aims to significantly lower the barriers to entry to the conduct of rigorous poverty measurement and increase the participation of analysts from developing countries in their own poverty assessments. The book focuses on two domains: the measurement of absolute consumption poverty and a first-order dominance approach to multidimensional welfare analysis. In each domain, it provides a series of computer codes designed to facilitate analysis by allowing the analyst to start from a flexible and known base. The volume covers the theoretical grounding for the code streams provided, a chapter on ‘estimation in practice’, a series of eleven case studies where the code streams are operationalized, a synthesis, an extension to inequality, and a look forward.

Open Data in Developing Economies: Toward Building an Evidence Base on What Works and How

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781928331599 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1063903 Language: English
Publisher: African Minds
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-21 09:32:18
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Recent years have witnessed considerable speculation about the potential of open data to bring about wide-scale transformation. The bulk of existing evidence about the impact of open data, however, focuses on high-income countries. Much less is known about open data’s role and value in low- and middle-income countries, and more generally about its possible contributions to economic and social development.Open Data for Developing Economies features in-depth case studies on how open data is having an impact across the developing world-from an agriculture initiative in Colombia to data-driven healthcare projects in Uganda and South Africa to crisis response in Nepal. The analysis built on these case studies aims to create actionable intelligence regarding: (a) the conditions under which open data is most (and least) effective in development, presented in the form of a Periodic Table of Open Data; (b) strategies to maximize the positive contributions of open data to development; and (c) the means for limiting open data’s harms on developing countries.

Natural Water Treatment Systems for Safe and Sustainable Water Supply in the Indian Context

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781780407111 9781780407104 Year: Pages: 342 DOI: 10.2166/9781780408392 Language: English
Publisher: IWA Publishing Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 282911
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-30 11:02:29
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"Natural Water Treatment Systems for Safe and Sustainable Water Supply in the Indian Context is based on the work from the Saph Pani project (Hindi word meaning potable water). The book aims to study and improve natural water treatment systems, such as River Bank Filtration (RBF), Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR), and wetlands in India, building local and European expertise in this field. The project aims to enhance water resources and water supply, particularly in water stressed urban and peri urban areas in different parts of the Indian sub-continent. This project is co-funded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework (FP7) scheme of small or medium scale focused research projects for specific cooperation actions (SICA) dedicated to international cooperation partner countries. Natural Water Treatment Systems for Safe and Sustainable Water Supply in the Indian Context provides: an introduction to the concepts of natural water treatment systems (MAR, RBF, wetlands) at national and international level knowledge of the basics of MAR, RBF and wetlands, methods and hydrogeological characterisation an insight into case studies in India and abroad. This book is a useful resource for teaching at Post Graduate level, for research and professional reference."

Negotiating Gender Equity in the Global South

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Routledge ISS Gender, Sexuality and Development Studies ISBN: 9780815372356 9781351245623 Year: Pages: 262 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-26 11:21:03
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The fact that women have achieved higher levels of political inclusion within low- and middle-income countries has generated much speculation about whether this is reaping broader benefits in tackling gender-based inequalities. This book uncovers the multiple political dynamics that influence governments to adopt and implement gender equity policies, pushing the debate beyond simply the role of women’s inclusion in influencing policy. Bringing the politics of development into discussion with feminist literature on women's empowerment, the book proposes the new concept of ‘power domains’ as a way to capture how inter-elite bargaining, coalitional politics, and social movement activism combine to shape policies that promote gender equity. In particular, the book investigates the conditions under which countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have adopted legislation against domestic violence, which remains widespread in many developing countries. The book demonstrates that women’s presence in formal politics and policy spaces does not fully explain the pace in adopting and implementing domestic violence law. Underlying drivers of change within broader domains of power also include the role of clientelistic politics and informal processes of bargaining, coalition-building, and persuasion; the discursive framing of gender-equitable ideas; and how transnational norms influence women’s political inclusion and gender-inclusive policy outcomes. The comparative approach across Uganda, Rwanda, South Africa, Ghana, India, and Bangladesh demonstrates how advancing gender equality varies by political context and according to the interests surrounding a particular issue.

Managing Development

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9780203015292 9780415364102 9780415649872 9781134225583 9781134225576 9781134225538 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203015292 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:19
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Globalization in the 1990s provided both opportunities and challenges for developing and transition economies. Though for some, it offered the chance to achieve economic growth through active involvement in the integrated and liberalized world economy, it also increased their vulnerability to external shocks and volatility. As a consequence, stakeholders at every level of the development and transition process – international organizations, national governments and the private sector – had to review their strategies in order to adjust to the new world economic environment. As the Mexican peso crisis of 1994-1995 and the Asian financial crisis of 1997-1998 showed dramatically, the cost of maladjustment was not only very high but it also affected many more stakeholders than before, due to the contagious effects of crises. This revealing book analyzes the different methods employed to manage globalization and development. Bringing together an international team of contributors, including Barbara Stallings, Alicia Giron and J. C. Ferraz, it will prove to be a valuable resource for those involved in the fields of development economics and political economy.

Keywords

latin --- america --- transition --- economies --- east --- asian --- countries --- developing --- country --- world

International Trade Policy

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ISBN: 9780203027882 9780415068789 9780415068796 9781134915224 9781134915217 9781134915170 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203027882 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:21
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This volume provides an introduction to the basic theory behind international trade policy. The author analyses current policy issues within a theoretical framework. The book adopts a thematic approach, with each chapter examining a different issue - each of which is of central importance to contemporary trade policy. The book will be essential for all those who want to understand what governments do, in terms of trade policy and how they do it.

Keywords

developing --- country --- uruguay --- round --- voluntary --- export --- restraints --- countervailing --- duties --- tokyo

Agriculture and The World Trade Organisation : Indian and French Perspectives

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9782735118519 DOI: 10.4000/books.editionsmsh.7534 Language: English
Publisher: Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l’homme
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:30
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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The present volume offers to the reader a multi-faceted dialogue between noted experts from two major agricultural countries, both founding members of the Word Trade Organisation, each one with different stakes in the great globalisation game: France, the world's second-ranking exporter of agricultural products and headquarters of a number of very active agro-business companies; and India, crossing the one billion population mark while emerging from its traditional protectionism, and legitimately concerned about preserving the interests of its huge farming community and not falling victim to the profit logic of the multinational corporations. After providing the recent historical background of agricultural policies in India and France, the contributors address burning issues related to market and regulation, food security and food safety, the expected benefits from the WTO and the genuine problems raised by the new forms of international trade in agriculture, including the sensitive question of intellectual property rights in bio-technologies. Whatever the differences between the two countries, and eventually their conflict of interests, this informed volume underlines the necessity of moving beyond the North-South divide, in order to address the real challenges of the future; a fair global order in a sector vital for the world, the multi-functionality of agriculture, the access for all to secure and safe food, the preservation of common goods and the ethical dimension of science and technology.

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