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Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Both New and Rehabilitated

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ISBN: 9783039287024 / 9783039287031 Year: Pages: 412 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-703-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Arts in general --- Architecture
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Buildings are one of the main causes of the emission of greenhouse gases in the world. Europe alone is responsible for more than 30% of emissions, or about 900 million tons of CO2 per year. Heating and air conditioning are the main cause of greenhouse gas emissions in buildings. Most buildings currently in use were built with poor energy efficiency criteria or, depending on the country and the date of construction, none at all. Therefore, regardless of whether construction regulations are becoming stricter, the real challenge nowadays is the energy rehabilitation of existing buildings. It is currently a priority to reduce (or, ideally, eliminate) the waste of energy in buildings and, at the same time, supply the necessary energy through renewable sources. The first can be achieved by improving the architectural design, construction methods, and materials used, as well as the efficiency of the facilities and systems; the second can be achieved through the integration of renewable energy (wind, solar, geothermal, etc.) in buildings. In any case, regardless of whether the energy used is renewable or not, the efficiency must always be taken into account. The most profitable and clean energy is that which is not consumed.

Keywords

greenhouse --- floor envelope design --- ground heat transfer --- thermal insulation --- energy modeling --- life cycle cost analysis --- nearly zero energy building --- artificial neural network --- performance parameter design --- energy saving ratio --- dynamic simulation --- urban modelling --- co-simulation --- simulation engines --- building stock energy demand --- building --- energy --- heat load --- sensitivity --- glazing --- surface cooling --- three-phase unbalance minimization --- model predictive control --- home energy management system --- perturbation and observation --- adjustable step size --- low power loss --- maximum power point tracking --- HVAC demand --- prediction --- energy efficiency --- residential buildings --- Ipomoea batatas --- lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA), thermal performance --- extensive green roof --- subtropical climate --- artificial neural network --- big data --- energy-performance gap --- building energy prediction --- building user activity --- single-person household --- Korean household energy consumption --- analytical hierarchy process --- energy efficiency promotion --- influencing factors --- residential buildings --- policy design --- building energy --- passive architecture --- test method --- energy performance standard --- zero energy building --- technology package --- renovation --- energy renovation --- demolition --- new construction --- energy use --- energy performance --- life cycle cost --- optimization --- OPERA-MILP --- multi-family buildings --- Arab region --- building sector --- energy efficiency --- energy productivity --- GCC --- Maghreb --- Mashreq --- space heating --- domestic hot water (DHW) --- air, ground and water source heat pump (ASHP, GSHP and WSHP) --- coefficient of performance (COP) --- seasonal performance factor (SPF) --- energy pile --- energy tunnel --- Level(s) --- green building rating systems --- Building Research Establishment Assessment Method (BREEAM) --- Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen (DGNB) --- Haute Qualité Environnementale (HQE) --- Leadership in Energy &amp --- Environmental Design (LEED) --- energy efficiency --- subtropical climate building --- Minimum-Energy Building (MEB) --- building refurbishment --- building rehabilitation --- building renovation --- envelope airtightness --- envelope thermography --- envelope transmittance

Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health

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ISBN: 9783039286287 / 9783039286294 Year: Pages: 290 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-629-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
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The year 2019 has been prolific in terms of new evidence regarding the effects of coffee and caffeine consumption on diverse aspects of human functioning. This book collects 20 high-quality manuscripts published in Nutrients that include original investigation or systematic review studies of the effects of caffeine intake on human performance and health. The diversity of the articles published in this Special Issue highlights the extent of the effects of coffee and caffeine on human functioning, while underpinning the positive nature of most of these effects. This book will help with understanding why the natural sources of caffeine are so widely present in the nutrition behaviors of modern society.

Keywords

pharmacokinetics --- energy drink --- exercise --- elite athlete --- performance --- football --- RPE --- DOMS --- sport performance --- supplementation --- ergogenic aids --- consumer --- behavior --- perception --- coffee --- health --- consumption motives --- coffee/caffeine --- systematic review and meta-analysis --- prospective studies --- epidemiology --- cancer prevention --- colorectal cancer --- individual responses --- responders --- exercise performance --- ergogenic aids --- caffeine --- coffee --- tea --- energy drinks --- pregnancy --- newborn --- caffeine --- ergogenic aid --- resistance training --- isokinetic testing --- adrenal gland --- caffeine --- corticosterone --- puberty --- rat --- sex-difference --- caffeine --- energy drinks --- fatigue --- mood state --- exercise --- supplement --- resistance exercise --- speed --- repetition --- n/a --- metabolome --- skeletal muscle --- exercise --- muscle contraction --- ergogenic effect --- bench press --- upper limb --- resistance exercise --- ergogenic substances --- time under tension --- 1RM test --- caffeine --- metabolites --- phenotyping --- CYP450 --- NAT --- xanthine oxidase --- actigraphy --- athletic --- coffee --- ergogenic aid --- supplement --- anaerobic --- caffeine --- CMJ --- ergogenic aids --- exercise --- nutrition --- sport supplement --- Wingate --- electromyography --- efficiency --- sport --- exercise --- expectancy --- belief --- perceptions --- placebo effect --- recovery --- strength --- power --- sprint performance --- menstrual cycle --- fatigue --- placebo --- ergogenic --- EEG–EMG coherence --- n/a --- women --- resistance exercise --- exercise training --- velocity --- ergogenic aid --- muscle function --- n/a

Advances in Electrochemical Energy Materials

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ISBN: 9783039286423 / 9783039286430 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-643-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
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Electrochemical energy storage is becoming essential for portable electronics, electrified transportation, integration of intermittent renewable energy into grids, and many other energy and power applications. The electrode materials and their structures, in addition to the electrolytes, play key roles in supporting a multitude of coupled physicochemical processes that include electronic, ionic, and diffusive transport in electrode and electrolyte phases, electrochemical reactions and material phase changes, as well as mechanical and thermal stresses, thus determining the storage energy density and power density, conversion efficiency, performance lifetime, and system cost and safety. Different material chemistries and multiscale porous structures are being investigated for high performance and low cost. The aim of this Special Issue is to report the recent advances in materials used in electrochemical energy storage that encompass supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries.

Renewable Polymers: Processing and Chemical Modifications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039287666 / 9783039287673 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-767-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
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The utilization of bio-resourced macromolecules for polymer applications has been the subject of increasing interest, mainly for sustainability and functionality reasons. This Special Issue of Processes brings together nine papers from leading scientists and researchers active in the area of “Sustainable and Renewable Polymers, Processing, and Chemical Modifications”. The collected papers include seven original research and two review articles related to renewable feedstock for polymer applications, processes for the fabrication of renewable polymer-based nanomaterials, the design and modification of renewable polymers, and applications of renewable polymers. The journal Processes will continue to nurture progress in this field through its position as an open access platform.

Graphene Nanoplatelets

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ISBN: 9783039287949 / 9783039287956 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-795-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
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Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) have attracted considerable interest due to their exceptional mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties, among others. This book provides a deep review of some aspects related to the characterization of GNPs and their applications as nanoreinforcements for different types of matrices such as polymeric- or cement-based matrices. In this book, the reader will find how these nanoparticles could be used for several industrial applications such as energy production and storage or effective barrier coatings, providing a wide overview of future progress in this topic

Assessing the Performance of Passive Houses in Mediterranean Climate Regions

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ISBN: 9783039289493 / 9783039289509 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-950-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
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This book results from a Special Issue related to the latest progress in the thermodynamics of machines systems and processes since the premonitory work of Carnot. Carnot invented his famous cycle and generalized the efficiency concept for thermo-mechanical engines. Since that time, research progressed from the equilibrium approach to the irreversible situation that represents the general case. This book illustrates the present state-of-the-art advances after one or two centuries of consideration regarding applications and fundamental aspects. The research is moving fast in the direction of economic and environmental aspects. This will probably continue during the coming years. This book mainly highlights the recent focus on the maximum power of engines, as well as the corresponding first law efficiency upper bounds.

Genetic and Epigenetic Modulation of Cell Functions by Physical Exercise

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ISBN: 9783039284801 / 9783039284818 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-481-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
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From an evolutionary perspective, our species has relied upon physical activity for most of its history to survive and has had to escape from predators, to scavenge for food, and to use physique to work or build necessary means for everyday life. Physical activity has been part of our evolution and progress since the very beginning and, consequently, our entire body has been programmed to be active physically. In the last 20 years, scientific research has increasingly shown that our ancient survival principle has beneficial effects not only on the cells and organs involved in physical activities but on the metabolism of the entire organism, influencing the homeostasis and integration of all bodily functions, likely stimulating the production of hormones and other regulatory molecules, with each affecting vital signalling pathways. Most of the web of factors involved in molecular signalling upon exercise are suspected to be centrally controlled by the brain, which has been reported to be deeply modified by physical activity. Such complexity requires a multifaceted approach to shed light on the molecular interactions that occur between physical activity and its outcome at a cellular level.

Cocoa, Chocolate and Human Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039285884 / 9783039285891 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-589-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
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This book entitled “Cocoa, Chocolate, and Human Health” presents the most recent findings about cocoa and health in 14 peer-reviewed chapters including nine original contributions and five reviews from cocoa experts around the world. Bioavailability and metabolism of the main cocoa polyphenols, i.e., the flavanols like epicatechin, are presented including metabolites like valerolactones that are formed by the gut microbiome. Many studies, including intervention studies or epidemiological observations, do not focus on single compounds, but on cocoa as a whole. This proves the effectiveness of cocoa as a functional food. A positive influence of cocoa on hearing problems, exercise performance, and metabolic syndrome is discussed with mixed results; the results about exercise performance are contradictive. Evidence shows that cocoa flavanols may modulate some risk factors related to metabolic syndrome such as hypertension and disorders in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, several cardiometabolic parameters in type 2 diabetics were not affected by a flavanol-rich cocoa powder as simultaneous treatment with pharmaceuticals might have negated the effect of cocoa. The putative health-promoting components of cocoa are altered during processing like fermentation, drying, and roasting of cocoa beans. Chocolate, the most popular cocoa product, shows remarkable losses in polyphenols and vitamin E during 18 months of storage.

Keywords

type 2 diabetes --- flavanol-rich cocoa --- blood pressure --- glucose metabolism --- lipid status --- type 2 diabetes --- flavanol-rich cocoa --- postprandial --- meal --- glucose metabolism --- lipids --- blood pressure --- cocoa processing --- cocoa proteins --- classification --- extraction and characterization methods --- fermentation-related enzymes --- bioactive peptides --- heath potentials --- protein–phenol interactions --- chocolate --- hearing loss --- tinnitus --- cohort study --- cocoa --- bioactive compounds --- flavanols bioavailability --- anti-inflammatory properties --- metabolic syndrome --- oxidative stress --- cocoa by-product --- functional food --- polyphenols --- ?-glucosidase inhibition --- antidiabetic capacity --- antioxidant capacity --- methylxanthines --- fermentation --- functional volatile compounds --- starter culture --- yeast --- roasting --- chocolate --- cocoa beans --- theobromine --- cacao --- working memory --- behavior --- CaMKII --- CREB --- BDNF --- cocoa --- oligopeptides --- simulated gastrointestinal digestion --- angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity --- cocoa --- chocolate --- metabolites --- biomarkers --- metabolomics --- urine --- plasma --- procyanidins --- methylxanthines --- polyphenols --- flavanols --- soluble cocoa products --- bioavailability --- human --- plasma nutrikinetics --- liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QToF-MS) --- colonic bacteria --- athlete --- cocoa --- chocolate --- exercise performance --- oxidative stress --- performance --- physical exercise --- polyphenol --- skeletal muscle --- inflammation --- Italian chocolate --- quality --- cocoa-based ingredients --- monitoring --- nutrition --- cocoa --- flavan-3-ol stereoisomers --- (?)-epicatechin --- (+)-catechin --- (?)-catechin --- plasma appearance --- chiral separation --- pharmacokinetics --- one-compartment model --- n/a

Historical Acoustics: Relationships between People and Sound over Time

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ISBN: 9783039285266 / 9783039285273 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-527-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General) --- Acoustics
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This book is a collection of contributions to the Special Issue “Historical Acoustics: Relationships between People and Sound over Time”. The research presented here aims to explore the origins of acoustics and examine the relationships that have evolved over the centuries between people and auditory phenomena. Sounds have indeed accompanied human civilizations since the beginning of time, helping them to make sense of the world and to shape their cultures. Several key topics emerged, such as the acoustics of historical worship buildings, the acoustics of sites of archaeological interest, the acoustics of historical opera houses, and the topic of soundscapes as cultural intangible heritage. The book, as a whole, reflects the vibrant research activity around the “acoustics of the past”, which will hopefully be serve as a foundation for inspiring the future path of this discipline.

Equine Viruses

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ISBN: 9783039283200 / 9783039283217 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-321-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
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The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has recently estimated that the world equid population exceeds 110 million. Working equids (horses, ponies, donkeys, and mules) remain essential to ensure the livelihood of poor communities around the world. In many developed countries, the equine industry has significant economical weight, with around 7 million horses in Europe alone. The close relationship between humans and equids and the fact that the athlete horse is the terrestrial mammal that travels the most worldwide after humans are important elements to consider in the transmission of pathogens and diseases, amongst equids and to other species. The potential effect of climate change on vector ecology and vector-borne diseases is also of concern for both human and animal health. In this Special Issue, we intend to explore our understanding of a panel of equine viruses, looking at their pathogenicity, their importance in terms of welfare and potential association with diseases, their economic importance and impact on performance, and how their identification can be helped by new technologies and methods.

Keywords

equine papillomaviruses --- horse --- genital wart --- phylogeny --- evolution --- Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus --- vaccine --- strain selection --- Animal Rule --- cDNA cloned virus --- virus stock propagation --- African horse sickness --- virus structure --- replication --- vaccine strategies --- Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 --- horse --- PCR --- sequencing --- ORF30 --- ORF33 --- ORF34 --- ORF68 --- equine herpesvirus type 1 --- outbreak --- respiratory disease --- abortion --- neuropathogenic strain --- myeloencephalopathy --- phylogeny --- ORF30 --- MLST --- Parvoviridae --- Eqcopivirus --- horse parvovirus-CSF --- equine hepacivirus --- equine parvovirus H --- bosavirus --- virome --- equine coronavirus --- Ireland --- enteric disease --- equine rhinitis virus A --- Thoroughbred racehorses --- loss of performance --- equine parvovirus-hepatitis --- Germany --- risk factors --- transmission --- arbovirus --- flavivirus --- hematophagous arthropod --- hepacivirus A --- hepatitis --- insects --- mosquito-borne virus --- virus transmission --- equine coronavirus --- spike S1 protein --- ELISA --- virus neutralization --- seroprevalence --- MxA --- equine Mx1 --- influenza A viruses --- polymerase activity --- interspecies transmission --- nucleoprotein --- equine influenza --- non-primate hepacivirus --- equine hepacivirus --- in utero transmission --- horse --- fetuses --- encephalitis --- arbovirus --- rabies --- Equid herpesviruses --- Borna disease virus --- West Nile virus --- horses --- n/a

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2020 (21)