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Alpine and Polar Treelines in a Changing Environment

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ISBN: 9783039286300 / 9783039286317 Year: Pages: 268 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-631-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Botany
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Concerns have been raised with respect to the state of high-altitude and high-latitude treelines, as they are anticipated to undergo considerable modifications due to global changes, and especially due to climate warming. As high-elevation treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries, they are considered to be sensitive to climate warming. As a consequence, in this future, warmer environment, an upward migration of treelines is expected because low air and root-zone temperatures constrain their regeneration and growth. Despite the ubiquity of climate warming, treeline advancement is not a worldwide phenomenon: some treelines have been advancing rapidly, others have responded sluggishly or have remained stable. This variation in responses is attributed to the potential interaction of a continuum of site-related factors that may lead to the occurrence of locally conditioned temperature patterns. Competition amongst species and below-ground resources have been suggested as additional factors explaining the variability in the movement of treelines. This Special Issue (book) is dedicated to the discussion of treeline responses to changing environmental conditions in different areas around the globe.

Keywords

Changbai Mountain --- Erman’s birch --- microsite --- alpine treeline --- non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) --- treeline --- climate change --- ecosystem manipulation --- space-for-time substitution --- long-term trends --- Central Austrian Alps --- 15N natural abundance --- nitrogen cycling --- treeline --- shrubline --- altitude --- light quantity --- light quality --- spectrometer --- shoot elongation --- tree seedlings --- forest climatology --- Switzerland --- temperature --- relative air humidity --- thermal continentality --- foehn winds --- expert elicitation --- knowledge engineering --- apical control --- multi-stemmed growth form --- Pinus cembra --- treeline --- climate change --- experimental rain exclusion --- plant water availability --- soil drought --- treeline --- sap flow --- Picea abies --- Larix decidua --- drought --- Mediterranean climate --- photoinhibition --- photosynthetic pigments --- tocopherol --- climate change --- climate zone --- environmental stress --- forest edge --- precipitation --- tree regeneration --- tree seedling recruitment --- upward advance --- alpine timberline --- conifer shrub --- pit aspiration --- refilling --- winter stress --- xylem embolism --- tree line --- sub-Antarctic --- westerly winds --- postglacial --- Holocene --- Southern Ocean --- climate change --- palynology --- cloud --- peat --- dendroclimatology --- elevational gradients --- drought --- western Montana --- Rocky Mountains --- treeline --- climate change --- fungal ecology --- diversity --- monitoring --- NDVI --- permafrost --- remote sensing data --- history of treeline research --- elevational treeline --- polar treeline --- treeline dynamics --- timberline --- higher altitude --- chlorophyll --- carotenoids --- climate change --- Pinus sibirica --- Abies sibirica --- elevational transect --- basal area increment --- climate warming --- conifers --- European Alps --- growth trend --- n/a

Rainfall Erosivity in Soil Erosion Processes

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ISBN: 9783039288045 / 9783039288052 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-805-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
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This book gathers recent international research on the association between aggressive rainfall and soil loss and landscape degradation. Different contributions explore these complex relationships and highlight the importance of the spatial patterns of precipitation intensity on land flow under erosive storms, with the support of observational and modelling data. This is a large and multifaceted area of research of growing importance that outlines the challenge of protecting land from natural hazards. The increase in the number of high temporal resolution rainfall records together with the development of new modelling capabilities has opened up new opportunities for the use of large-scale planning and risk prevention methods. These new perspectives should no longer be considered as an independent research topic, but should, above all, support comprehensive land use planning, which is at the core of environmental decision-making and operations. Textbooks such as this one demonstrate the significance of how hydrological science can enable tangible progress in understanding the complexity of water management and its current and future challenges.

Agroforestry Systems: The Role of Trees in Ecosystem Services—A Special Issue in Collaboration with the 4th World Congress on Agroforestry

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ISBN: 9783039281640 / 9783039281657 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-165-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
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Planting trees in the agricultural landscape, in the form of establishing agroforestry systems, has a significant role to play in potentially improving ecosystem services, such as increased biodiversity, reduced soil erosion, increased soil carbon storage, improved food security and nutrition, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. While the role of trees in agroforestry systems in improving ecosystem services has been researched, studies in new systems/regions and new agroforestry system designs are still emerging. This Special Issue includes selected papers presented at the 4th World Congress on Agroforestry, Montpellier, France 20–22 May 2019, and other volunteer papers. The scope of articles includes all aspects of agroforestry systems.

Practice and Innovations in Sustainable Transport

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ISBN: 9783039285488 / 9783039285495 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-549-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
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The book continues with an experimental analysis conducted to obtain accurate and complete information about electric vehicles in different traffic situations and road conditions. For the experimental analysis in this study, three different electric vehicles from the Edinburgh College leasing program were equipped and tracked to obtain over 50 GPS and energy consumption data for short distance journeys in the Edinburgh area and long-range tests between Edinburgh and Bristol. In the following section, an adaptive and robust square root cubature Kalman filter based on variational Bayesian approximation and Huber’s M-estimation is proposed to accurately estimate state of charge (SOC), which is vital for safe operation and efficient management of lithium-ion batteries. A coupled-inductor DC-DC converter with a high voltage gain is proposed in the following section to match the voltage of a fuel cell stack to a DC link bus. Finally, the book presents a review of the different approaches that have been proposed by various authors to mitigate the impact of electric buses and electric taxis on the future smart grid.

Managing Forests and Water for People under a Changing Environment

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039288236 / 9783039288243 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-824-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
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Forests cover 30% of the Earth’s land area, or nearly four billion hectares. Enhancing the benefits and ecosystem services of forests has been increasingly recognized as an essential part of nature-based solutions for solving many emerging global environmental problems today. A core science supporting forest management is understanding the interactions of forests, water, and people. These interactions have become increasingly complex under climate change and its associated impacts, such as the increases in the intensity and frequency of drought and floods, increasing population and deforestation, and a rise in global demands for multiple ecosystem services including clean water supply and carbon sequestration. Forest watershed managers have recognized that water management is an essential component of forest management. Global environmental change is posing more challenges for managing forests and water toward sustainable development. New science on forest and water is critically needed across the globe. The International Forests and Water Conference 2018, Valdivia, Chile (http://forestsandwater2018.cl/), a joint effort of the 5th IUFRO International Conference on Forests and Water in a Changing Environment and the Second Latin American Conference on Forests and Water provided a unique forum to examine forest and water issues in Latin America under a global context. This book represents a collection of some of the peer-reviewed papers presented at the conference that were published in a Special Issue of Forests.

Water Intake, Body Water Regulation and Health

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ISBN: 9783039286560 / 9783039286577 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-657-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
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The purpose of this Special Issue, “Water Intake, Body Water Regulation, and Health”, is to present novel reviews and experimental data regarding hydration physiology and its implication in overall health. Water has previously been dubbed the forgotten nutrient due to humans’ and animals’ ability to subsist seemingly unchanged across a wide range of daily water intakes. However, with the introduction of stressors such as exercise, diseased states, and/or chronic high or low water intake, the homeostatic signals related to body water regulation can influence organ and whole-body health. This Special Issue will discuss water intake, the scientific rationale surrounding the U.S. and European water intake guidelines, homeostatic mechanisms, diseases related to dysfunction of water regulation, and differences in the volume and the vehicle in which the water is contained (i.e., plain water versus mixed beverages) on water intake during and following exercise. The aim is to continue discussion surrounding water, the previously forgotten nutrient, and highlight the importance of water in daily life.

Overcoming Data Scarcity in Earth Science

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039282104 / 9783039282111 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-211-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
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heavily Environmental mathematical models represent one of the key aids for scientists to forecast, create, and evaluate complex scenarios. These models rely on the data collected by direct field observations. However, assembly of a functional and comprehensive dataset for any environmental variable is difficult, mainly because of i) the high cost of the monitoring campaigns and ii) the low reliability of measurements (e.g., due to occurrences of equipment malfunctions and/or issues related to equipment location). The lack of a sufficient amount of Earth science data may induce an inadequate representation of the response’s complexity in any environmental system to any type of input/change, both natural and human-induced. In such a case, before undertaking expensive studies to gather and analyze additional data, it is reasonable to first understand what enhancement in estimates of system performance would result if all the available data could be well exploited. Missing data imputation is an important task in cases where it is crucial to use all available data and not discard records with missing values. Different approaches are available to deal with missing data. Traditional statistical data completion methods are used in different domains to deal with single and multiple imputation problems. More recently, machine learning techniques, such as clustering and classification, have been proposed to complete missing data. This book showcases the body of knowledge that is aimed at improving the capacity to exploit the available data to better represent, understand, predict, and manage the behavior of environmental systems at all practical scales.

Approaches, Advances and Applications in Sustainable Development of Smart Cities

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280124 / 9783039280131 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-013-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Economics
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This book aims to contribute to the conceptual and practical knowledge pools in order to improve the research and practice on the sustainable development of smart cities by bringing an informed understanding of the subject to scholars, policymakers, and practitioners. This book seeks articles offering insights into the sustainable development of smart cities by providing in-depth conceptual analyses and detailed case study descriptions and empirical investigations. This way, the book will form a repository of relevant information, material, and knowledge to support research, policymaking, practice, and transferability of experiences to address aforementioned challenges. The scope of the book includes the following broad areas, with a particular focus on the approaches, advances, and applications in the sustainable development of smart cities: • Theoretical underpinnings and analytical and policy frameworks; • Methodological approaches for the evaluation of smart and sustainable cities; • Technological developments in the techno-enviro nexus; • Global best practice smart city case investigations and reports; • Geo-design and applications concerning desired urban outcomes; • Prospects, implications, and impacts concerning the future of smart and sustainable cities.

Keywords

tourist island --- innovation hub --- knowledge-based urban development --- knowledge and innovation economy --- smart city --- urban branding --- urban policy --- economic resilience --- Florianópolis --- Brazil --- city branding --- sustainable urban development --- rentier state --- Qatar --- emirates --- smart cities --- mobility --- visioning --- policy --- energy budget --- land cover ratio --- sensible heat flux --- heat mitigation --- thermal environment improvement --- sustainability --- in-situ validation --- spatial typification by heat flux --- smart cities --- commons --- digital commons --- governance --- e-government --- smart governance --- new public service --- Brazil --- smart cities --- smart display --- smart placemaking --- human–computer interaction --- user characteristics --- media façade --- intuitive interaction --- living-lab --- optimal cities --- energy autonomy --- low-carbon resources --- multi-energy networks --- parametric optimisation --- CO2 networks --- drinking water networks --- reliability --- economic cost --- model predictive control --- linear parameter varying --- smart city --- multi-agent systems --- gamification --- photovoltaics --- renewable energy systems --- spatial databases --- climate change --- climate emergency --- climate crisis --- global warming --- sustainable urban development --- sustainable development goals --- smart cities --- disasters --- urban health --- urban policy --- smart cities --- Shenzhen --- Chinese cities --- latecomer’s advantage --- sustainability --- smart city --- sustainable smart city --- smart infrastructure --- smart urban technology --- smart governance --- sustainable city --- sustainable urban development --- knowledge-based urban development --- climate change --- urban informatics --- urban policy

Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality

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ISBN: 9783039289479 / 9783039289486 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-948-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
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During the last few years, industrial fermentation technologies have advanced in order to improve the quality of the final product. Some examples of those modern technologies are the biotechnology developments of microbial materials, such as Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts or lactic bacteria from different genera. Other technologies are related to the use of additives and adjuvants, such as nutrients, enzymes, fining agents, or preservatives and their management, which directly influence the quality and reduce the risks in final fermentation products. Other technologies are based on the management of thermal treatments, filtrations, pressure applications, ultrasounds, UV, and so on, which have also led to improvements in fermentation quality in recent years. The aim of the issue is to study new technologies able to improve the quality parameters of fermentation products, such as aroma, color, turbidity, acidity, or any other parameters related to improving sensory perception by the consumers. Food safety parameters are also included.

Keywords

itaconic acid --- A. terreus --- pH control --- glucose --- kinetic analysis --- Gompertz-model --- biogenic amines --- ethyl carbamate --- ochratoxin A --- sulfur dioxide --- phthalates --- HACCP --- Yeasts --- alcoholic beverages --- resveratrol --- glutathione --- trehalose --- tryptophan --- melatonin --- serotonin --- tyrosol --- tryptophol --- hydroxytyrosol --- IAA --- probiotics --- Torulaspora delbrueckii --- Lachancea thermotolerans --- Metschnikowia pulcherrima --- Schizosaccharomyces pombe --- Pichia kluyveri --- non-Saccharomyces --- biocontrol application --- non-Saccharomyces screening --- SO2 reduction --- lactic acid bacteria --- yeasts --- chemical analyses --- volatile compounds --- sensory evaluation --- shiraz --- low-ethanol wines --- sequential culture --- Hanseniaspora uvarum yeast --- aromatic/sensorial profiles --- narince --- autochthonous --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae --- aroma --- white wine --- cashew apple juice --- non-conventional yeasts --- alcoholic beverages --- aroma profile --- Hanseniaspora guilliermondii --- Torulaspora microellipsoides --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae --- meta-taxonomic analysis --- vineyard soil --- wine-related bacteria --- wine-related fungi --- sequential inoculation --- Saccharomyces --- non-Saccharomyces --- Riesling --- aroma compound --- Torulaspora delbrueckii --- Pichia kluyveri --- Lachancea thermotolerans --- Tannat --- must replacement --- hot pre-fermentative maceration --- wine color --- wine composition --- climate change --- food quality --- viticulture --- wine --- fermentation --- yeast --- Saccharomyces --- non-Saccharomyces --- alcoholic fermentation --- lactic acid bacteria --- malolactic fermentation --- native yeast --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae --- aroma --- Malvar (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) --- white wine --- yeasts --- Bombino bianco --- technological characterization --- enzymatic patterns --- amino acid decarboxylation --- Lachancea thermotolerans --- non-Saccharomyces --- Saccharomyces --- acidity --- food safety --- HACCP --- wine quality --- color --- human health-promoting compounds --- biocontrol --- wine flavor --- low ethanol wine --- Vineyard Microbiota --- wine color --- wine aroma --- climate change

Geography Education Promoting Sustainability

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ISBN: 9783039285006 / 9783039285013 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-501-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Education
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Abstract

Through out the current period of educational change, Geography education has also changed. The

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eng (12)


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2020 (12)