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Modeling and Experimental Characterization of Nanocomposite Materials

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ISBN: 9783039286324 / 9783039286331 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-633-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
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This Special Issue gathers research from different branches of science and engineering disciplines working on experiments and modelling of nanocomposites into one volume. The Guest Editor welcomes papers dedicated to experimental, computational, and theoretical aspects dealing with many important state-of-the-art technologies and methodologies regarding the synthesis, fabrication, characterization, properties, design, and applications, and both finite element analysis and molecular dynamic simulations, of nanocomposite materials and structures. Full papers covering novel topics, extending the frontiers of the science and technology of nanoreinforced composites are encouraged. Reviews covering topics of major interest will be also considered.

Nanocelluloses: Synthesis, Modification and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039287840 / 9783039287857 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-785-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
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Nanocelluloses: Synthesis, Modification and Applications is a book that provides some recent enhancements of various types of nanocellulose, mainly bacterial nanocellulose, cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrils, and their nanocomposites. Bioactive bacterial nanocellulose finds applications in biomedical applications, https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101352. Grafting and cross-linking bacterial nanocellulose modification emerges as a good choice for improving the potential of bacterial nanocellulose in such biomedical applications as topical wound dressings and tissue-engineering scaffolds, https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121668. On the other hand, bacterial nanocellulose can be used as paper additive for fluorescent paper, https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9091322, and for the reinforcement of paper made from recycled fibers, https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010058. Nanocellulose membranes are used for up-to-date carbon capture applications, https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060877. Nanocellulose has been applied as a novel component of membranes designed to address a large spectrum of filtration problems, https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060867. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) in random composite mats prepared using the electrospinning method are widely characterized in a large range of physical chemical aspects, https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050805. Similarly, physical chemical aspects are emphasized for carboxylated cellulose nanofibrils produced by ammonium persulfate oxidation combined with ultrasonic and mechanical treatment, https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090640. It is extraordinary how nanocellulose can find application in such different fields. Along the same lines, the contributions in this book come from numerous different countries, confirming the great interest of the scientific community for nanocellulose.

Laser Welding

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ISBN: 9783039288618 / 9783039288625 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-862-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
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Laser welding is a high-energy process used in a wide range of advanced materials to obtain micro- to macro-sized joints in both similar and dissimilar combinations. Moreover, this technique is widely used in several industries, such as automotive, aerospace, and medical industries, as well as in electrical devices. Although laser welding has been used for several decades, significant and exciting innovations often arise from both the process and/or advanced materials side.

Keywords

laser beam welding --- buy-to-fly --- L-joint --- T-joint --- Ti–6Al–4V --- dissimilar joining --- laser welding-brazing --- finite element method --- titanium --- aluminium --- laser welds --- mechanical properties --- low alloyed steel --- dual phase steel --- trip steel --- laser beam welding --- conduction regime --- Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr --- laser offset welding --- hybrid welding --- microstructure --- intermetallic layer --- pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam welding --- DP1000 steel --- penetration --- hardness --- phase transformation --- dissimilar welding --- fiber laser --- finite element analysis --- laser welding --- spatter --- liquid metal --- high-speed imaging --- porosity control --- laser stake welding --- aluminum alloy T-joint --- aided electric current --- weld morphology --- mechanical properties --- Al/steel joints --- laser keyhole welding --- IMC layers --- tensile properties --- EBSD phase mapping --- high temperature titanium alloy --- laser welding --- microstructure --- mechanical properties --- BTi-6431S --- fiber laser welding --- dissimilar material --- stainless steel --- microstructure --- hardness --- tensile strength --- steel S700MC --- hybrid welding --- HLAW --- laser beam --- MAG --- magnesium alloy thin sheet --- fiber laser welding --- microstructure --- mechanical properties --- H-shaped fusion zone --- laser welding --- keyhole --- weld pool behavior --- mass transfer --- dissimilar metal --- LKW --- WW --- prediction --- accuracy --- SKM --- WPP --- n/a

Bio-Based Polymers for Engineered Green Materials

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ISBN: 9783039289257 / 9783039289264 Year: Pages: 568 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-926-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
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With daily signals, Nature is communicating us that its unconscious wicked exploitation is no more sustainable. Our socio-economic system focuses on production increasing without considering the consequences. We are intoxicating ourselves on a daily bases just to allow the system to perpetuate itself. The time to switch into more natural solutions is come and the scientific community is ready to offer more natural product with comparable performance then the market products we are used to deal with. This book collects a broad set of scientific examples in which research groups from all over the world, aim to replace fossil fuel-based solutions with biomass derived materials. In here, some of the most innovative developments in the field of bio-materials are reported considering topics which goes from biomass valorization to the synthesis of high preforming bio-based materials.

Keywords

thermoplastic starch --- corn starch --- chitosan --- crosslinked microparticles --- lignin-containing cellulose nanofibrils --- poly(lactic acid) and composite films --- lignin content --- compatibility --- adsorption --- phenanthrene --- pyrene --- benzoyl cellulose --- stearoyl cellulose --- silkworm cocoons --- dense structure --- porosity --- robust fiber network --- mechanical properties --- photodegradation --- liquid natural rubber --- UV light --- TiO2 anatase --- latex state --- wood modification --- alkali lignin --- water resistance --- dimensional stability --- heat treatment --- polymeric composites --- antifouling --- metal binding --- iron chelation --- polydopamine coating --- free-radical polymerization --- galactoglucomannan --- lignin --- lignin-carbohydrate complex --- ultrafiltration --- precipitation --- hydrogel --- recycling --- thermal degradation --- mechanical degradation --- polylactic acid --- Bioflex --- Solanyl --- PHBV --- poly(lactic acid) --- pulp fibers --- biocomposite --- emulsion-solvent evaporation method --- films --- mechanical properties --- PHA --- mixed microbial cultures --- bioplastics --- feast-famine --- cost --- Peptone --- Microbial nutrient --- Anti-bacterial silver nanoparticle --- Escherichia coli --- Staphylococcus aureus --- tannin --- hemicellulose --- waste biomass --- HSQC-NMR --- pyrolysis mechanism --- hydrotropic treatment --- metal chloride --- delignification --- enzymatic saccharification --- lignocellulosic nanofibrils --- microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) --- polylactic acid (PLA) --- toughening --- endothermic effect --- kenaf fiber --- hybrid composites --- bio-based --- film --- mechanical properties --- polysaccharides --- resource recovery --- solution casting --- orange waste --- nanocelluloses --- cellulose nanofibers --- cellulose nanocrystals --- bacterial cellulose --- cement --- fiber-cement --- Hatscheck process --- bio-inspired interfaces --- mechanical properties --- thermal stability --- sensitivity --- electrospinning --- tissue engineering --- paper-based scaffolds --- osteoblast proliferation --- polycaprolactone --- biopolymers --- nanoclays --- nanobiocomposites --- extrusion-compounding --- polyhydroxyalkanoates --- thermal properties --- mechanical properties --- differential scanning calorimetry --- nuclear magnetic resonance --- X-ray diffraction --- transparent wood --- chemical composition --- H2O2 bleaching treatment --- physicochemical properties --- cellulose --- electrical resistance --- copper coating --- electroless deposition --- humidity sensor --- strain sensor --- lyocell fiber --- asphalt rubber --- bio-asphalt --- mixing sequence --- workability --- storage stability --- tung oil --- unsaturated polyester resins --- thermosetting polymers --- structure–property relationship --- structural plastics --- ONP fibers --- silanization --- composites --- mechanical properties --- Artemisia vulgaris --- microcellulose fiber --- nanocellulose fibers --- natural fibers --- Bio-based foams --- wastewater treatments --- cationic dyes --- anionic surfactants --- pollutant adsorbents --- tannin polymer --- tannin-furanic foam --- biopolymers --- nanoclays --- bio-nanocomposites --- extrusion-compounding --- polyhydroxyalkanoates --- thermal properties --- microstructure --- volatiles --- autoxidation --- thermal gravimetric analysis --- scanning electron microscope --- headspace solid phase microextraction --- alginate sponge --- two-step lyophilization --- methylene blue --- adsorption capacity --- biomass resources --- hybrid nonisocyanate polyurethane --- solvent- and catalyst-free --- dimer acid --- melt condensation --- bacterial cellulose --- surface modification --- TEMPO oxidation --- one-pot synthesis --- immobilized TEMPO --- physical property --- skincare --- cellulose --- graphene oxide --- ionic liquid --- membrane --- transport properties --- heavy metals --- porous structure --- SAXS --- WAXS --- cellulose --- wood --- lignocellulose --- ionic liquid --- imidazolium --- fractionation --- dissolution --- GC-MS --- kaempferol --- knotwood --- larixol --- taxifolin --- vibrational spectroscopy --- n/a

Horse Feeding and Management

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039285525 / 9783039285532 Year: Pages: 195 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-553-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
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Horses perform variety of roles in our society, serving people in several ways. Proper nutrition and feeding management are some of the main objectives to ensure the well-being and performance of horses. Thus, the link between equine health and good dietary treatment must be recognized to increase our understanding of the needs of the horse. It is important to ensure science-based knowledge is available to all stakeholders and people working in the horse industry. This book presents research papers published in the Special Issue of Animals entitled ‘Horse Nutrition and Management’.

Hydrothermal Technology in Biomass Utilization & Conversion

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ISBN: 9783039286768 / 9783039286775 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-677-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
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This book addresses a key innovative technology for decarbonization of the energy system: hydrothermal processing. It basically consists of treating biomass and wastes in a wet form, under pressure and temperature condition. This approach is becoming more and more attractive, as new feedstock and applications are appearing on the scene of bioeconomy and bioenergy. The hydrothermal processing of various type of biomass, waste, and residues, thus, raised the interest of many researchers and companies around the world, together with downstream upgrading processes and technologies: solid products as biochar, for instance, or liquid ones as crude bioliquids, are finding new market opportunities in circular economy schemes. The Special Issue collects recent innovative research works in the field, from basic to applied research, as well as pilot industrial applications/demo. It is a valuable set of references for those investing time and effort in research in the field.

Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039287741 / 9783039287758 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-775-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
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Electrospinning is a versatile and effective technique widely used to manufacture nanofibrous structures from a diversity of materials (synthetic, natural or inorganic). The electrospun nanofibrous meshes’ composition, morphology, porosity, and surface functionality support the development of advanced solutions for many biomedical applications. The Special Issue on “Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications” assembles a set of original and highly-innovative contributions showcasing advanced devices and therapies based on or involving electrospun meshes. It comprises 13 original research papers covering topics that span from biomaterial scaffolds’ structure and functionalization, nanocomposites, antibacterial nanofibrous systems, wound dressings, monitoring devices, electrical stimulation, bone tissue engineering to first-in-human clinical trials. This publication also includes four review papers focused on drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

Keywords

sol-gel --- electrospinning --- hydroxyapatite --- nanofiber --- antibacterial --- titanium --- antibacterial coatings --- electrospinning --- nanocomposite coatings --- TiO2 photocatalytic --- orthopedic infections --- electrospinning --- 3D printing --- nanofibers --- encapsulation --- protein diffusion --- in vivo tissue engineering --- immuno-isolation --- transplantation --- electrospinning --- sputtering --- drug delivery --- wound dressing --- biocompatibility --- tissue engineering --- biomimetic scaffolds --- gelatin --- electrospinning --- micromolding --- biomaterials --- poly(lactic acid) (PLLA) --- bioactive glass --- scaffolds --- electrospinning --- composite fibres --- bone regeneration --- poly(vinylidene fluoride) --- composite nanofiber --- piezoelectricity --- antioxidant activity --- well-aligned nanofibers --- P(VDF-TrFE) --- piezoelectric nanogenerator --- preosteoblasts electrospinning --- silicone modified polyurethane nanofibers --- physical properties --- cell attachment --- cell proliferation --- cytotoxicity --- biopolymers --- packaging --- pharmaceutical --- biomedical --- electrospinning --- alginate --- gelatin fibers --- ZnO particles --- antibacterial activity --- electrospinning --- nanofibers --- fabrication --- therapeutics --- biomedical applications --- antibody immobilization --- electrospun nanofibers --- TNF-? capture --- human articular chondrocytes --- rheumatoid arthritis --- nanofibers --- microfluidic chip --- electrospinning --- live assay --- hepatocellular carcinoma cells --- PLA95 --- biocompatibility --- guided tissue regeneration (GTR) --- electrospinning --- electrospun fiber mats --- mechanobiology --- glioblastoma --- biomaterials --- finite element modeling --- electrospun nanofibers --- cancer treatment --- drug release --- nanomedicine --- biocompatible polymers --- hyperthermia

Wood Properties and Processing

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ISBN: 9783039288212 / 9783039288229 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-822-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
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Wood-based materials are CO2-neutral, renewable, and considered to be environmentally friendly. The huge variety of wood species and wood-based composites allows a wide scope of creative and esthetic alternatives to materials with higher environmental impacts during production, use and disposal. Quality of wood is influenced by the genetic and environmental factors. One of the emerging uses of wood are building and construction applications. Modern building and construction practices would not be possible without use of wood or wood-based composites. The use of composites enables using wood of lower quality for the production of materials with engineered properties for specific target applications. Even more, the utilization of such reinforcing particles as carbon nanotubes and nanocellulose enables development of a new generation of composites with even better properties. The positive aspect of decomposability of waste wood can turn into the opposite when wood or wood-based materials are exposed to weathering, moisture oscillations, different discolorations, and degrading organisms. Protective measures are therefore unavoidable for many outdoor applications. Resistance of wood against different aging factors is always a combined effect of toxic or inhibiting ingredients on the one hand, and of structural, anatomical, or chemical ways of excluding moisture on the other.

Keywords

artificial weathering --- blue staining fungi --- colour change --- natural weathering --- wood --- marketing --- material preference --- urban housing --- immigrants --- building culture background --- building material --- chemical changes --- colour changes --- infrared spectroscopy --- hardwoods --- roughness --- Douglas-fir --- lumber --- non-destructive testing --- modulus of elasticity (MOE) --- stiffness --- thinning --- silviculture --- wood based composites --- hybrid beams --- bending stiffness --- flexural rigidity --- aluminium reinforcements --- wooden windows --- end-product-based fiber attribute determinates --- longitudinal stress wave velocity --- mixed-effects hierarchical linear models --- predictive performance --- bamboo grid packing --- cooling packing --- cooling tower --- mechanical properties --- fungi --- bamboo --- heat treatment --- wood --- structural changes --- nondestructive testing --- ultrasound --- Euler-Bernoulli --- modulus of elasticity --- neural network --- high frequency drying --- moisture content --- wood --- brittleness --- density --- dynamic strength --- High-Energy Multiple Impact (HEMI)–test --- Resistance to Impact Milling (RIM) --- bamboo grid packing --- cooling packing --- cooling tower --- chemical composition --- elemental composition --- FTIR --- color --- tropical woods --- brown rot --- Coniophora puteana --- colour --- CIEL*a*b* system --- technological and product innovations --- cyclic loading --- laminated wood --- deflection at the limit of proportionality --- deflection at the modulus of rupture --- wood-processing industry performance --- orthotropic --- elastic constants --- green larch --- compression --- three-point bending --- coefficient of wood bendability --- laminated wood --- technological and product innovations --- minimal curve radius --- orthotropic --- tensile modulus --- tensile strength --- moisture content --- relative humidity --- glued lamella --- flexible chair --- weight of a user --- ultimate state --- volume yield --- European hardwoods --- low quality round wood --- strength grading --- glulam --- ultrasonic wave velocity measurement --- nondestructive assessment --- wood mechanical properties --- intra-ring variation --- dynamic modulus of elasticity --- Pinus massoniana Lamb. --- phenol formaldehyde resin --- wood impregnation --- wood properties --- cell-wall mechanics --- ultrasonic speed --- poplar seedlings --- acoustic resonance --- density --- microfibril angle --- root-collar diameter --- machinability --- Eucalyptus --- plantation timber --- fiber-managed hardwoods

Advances in Digital Image Correlation (DIC)

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ISBN: 9783039285143 / 9783039285150 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-515-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
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Digital image correlation (DIC) has become the most popular full field measurement technique in experimental mechanics. It is a versatile and inexpensive measurement method that provides a large amount of experimental data. Because DIC takes advantage of a huge variety of image modalities, the technique allows covering a wide range of space and time scales. Stereo extends the scope of DIC to non-planar cases, which are more representative of industrial use cases. With the development of tomography, digital volume correlation now provides access to volumetric data, enabling the study of the inner behavior of materials and structures.However, the use of DIC data to quantitatively validate models or accurately identify a set of constitutive parameters remains challenging. One of the reasons lies in the compromises between measurement resolution and spatial resolution. Second, the question of the boundary conditions is still open. Another reason is that the measured displacements are not directly comparable with usual simulations. Finally, the use of full field data leads to new computational challenges.

Keywords

super pressure balloon --- stress concentration --- strain --- non-contact measurement --- digital image correlation --- large deformation --- digital image correlation --- multi-perspective --- single camera --- cross dichroic prism --- earthquake rupture --- fault geometry --- spatiotemporal evolution --- strain gage --- spatial sampling rate --- rupture speed --- slip velocity --- high-speed camera --- experimental-numerical method --- digital image correlation --- finite element method --- static analysis --- arch structures --- fracture process zone --- digital image correlation technique --- acoustic emission technique --- stress intensity factor --- 3D deformation --- digital volume correlation --- optical coherence elastography --- virtual fields method --- layered material --- interior 3D deformation --- digital volumetric speckle photography --- X-ray microtomography --- digital volume correlation --- red sandstone --- woven composite beam --- digital image correlation --- dynamic interfacial rupture --- traction continuity across interfaces --- non-contact video gauge --- measurement --- stress-strain relationship --- uniaxial tensile test --- elevated temperature --- DIC --- initial condition --- image registration --- strain measurement --- copper plate --- underwater impulsive loading --- non-liner dynamic deformation --- 3D digital image correlation --- image correlation --- gradient correlation functions --- laser speckles --- image cross-correlation --- monitoring --- geosciences --- automated systems --- machine learning --- image classification --- image shadowing --- characterization of composite materials --- interlaminar tensile strength --- digital image correlation --- inverse method --- finite element model updating --- Digital image correlation (DIC) --- composite structures --- structural testing --- experimental mechanics --- composite materials --- automated composite manufacturing --- composite inspection --- automated fiber placement (AFP) --- DIC --- traceable calibration --- accuracy --- error --- n/a

Advances in Food and Non-Food Biomass Production, Processing and Use in Sub-Saharan Africa: Towards a Basis for a Regional Bioeconomy

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039286683 / 9783039286690 Year: Pages: 446 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-669-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
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The bioeconomy concept aims to add sustainability to the production, transformation, and trade of biological goods. Though implemented around the world, the development of national bioeconomies is uneven, especially in the global South, where major challenges exist in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this context, the international BiomassWeb project aimed to underpin the bioeconomy concept by applying the value web approach, which seeks to uncover complex interlinked value webs instead of linear value chains. The project also aimed to develop intervention options to strengthen and optimize the synergies and trade-offs among different value chains. The Special Issue “Advances in Food and Non-Food Biomass Production, Processing and Use in Sub-Saharan Africa: Toward a Basis for a Regional Bioeconomy"" compiles 23 articles produced in this framework. The articles are grouped in four sections: the value web approach; the production side; processing, transformation and trade; and global views.

Keywords

contract farming --- contract design --- cassava --- bioeconomy --- Ghana --- adoption --- land-use --- deforestation --- food security --- renewable energy --- collaboration --- leadership --- push–pull technology --- sustainability --- transdisciplinary research --- Ethiopia --- demand-driven research --- Biomass --- innovation --- Ghana --- husk --- pulp --- parchment --- mucilage --- methane --- renewable energy --- bioeconomy --- green economy --- sustainable development --- bioproductivity --- high-tech bioeconomy --- knowledge-based bioeconomy --- primary sector --- typology --- cluster analysis --- food and non-food benefit --- homegarden --- multipurpose tree on farmland --- multistorey coffee system --- multi-functionality --- traditional agroforestry --- Yayu Biosphere Reserve --- yellow cassava --- sustainability --- cassava variants --- cassava processing --- carotenoids retention --- amylose --- bioeconomy --- governance --- development policy --- innovation --- technology --- bio-based --- mixed methods --- richness --- edible --- food bearing --- neighborhoods --- maize --- Policy Analysis Matrix --- comparative advantage --- probit --- Ghana --- cassava farmers --- value addition --- productivity differentials --- impact --- endogenous switching regression --- plantain residues --- fiber --- value web --- bioeconomy --- Ghana --- biochar --- crop residue --- corncob --- germination --- phytotoxicity --- self-purging pyrolysis --- soil amendment --- biomass --- value web --- bioeconomy --- bamboo --- Ethiopia --- sustainability --- intensification options --- maize --- groundnut --- crop residue --- crop model --- cassava processors --- smallholders --- solid waste --- pollution --- value-added --- willingness to pay --- biomass utilization --- intensity --- cassava smallholders --- Nigeria --- availability --- access --- Ghana --- Nigeria --- Ethiopia --- value chain --- CGE --- fertilizer-yield-response --- productivity --- welfare --- Ethiopia --- family farming --- farmland --- food security --- rural development --- biomass scenarios --- global biomass --- bioenergy --- sustainability --- food security --- basic needs --- intragenerational justice --- equity --- fairness --- development --- Biomass-based value web --- biological goods --- bio-based economy --- food and non-food --- circular economy

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