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Autonomy, Rationality, and Contemporary Bioethics

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ISBN: 9780198858584 Year: Pages: 298 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198858584.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 086041
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-15 04:51:06
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Personal autonomy is often lauded as a key value in contemporary Western bioethics, and the claim that there is an important relationship between autonomy and rationality is often treated as an uncontroversial claim in this sphere. Yet, there is also considerable disagreement about how we should cash out the relationship between rationality and autonomy. In particular, it is unclear whether a rationalist view of autonomy can be compatible with legal judgments that enshrine a patient’s right to refuse medical treatment, regardless of whether “. . . the reasons for making the choice are rational, irrational, unknown or even non-existent”. In this book, I bring recent philosophical work on the nature of rationality to bear on the question of how we should understand autonomy in contemporary bioethics. In doing so, I develop a new framework for thinking about the concept, one that is grounded in an understanding of the different roles that rational beliefs and rational desires have to play in personal autonomy. Furthermore, the account outlined here allows for a deeper understanding of different form of controlling influence, and the relationship between our freedom to act, and our capacity to decide autonomously. I contrast my rationalist with other prominent accounts of autonomy in bioethics, and outline the revisionary implications it has for various practical questions in bioethics in which autonomy is a salient concern, including questions about the nature of informed consent and decision-making capacity.

Keywords

bioethics --- autonomy --- rationality

Experiments in self-determination: Histories of the outstation movement in Australia

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781925022896 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_605752 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Ethnology --- Sociology --- History --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-08 11:01:18
License: ANU Press

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Outstations, which dramatically increased in numbers in the 1970s, are small, decentralised and relatively permanent communities of kin established by Aboriginal people on land that has social, cultural or economic significance to them. In 2015 they yet again came under attack, this time as an expensive lifestyle choice that can no longer be supported by state governments. Yet outstations are the original, and most striking, manifestation of remote-area Aboriginal people’s aspirations for self-determination, and of the life projects by which they seek, and have sought, autonomy in deciding the meaning of their life independently of projects promoted by the state and market. They are not simply projects of isolation from outside influences, as they have sometimes been characterised, but attempts by people to take control of the course of their lives. In the sometimes acrimonious debates about outstations, the lived experiences, motivations and histories of existing communities are missing. For this reason, we invited a number of anthropological witnesses to the early period in which outstations gained a purchase in remote Australia to provide accounts of what these communities were like, and what their residents’ aspirations and experiences were. Our hope is that these closer-to-the-ground accounts provide insight into, and understanding of, what Indigenous aspirations were in the establishment and organisation of these communities.

Farewell to Freedom

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ISBN: 9781911534600 9781911534600 9781911534624 9781911534631 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.16997/book15 Language: English
Publisher: University of Westminster Press
Subject: Political Science --- Philosophy --- History --- Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:31
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Understandings of freedom are often discussed in moral, theological, legal and political terms, but they are not often set in a historical perspective, and they are even more rarely considered within their specific language context. From Homeric poems to contemporary works, the author traces the words that express the various notions of freedom in Classical Greek, Latin, and medieval and modern European idioms. Examining writers as varied as Plato, Aristotle, Luther, La Boétie, Hobbes, Rousseau, Kant, Stirner, Nietzsche, and Foucault among others, this theoretical mapping shows old and new boundaries of the horizon of freedom. The book suggests the possibility of transcending these boundaries on the basis of a different theorization of human interactions, which constructs individual and collective subjects as processes rather than entities. This construction shifts and disseminates the very locus of freedom, whose vocabulary would be better recast as a relational middle path between autonomous and heteronomous alternatives.

Keywords

individual --- theology --- mastery --- liberty --- autonomy --- freedom

A Time Bomb Lies Buried

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Book Series: SSGM Monograph ISBN: 9781921313615 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459739 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Political Science --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2012-06-14 11:46:24
License: ANU Press

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A Time Bomb Lies Buried discusses the debates which took place in Suva and London as well as the politics and processes which led Fiji to independence in 1970 after 96 years of colonial rule. It provides an essential background to understanding the crises and convulsions which have haunted Fiji ever since in its search for a constitutional settlement for its multiethnic population.

Networked Governance of Freedom and Tyranny

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781921862762 Year: Pages: 365 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459392 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2012-06-14 11:46:25
License: ANU Press

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This book offers a new approach to the extraordinary story of Timor-Leste. The Indonesian invasion of the former Portuguese colony in 1975 was widely considered to have permanently crushed the Timorese independence movement. Initial international condemnation of the invasion was quickly replaced by widespread acceptance of Indonesian sovereignty. But inside Timor-Leste various resistance networks maintained their struggle, against all odds. Twenty-four years later, the Timorese were allowed to choose their political future and the new country of Timor-Leste came into being in 2002. This book presents freedom in Timor-Leste as an accomplishment of networked governance, arguing that weak networks are capable of controlling strong tyrannies. Yet, as events in Timor-Leste since independence show, the nodes of networks of freedom can themselves become nodes of tyranny. The authors argue that constant renewal of liberation networks is critical for peace with justice – feminist networks for the liberation of women, preventive diplomacy networks for liberation of victims of war, village development networks, civil society networks. Constant renewal of the separation of powers is also necessary. A case is made for a different way of seeing the separation of powers as constitutive of the republican ideal of freedom as non-domination. The book is also a critique of realism as a theory of international affairs and of the limits of reforming tyranny through the centralised agency of a state sovereign. Reversal of Indonesia’s 1975 invasion of Timor-Leste was an implausible accomplishment. Among the things that achieved it was principled engagement with Indonesia and its democracy movement by the Timor resistance. Unprincipled engagement by Australia and the United States in particular allowed the 1975 invasion to occur. The book argues that when the international community regulates tyranny responsively, with principled engagement, there is hope for a domestic politics of nonviolent transformation for freedom and justice. John Braithwaite and Hilary Charlesworth work in the Centre for International Justice and Governance, Regulatory Institutions Network, The Australian National University. Adérito Soares is the Anti-Corruption Commissioner for Timor-Leste.

Difficult Folk?

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ISBN: 9781845454500 9781785336638 9781785336638 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Berghahn Books Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101647
Subject: Anthropology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:13
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How should we tell the histories of academic disciplines? All too often, the political and institutional dimensions of knowledge production are lost beneath the intellectual debates. This book redresses the balance. Written in a narrative style and drawing on archival sources and oral histories, it depicts the complex pattern of personal and administrative relationships that shape scholarly worlds. Focusing on the field of social anthropology in twentieth-century Britain, this book describes individual, departmental and institutional rivalries over funding and influence. It examines the efforts of scholars such as Bronislaw Malinowski, Edward Evans-Pritchard and Max Gluckman to further their own visions for social anthropology. Did the future lie with the humanities or the social sciences, with addressing social problems or developing scholarly autonomy? This new history situates the discipline's rise within the post-war expansion of British universities and the challenges created by

Reconciliation and Architectures of Commitment: Sequencing peace in Bougainville

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781921666698 Year: Pages: 161 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459490 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Political Science --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2012-06-14 11:46:24
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Following a bloody civil war, peace consolidated slowly and sequentially in Bougainville. That sequence was of both a top-down architecture of credible commitment in a formal peace process and layer upon layer of bottom-up reconciliation. Reconciliation was based on indigenous traditions of peacemaking. It also drew on Christian traditions of reconciliation, on training in restorative justice principles and on innovation in womens’ peacebuilding. Peacekeepers opened safe spaces for reconciliation, but it was locals who shaped and owned the peace. There is much to learn from this distinctively indigenous peace architecture. It is a far cry from the norms of a ‘liberal peace’ or a ‘realist peace’. The authors describe it as a hybrid ‘restorative peace’ in which ‘mothers of the land’ and then male combatants linked arms in creative ways. A danger to Bougainville’s peace is weakness of international commitment to honour the result of a forthcoming independence referendum that is one central plank of the peace deal.

Foundations of Trusted Autonomy

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Studies in Systems, Decision and Control ISSN: 2198-4182 ISBN: 9783319648156 9783319648163 Year: Pages: 395 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64816-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: Defence Science and Technology Group, Department of Defence, Australia
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-26 16:59:49
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This book establishes the foundations needed to realize the ultimate goals for artificial intelligence, such as autonomy and trustworthiness.Aimed at scientists, researchers, technologists, practitioners, and students, it brings together contributions offering the basics, the challenges and the state-of-the-art on trusted autonomous systems in a single volume.The book is structured in three parts, with chapters written by eminent researchers and outstanding practitioners and users in the field. The first part covers foundational artificial intelligence technologies, while the second part covers philosophical, practical and technological perspectives on trust. Lastly, the third part presents advanced topics necessary to create future trusted autonomous systems.The book augments theory with real-world applications including cybersecurity, defence and space.

Thinking in Action

Authors: ---
Book Series: Hellenic-Serbian Philosophical Dialogue Series ISSN: 2623-3568 / 2623-3576 ISBN: 9786188372900 9786188372917 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 138 DOI: https://doi.org/10.12681/aprlp.16 Language: English
Publisher: NKUA Applied Philosophy Research Lab Press
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-07 14:48:27
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Action can only be spontaneous and impulsive if not guided by contemplation; contemplation, on the other hand, may only be luxurious playfulness if not either purposed - or suitable - to motivate action. This volume seeks to prove what may seem self-evident to common sense, but adhering to common sense is never pointless nor excessive. Next to this, Thinking in Action is the offspring of friendship, respect and commitment between two academic communities, the Hellenic and the Serbian philosophical communities, that admittedly have a lot in common, especially with regard to philosophy, and hopefully as many differences as needed in order to secure a long-lasting and fertile exchange of ideas; it is also the natural-born child of necessity: philosophy is about argumentation, debate and confrontation. Thinking in Action inaugurates Hellenic-Serbian Philosophical Dialogue Series that entertains no hesitation in being as ambitious as any philosophical series could be: it seeks to establish a permanent, wide and rich channel of fruitful philosophical interaction between the two philosophical communities. Having high aspirations is one thing; meeting these aspirations as well as the expectations of the reader is a totally different one. We wish Thinking in Action, the first volume of the Hellenic-Serbian Philosophical Dialogue Series, apart from being the initial step of a long journey, will also be a fascinating one to the reader.

Shared Grasping: a Combination of Telepresence and Grasp Planning

Author:
ISBN: 9783731504023 Year: Pages: X, 227 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000047718 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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''Shared Grasping'' describes a new approach to shared autonomy for grasping and manipulation tasks to be used in a telepresence system. It is realized with two assistance functionalities, which simplify the grasping, and a user interface, which merges haptic feedback and visual assistance. User studies confirm a reduction in operator workload and an increase in task performance while maintaining a high immersion of the operator into the remote environment when using the assistance functions.

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