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Interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi with Host Cells

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193370 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-337-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2013-09-03 13:00:53
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Abstract

Trypanosoma cruzi is a pathogenic protozoan of the Trypanosomatidade Family, which is the etiological agent of Chagas’ disease. Chagas’ disease stands out for being endemic among countries in Latin America, affecting about 15 million people. Recently, Chagas has become remarkable in European countries as well due to cases of transmission via infected blood transfusion. An important factor that has exacerbated the epidemiological picture in Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela is infection after the oral intake of contaminated foods such as sugar cane, açai and bacaba juices. Trypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular protozoan that exhibits a complex life cycle, involving multiple developmental stages found in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. In vertebrate hosts, the trypomastigote form invades a large variety of nucleated cells using multiple mechanisms. The invasion process involves several steps: (a) attraction of the protozoan to interact with the host cell surface; (b) parasite-host cell recognition; (c) adhesion of the parasite to the host cell surface; (d) cell signalling events that culminate in the internalization of the parasite through endocytic processes; (e) biogenesis of a large vacuole where the parasite is initially located, and is also known as parasitophorous vacuole (PV); (f) participation of endocytic pathway components in the internalization process; (g) participation of cytoskeleton components in the internalization process; (h) transformation of the trypomastigote into the amastigote form within the PV; (i) lysis of the membrane of the PV; (j) multiplication of amastigotes within the host cell in direct contact with cell structures and organelles; (k) transformation of amastigotes into trypomastigotes, and (l) rupture of the host cell releasing trypomastigotes into the extracellular space. The kinetics of the interaction process and even the fate of the parasite within the cell vary according to the nature of the host cell and its state of immunological activation.

Chemical Biology of Sterols, Triterpenoids and Other Natural Products: A Themed Issue in Honor of Professor W. David Nes on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday

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ISBN: 9783038974161 9783038974178 Year: Pages: 256 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-417-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Sterols and other isoprenoids are of great interest for their molecular structure and function in cell architecture and evolution, as well as for their importance in medicine and agriculture. Molecules’ 2019 Festschrift Special Issue in honor of the 65th birthday of Prof. W. David Nes, an internationally recognized chemical biologist and recipient of the George Schroepher medal for sterol research, focuses on recent developments in the chemistry, biosynthesis, and function of these polycyclic natural products. This volume of Molecules contains 16 leading-edge review articles and original research contributions from an international cast of scientists. This volume is grouped into three sections: (i) isoprenoid metabolome and diversity, (ii) clinical evaluation of sterol and triterpene structures and biosynthesis, and (iii) methods and synthesis of steroids and other compounds. The volume will be a valuable reference tool for those who study medicinal chemistry, protein chemistry, and biochemistry of isoprenoid lipids.

Keywords

Zingiber officinale --- gingerols --- cytotoxic activity --- oleanolic acid --- high-fat high-carbohydrate diet --- pre-diabetes --- glucose homeostasis --- insulin resistance --- atherosclerosis --- ROS --- HUVECs --- LOX-1 --- alkaloid --- granatane --- N-methylcadaverine --- N-methylpiperidine. reductive deamination --- Mucorales --- Rhizopus arrhizus --- sterol pattern --- antifungal effectivity --- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) --- posaconazole --- sterol biosynthesis --- sterol 14?-demethylase --- sterol C24-methyltransferase --- mechanism-based inactivators --- antifungals --- azoles --- antiparasitic drugs --- human African trypanosomiasis --- Chagas disease --- synthesis --- squalene cyclase --- cycloartenol synthase --- triterpene --- fern --- Polystichum --- terpene --- isoprenoid --- divalent metal co-factor ligation --- antioxidant --- cholesterol --- degeneration --- oxysterol --- retina --- Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome --- algal sterols --- ergosterol biosynthesis --- infectious disease --- lipidomics --- oxyphytosterol --- pharmacognosy --- phytosterol --- sterolomics --- lupeol --- keratinocytes --- fibroblasts --- wound healing --- cell migration --- UV-radiation --- ZnO --- toxicity --- sterol content --- cholesterol --- leishmania --- solanaceae --- withanolides --- aurelianolides --- phytosterols --- mesocarp --- oilseed --- maturity --- pod-blast --- ?-tocopherol --- oil bodies --- campesterol --- stigmasterol --- ?-sitosterol --- sterol --- C4-demethylation complex (C4DMC) --- 4-methylsterol --- hormone --- steroid --- development --- genetic disease --- bile alcohol --- cholestanoic acid --- oxysterol --- sterolomics --- enzyme-assisted derivatization --- electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry --- Girard reagent --- n/a

Arthropod Venom Components and Their Potential Usage

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ISBN: 9783039285402 9783039285419 Year: Pages: 404 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-541-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Thousands of arthropod species, ranging from arachnids (spiders and scorpions) to hymenopterans (ants, bees, and wasps) and myriapods (centipedes), are venomous and use their venoms for both defense and predation. These venoms are invariably harmful to humans, and some may cause serious injuries, e.g., those from scorpions, spiders, and wasps. Arthropods’ venoms are also known as rich sources of biologically active compounds and have attracted the attention of toxin researchers for years. In this century, venom component analysis has progressed considerable due to the advances in analytical techniques, in particular, mass spectrometry and next-generation deep (DNA and RNA) sequencing. As such, proteomic and peptidomic analyses using LC–MS have enabled the full analysis of venom components, revealing a variety of novel peptide and protein toxins sequences and scaffolds, potentially useful as pharmacological research tools and for the development of highly selective peptide ligands and therapeutic leads, like chlorotoxin. Due to their specificity for numerous ion-channel subtypes, including voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, arthropod neurotoxins have been investigated to dissect and treat neurodegenerative diseases and control epileptic syndromes. This Special Issue collects information on such progress, encouraging contributions on the chemical and biological characterization of venom components, not only peptides and proteins, but also small molecules, their mechanisms of action, and the development of venom-derived peptide leads.

Keywords

ant --- venom --- mass spectrometry analysis --- pilosulin-like peptide --- phospholipases D --- metalloproteases --- Loxosceles spp. --- recombinant toxins --- hybrid immunogen --- neutralizing antibodies --- antivenoms --- LyeTxI-b --- Staphylococcus aureus --- keratitis --- AMP --- mastoparan --- Acinetobacter baumannii --- stent --- cantharidin --- blister beetle --- Berberomeloe majalis --- nematicide --- ixodicide --- antifeedant --- scorpion venom --- insecticidal peptide --- mass spectrometric analysis --- de novo sequencing --- Centruroides limpidus Karch --- proteome --- scorpion --- transcriptome --- venom toxicity --- brown spider --- venom --- Loxosceles --- toxins --- biotools --- drug targets --- novel therapeutics --- spider toxin --- directed disulfide bond formation --- Nav channel activity --- Nav1.7 --- pain target --- automated patch-clamp --- bee venom --- alternative treatment --- skin --- cutaneous disease --- mechanism --- chemotherapy --- cold allodynia --- mechanical allodynia --- melittin --- neuropathic pain --- oxaliplatin --- natural antibiotics --- piperidine heterocyclic amines --- industrial biotechnology --- LTQ Orbitrap Hybrid Mass Spectrometer --- myrmecology --- venom --- pain --- ants --- wasps --- bees --- Hymenoptera --- envenomation --- toxins --- peptides --- pharmacology --- Dinoponera quadriceps --- Formicidae --- Hymenoptera venom --- proteomics --- venom allergens --- ICK-like toxins --- melittin --- insect immune system --- apoptosis --- heart contractility --- Tenebrio molitor --- bee venom --- bioinformatics --- computational docking --- homology modelling --- ion channel structure --- protein–peptide interactions --- tertiapin --- venom peptides --- virtual screening --- small hive beetle --- solitary wasp --- venom --- antimicrobial peptide --- linear cationic ?-helical peptide --- amphipathic ?-helix structure --- channel-like pore-forming activity --- antimicrobial peptide --- venom --- arthropod --- malaria --- Chagas disease --- human African trypanosomiasis --- leishmaniasis --- toxoplasmosis --- venom peptides --- FMRF-amide --- insect neurotoxin --- protons --- pH regulation --- acid-sensing ion channels --- acid-gated currents --- chronic pain --- ICK peptide --- knottins --- NaV --- spider venom --- voltage-gated sodium channel --- n/a

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