Search results: Found 9

Listing 1 - 9 of 9
Sort by
Pharmaceutical Crystals

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039287123 / 9783039287130 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-713-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The crystalline state is the most commonly used essential solid active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The characterization of pharmaceutical crystals encompasses many scientific disciplines, but the core is crystal structure analysis, which reveals the molecular structure of essential pharmaceutical compounds. Crystal structure analysis provides important structural information related to the API's wide range of physicochemical properties, such as solubility, stability, tablet performance, color, and hygroscopicity. This book entitled “Pharmaceutical Crystals"" focuses on the relationship between crystal structure and physicochemical properties. In particular, the new crystal structure of pharmaceutical compounds involving multi-component crystals, such as co-crystals, salts, and hydrates, and polymorph crystals are reported. Such crystal structures were investigated in the latest studies that combined morphology, spectroscopic, theoretical calculation, and thermal analysis with crystallographic study. This book highlights the importance of crystal structure information in many areas of pharmaceutical science and presents current trends in the structure–property study of pharmaceutical crystals. The Guest Editors of this book hope the readers enjoy a wide variety of recent studies on Pharmaceutical Crystals.

Geography Education Promoting Sustainability

Author:
ISBN: 9783039285006 / 9783039285013 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-501-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Education
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Through out the current period of educational change, Geography education has also changed. The

Cutting-Edge Technologies for Renewable Energy Production and Storage

Author:
ISBN: 9783039360000 / 9783039360017 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03936-001-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are dramatically influencing the environment, and research is strongly committed to proposing alternatives, mainly based on renewable energy sources. Low GHG electricity production from renewables is well established but issues of grid balancing are limiting their application. Energy storage is a key topic for the further deployment of renewable energy production. Besides batteries and other types of electrical storage, electrofuels and bioderived fuels may offer suitable alternatives in some specific scenarios. This Special Issue includes contributions on the energy conversion technologies and use, energy storage, technologies integration, e-fuels, and pilot and large-scale applications.

Landscapes in the Eastern Mediterranean between the Future and the Past

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039217748 / 9783039217755 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-775-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Landscapes have long been viewed as ‘multifunctional’, integrating ecological, economic, sociocultural, historical, and aesthetic dimensions. Landscape science and public awareness in Europe have been progressing in leaps and bounds. The challenges involved in landscape-related issues and fields, however, are multiple and refer to landscape stewardship and protection, as well as to the development of comprehensive theoretical and methodological approaches, in tandem with public sensitization and participatory governance and in coordination with appropriate top-down planning and policy instruments. Landscape-scale approaches are fundamental to the understanding of past and present cultural evolution, and are now considered to be an appropriate spatial framework for the analysis of sustainability. Methods and tools of landscape analysis and intervention have also gone a long way since their early development in Europe and the United States. Although significant progress has been made, there remain many issues which are understudied or not investigated at all—at least in a Mediterranean context. This Special Issue addresses the application of landscape theory and practice in the Eastern Mediterranean and mainly, but not exclusively, reports on the outcomes of an international conference held in Jordan, in December 2015, with the title “Landscapes of Eastern Mediterranean: Challenges, Opportunities, Prospects and Accomplishments”. The focus of this Special Issue, landscapes of the Eastern Mediterranean region, thus constitutes a timely area of research interest, not only because these landscapes have so far been understudied, but also as a rich site of strikingly variegated, long-standing multicultural human–environmental interactions. These interactions, resting on and taking shape through millennia of continuity in tradition, have been striving to adapt to technological advances, while currently juggling with manifold and multilayered socioeconomic and climate–environmental crises.

Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039287048 / 9783039287055 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-705-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Mycotoxins are considered the most frequently occurring natural contaminants in human and animal diets. Considering their potential toxic and carcinogenic effects, mycotoxin exposure assessment has particular importance in the context of health risk assessment. The magnitude of a given exposure allows the derivation of the associated risk and the potential for the establishment of a disease. Although food ingestion is considered a major route of human exposure to mycotoxins, other contexts may also result in exposure, such as specific occupational environments where exposure to organic dust also occurs due to the handling of organic materials. Animals could be exposed to mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated feed, subsequently entering in the food chain and thus constituting a source of exposure to humans. Human biomonitoring is considered a new frontier for the establishment of the human internal exposure to mycotoxins. Although several studies have summarized the potential outcomes associated with mycotoxin exposure, major gaps in data remain in recognizing the mycotoxins that are the cause of diseases. This book contributes provides research that supports the anticipation of potential consequences of the exposure of humans and animals to mycotoxins, future risk assessments, and the establishment of preventive measures.

Biological Activities of Alkaloids: From Toxicology to Pharmacology

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039289271 / 9783039289288 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-928-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Natural products are increasingly attracting attention from both basic and applied science. Plant secondary metabolites, especially alkaloids, are receiving interest from a wide range of researchers due to their biological activity. They are produced to protect plants from diseases and herbivores. Therefore, they reveal a toxic activity that affects organisms at various levels of biological organization. A growing amount of research is proving their antimicrobial, antifungal, insecticidal, and anticancer activities. That makes them applicable in various fields from medicine, to pharmacology, veterinary, and toxicology, to crop protection. This Special Issue of Toxins, “Biological Activities of Alkaloids: From Toxicology to Pharmacology"", collects 15 manuscripts describing the ecological, biological, pharmacological, and toxicological effects as well as structural and analytical aspects of plant alkaloids, their mode of action, and possible application in veterinary, medicine, and plant protection. These studies prove the potential for alkaloid application in various areas of science.

Keywords

Arecoline --- lung cancer cells --- mAchR3 --- EGFR --- SRC --- FAK --- dehydrocrenatidine --- neuropathic pain --- voltage-gated sodium channels --- Solanum melongena L. --- malonylated form --- glycoalkaloids --- secondary metabolites --- solasonine --- solamargine --- malonyl-solamargine --- acetylcholinesterase --- antioxidant --- Ovarian cancer --- Rutidea parviflora --- Palmatine --- Apoptosis --- chanoclavine --- toxicology --- subchronic feeding study --- acute toxicity --- endophyte --- Epichloë --- plant secondary metabolites --- glycoalkaloids --- insect heart --- beetles --- insect --- Tenebrio molitor --- Radix Aconiti Lateralis preparations --- short-term and long-term usage --- di-ester diterpenoid alkaloids --- mono-ester diterpenoid alkaloids --- biodistribution --- ergot alkaloids --- livestock --- reproduction --- isoquinoline alkaloids --- antimicrobial activity --- Chelidonium majus --- cytotoxicity --- apoptosis --- sanguinarine --- berberine --- Chelidonium majus --- Berberis thunbergii --- leukemia --- anticancer --- natural products --- alkaloids --- plant secondary metabolites --- ?-carboline --- Staphylococcus aureus --- antimicrobial activity --- cytotoxicity --- acid-sensing ion channel subtype 1a --- bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid --- lindoldhamine --- nociception --- inflammation --- isoquinoline alkaloids --- HPLC-DAD --- cytotoxic activity --- Mahonia aquifolia --- Meconopsis cambrica --- Corydalis lutea --- Dicentra spectabilis --- Fumaria officinalis --- Macleaya cordata --- alkaloids --- natural sources --- anticancer --- antibacterial --- antiviral --- antifungal --- Curine --- alkaloid --- macrophage --- neutrophil --- lipopolysaccharide --- n/a

Cocoa, Chocolate and Human Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039285884 / 9783039285891 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-589-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This book entitled “Cocoa, Chocolate, and Human Health” presents the most recent findings about cocoa and health in 14 peer-reviewed chapters including nine original contributions and five reviews from cocoa experts around the world. Bioavailability and metabolism of the main cocoa polyphenols, i.e., the flavanols like epicatechin, are presented including metabolites like valerolactones that are formed by the gut microbiome. Many studies, including intervention studies or epidemiological observations, do not focus on single compounds, but on cocoa as a whole. This proves the effectiveness of cocoa as a functional food. A positive influence of cocoa on hearing problems, exercise performance, and metabolic syndrome is discussed with mixed results; the results about exercise performance are contradictive. Evidence shows that cocoa flavanols may modulate some risk factors related to metabolic syndrome such as hypertension and disorders in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, several cardiometabolic parameters in type 2 diabetics were not affected by a flavanol-rich cocoa powder as simultaneous treatment with pharmaceuticals might have negated the effect of cocoa. The putative health-promoting components of cocoa are altered during processing like fermentation, drying, and roasting of cocoa beans. Chocolate, the most popular cocoa product, shows remarkable losses in polyphenols and vitamin E during 18 months of storage.

Keywords

type 2 diabetes --- flavanol-rich cocoa --- blood pressure --- glucose metabolism --- lipid status --- type 2 diabetes --- flavanol-rich cocoa --- postprandial --- meal --- glucose metabolism --- lipids --- blood pressure --- cocoa processing --- cocoa proteins --- classification --- extraction and characterization methods --- fermentation-related enzymes --- bioactive peptides --- heath potentials --- protein–phenol interactions --- chocolate --- hearing loss --- tinnitus --- cohort study --- cocoa --- bioactive compounds --- flavanols bioavailability --- anti-inflammatory properties --- metabolic syndrome --- oxidative stress --- cocoa by-product --- functional food --- polyphenols --- ?-glucosidase inhibition --- antidiabetic capacity --- antioxidant capacity --- methylxanthines --- fermentation --- functional volatile compounds --- starter culture --- yeast --- roasting --- chocolate --- cocoa beans --- theobromine --- cacao --- working memory --- behavior --- CaMKII --- CREB --- BDNF --- cocoa --- oligopeptides --- simulated gastrointestinal digestion --- angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity --- cocoa --- chocolate --- metabolites --- biomarkers --- metabolomics --- urine --- plasma --- procyanidins --- methylxanthines --- polyphenols --- flavanols --- soluble cocoa products --- bioavailability --- human --- plasma nutrikinetics --- liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QToF-MS) --- colonic bacteria --- athlete --- cocoa --- chocolate --- exercise performance --- oxidative stress --- performance --- physical exercise --- polyphenol --- skeletal muscle --- inflammation --- Italian chocolate --- quality --- cocoa-based ingredients --- monitoring --- nutrition --- cocoa --- flavan-3-ol stereoisomers --- (?)-epicatechin --- (+)-catechin --- (?)-catechin --- plasma appearance --- chiral separation --- pharmacokinetics --- one-compartment model --- n/a

Biomass Processing for Biofuels, Bioenergy and Chemicals

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039289097 / 9783039289103 Year: Pages: 428 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-910-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Biomass can be used to produce renewable electricity, thermal energy, transportation fuels (biofuels), and high-value functional chemicals. As an energy source, biomass can be used either directly via combustion to produce heat or indirectly after it is converted to one of many forms of bioenergy and biofuel via thermochemical or biochemical pathways. The conversion of biomass can be achieved using various advanced methods, which are broadly classified into thermochemical conversion, biochemical conversion, electrochemical conversion, and so on. Advanced development technologies and processes are able to convert biomass into alternative energy sources in solid (e.g., charcoal, biochar, and RDF), liquid (biodiesel, algae biofuel, bioethanol, and pyrolysis and liquefaction bio-oils), and gaseous (e.g., biogas, syngas, and biohydrogen) forms. Because of the merits of biomass energy for environmental sustainability, biofuel and bioenergy technologies play a crucial role in renewable energy development and the replacement of chemicals by highly functional biomass. This book provides a comprehensive overview and in-depth technical research addressing recent progress in biomass conversion processes. It also covers studies on advanced techniques and methods for bioenergy and biofuel production.

Keywords

lignocellulose --- pretreatment --- hardwood --- extrusion --- enzymatic digestibility --- bioethanol --- renewable energy --- biofuel --- environment --- technology development --- co-combustion --- sewage sludge --- thermogravimetric analysis --- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy --- synergistic effect --- single-pellet combustion --- biodiesel --- fatty acid methyl ester --- free fatty acids --- oxidation stability --- antioxidant --- hydrogen --- coffee mucilage --- organic wastes --- dark fermentation --- anaerobic digestion --- biodiesel --- bio-jet fuel --- triacylglycerides --- Fatty Acid Methyl Ester --- lipids --- hydrodeoxygenation --- drop-in fuel --- rubber seed oil --- biodiesel production --- nanomagnetic catalyst --- subcritical methanol --- FAME yield --- Box-Behnken design --- GCI --- biodiesel --- diesel --- combustion --- emission --- renewable energy --- microwave --- free fatty acid --- crude oil --- renewable energy --- biomass --- waste --- black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) --- instar --- lipid --- fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) --- fermentation --- Rancimat method --- butylated hydroxyanisole --- tert-butylhydroquinone --- fatty acid methyl esters --- viscosity --- response surface --- anaerobic treatment --- biogas --- kinetic study --- potato peels --- cow manure --- thermophilic --- mesophilic --- palm oil mill effluent --- acclimatization --- direct carbon fuel cell --- biochar --- pyrolysis --- power density --- pre-treatment --- post-treatment --- combustion characteristics --- injection strategies --- compression ratio --- intake temperature --- torrefaction --- vacuum --- biomass pretreatment --- bioenergy --- energy yield --- biochar --- rice straw --- rice husk --- power generation --- gasification --- alternative fuel --- Rhus typhina biodiesel --- non-edible oil --- base-catalyzed transesterification --- Physico-chemical properties --- concentration polarization --- draw solution --- feed solution --- forward osmosis --- pressure-retarded osmosis --- operating conditions --- membrane fouling --- osmotic membrane --- bioenergy --- biofuel --- nanotechnology --- nano-catalysts --- nano-additives --- crude glycerol --- glycerol carbonate --- dimethyl carbonate --- microwave irradiation --- reaction kinetics

Human Milk and Lactation

Author:
ISBN: 9783039289233 / 9783039289240 Year: Pages: 368 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-924-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Human milk is uniquely tailored to meet infants’ specific nutritional requirements. However, it is more than just “milk”. This dynamic and bioactive fluid allows mother–infant signalling over lactation, guiding the infant in the developmental and physiological processes. It exerts protection and life-long biological effects, playing a crucial role in promoting healthy growth and optimal cognitive development. The latest scientific advances have provided insight into different components of human milk and their dynamic changes over time. However, the complexity of human milk composition and the synergistic mechanisms responsible for its beneficial health effects have not yet been unravelled. Filling this knowledge gap will shed light on the biology of the developing infant and will contribute to the optimization of infant feeding, particularly that of the most vulnerable infants. Greater understanding of human milk will also help in elucidating the best strategies for its storage and handling. The increasing knowledge on human milk’s bioactive compounds together with the rapidly-advancing technological achievements will greatly enhance their use as prophylactic or therapeutic agents. The current Special Issue aims to welcome original works and literature reviews further exploring the complexity of human milk composition, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects associated with breastfeeding, and the factors and determinants involved in lactation, including its promotion and support.

Keywords

human milk --- preterm --- term --- infants --- lipids --- fatty acids --- human milk fortification --- docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) --- mothers’ own milk --- donor human milk --- arachidonic acid (ARA) --- eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) --- bioactive factors --- carotenoids --- dietary intake --- high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) --- human milk --- lactation --- maternal diet --- prospective study --- Human Milk --- Preterm infant --- Phospholipids --- Lipidomics --- Milk Fat Globule Membrane --- breastfeeding --- late preterm --- protective factors --- promotion of breastfeeding --- breastfeeding support --- mammary gland --- immune-active proteins --- proteases --- protease inhibitors --- digestive tract --- antenatal --- expressing --- pregnancy --- video instruction --- colostrum --- breastfeeding --- online --- clinical trial --- lactation --- infants --- breastfeeding --- lactating women --- human milk benefits --- colostrum --- milk therapy --- bioactive factors --- 2?-fucosyllactose (2?FL) --- 3?-sialyllactose (3?SL) --- disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT) --- human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) --- milk group --- secretor --- Lewis --- lactation --- preterm --- adipokines --- antioxidants --- breastfeeding --- cytokines --- growth factors --- human milk --- preterm --- term --- neonate --- infant --- macronutrients --- protein --- fat --- lactose --- nutrition --- passive immunization --- maternal immunoglobulins --- lactation --- prematurity --- flu vaccine --- human milk --- human milk --- omega-3 fatty acids --- docosahexaenoic acid --- eicosapentaenoic acid --- ?-linolenic acid --- dietary intake --- food frequency questionnaire --- vitamin D deficiency --- supplementation --- breastfeeding --- mothers --- infants --- human milk --- targeted metabolomics --- amino acids --- lipid metabolites --- LC-MS --- flow injection analysis --- human milk --- protein --- glycoprotein --- endogenous peptide --- breastfeeding --- hormones --- adipokines --- breast milk --- growth --- body composition --- term infant --- human milk --- term --- preterm --- calcium --- phosphorus --- magnesium --- zinc --- iron --- copper --- iodine --- selenium --- potassium --- sodium --- n-9 fatty acid --- nervonic acid --- human milk fat --- infant formula --- lactational stage --- donor human milk --- high pressure processing --- carotenoids --- antioxidant capacity --- lipids --- bile salt stimulated lipase --- preterm --- retinol --- ?-tocopherol --- inadequate intake --- nutritional status --- breast milk --- undernourishment --- dietary assessment --- multiple source method --- human milk --- celiac disease --- hormones --- fatty acids --- duration of lactation --- country --- carbohydrate --- fat --- breastfeeding difficulties --- early breastfeeding cessation --- term infants --- breastfeeding support --- human milk --- donor milk --- choline --- phosphocholine --- storage --- pasteurization --- milk banking --- pumping --- breastfeeding --- lactation --- n/a

Listing 1 - 9 of 9
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (9)


License

CC by-nc-nd (9)


Language

eng (9)


Year
From To Submit

2020 (9)