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16 Military Samhandling (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 18 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch16 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"The chapter describes and discusses interaction within the Norwegian&#xD;Armed Forces. Military interaction is understood as the dynamic and sometimes unpredictable&#xD;action undertaken when two or more services interact. The chapter explores&#xD;why interaction between military services, such as land, sea and air forces, is&#xD;difficult – and, in some circumstances, completely absent. How can inadequate interaction&#xD;between the military branches be explained? As Europe’s armed forces become&#xD;increasingly complex and sophisticated, two perspectives from organisational theory&#xD;are applied. First, an instrumental perspective is used to comprehend the problem.&#xD;Particular attention is paid to the tension between hierarchical authority and the division&#xD;of labour. Thereafter, a cultural perspective is used to comprehend inter-service&#xD;rivalry. Here, attention is paid to informal rules and regulations, or habitual ‘rules of&#xD;thumb’ that have become institutionalised over time. These ‘the behavioural patterns’&#xD;affect the way military services perceive themselves in contrast to others. The main&#xD;finding is that Norway’s Armed Forces suffer from ‘limited rationality’. This is because&#xD;Norway’s military units operate within a fragmented command structure that consists&#xD;of many different sub-organisations; individually, in times of peace in Norway, they&#xD;pursue their own myopic agendas rather than a comprehensive national objective. In&#xD;this process, the branches are also forced to compromise with each other to reach their&#xD;individual objectives. A form of limited rationality therefore arises because the Army,&#xD;Navy and Air Force act rationally. This is, however, not on the basis of what serves&#xD;Norwegian security best, but on the basis of what is rational for their specific branch."&#xD;

Warriors and Politicians

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Book Series: Cass Military Studies ISBN: 9780203968598 9780415770071 9780415770088 9781135988494 9781135988487 9781135988449 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203968598 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Political Science --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:04
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With historical case studies ranging from the Revolutionary War to the war in Iraq, this new book shows how and why the US military is caught between two civilian masters – the President and Congress – in responding to the challenges of warfighting, rearmament, and transformation. Charles Stevenson skilfully shows how, although the United States has never faced the danger of a military coup, the relations between civilian leaders and the military have not always been easy. Presidents have contended with military leaders who were reluctant to carry out their orders. Generals and Admirals have appealed to Congress for sympathy and support. Congressional leaders have tried to impose their own visions and strategies on the US armed forces. This triangular struggle has recurred time and again, in wartime and in efforts to reshape the military for future wars. Illustrating this dual system of civilian military control in a series of case studies, this new volume starts from the way the Continental Congress ran the Revolutionary War by committee and concludes with the George W. Bush and Donald Rumsfeld efforts to transform the US military into a modern terrorist-fighting force. This detailed coverage shows how warriors and politicians interacted at key points in US history. This book will be of great interest to all students of the US Military, government of the United States and of strategic and military studies in general.

The Victorian soldier in Africa

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ISBN: 9780719061219 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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'The Victorian soldier in Africa' re-examines the campaign experience of British soldiers in Africa during the period, 1874-1902 - the zenith of the Victorian imperial expansion - and does so from the perspective of the regimental soldier. Focusing on eight different encounters, the book utilises an unprecedented number of letters and diaries, written by regimental officers and other ranks, to allow soldiers to speak for themselves about their experience of colonial campaigning of the late nineteenth century. The sources demonstrate the adaptability of the British army in fighting in different climates, over demanding terrain and against a diverse array of enemies, including the Asante, Xhosa, Zulus, Egyptians, Mahdists and Boers. They also reveal soldiers' responses to army reforms of the era and the effectiveness of shifts from long-service to short-service terms of enlistment, the abolition of purchase and flogging as well as monitoring responses to the introduction of new technologies of warfare in the form of the machine gun, the smokeless rifle and the dum dum bullet. The book provides commentary on soldiers' views of commanding officers and politicians alongside assessment of war correspondents, colonial auxiliaries and African natives in their roles as bearers, allies and enemies. Overall, the book examines the relationship between how soldiers thought about and recorded their own private experiences of warfare and how this was conveyed to the wider world - to friends and family at home and to the wider newspaper-reading public. Essential reading for specialists in military history and British colonialism this book reveals new insights on imperial and racial attitudes within the army, on relations between soldiers and the media and on the production of information and knowledge and its transmission from frontline to homefront.

Keywords

boer --- africa --- colonialism --- zulu --- army

Back to Old Habits : Isolationism or the Self-Preservation of Burma’s Military Regime

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9782956447061 DOI: 10.4000/books.irasec.498 Language: English
Publisher: Institut de recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est contemporaine
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:36
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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This book argues that the Burmese military regime has always favoured an isolationist-type policy that finds its grassroots in Ne Win’s autarchic and xenophobic era as well as in Burma’s royal traditions, but without being completely cut off from the outside world. This policy approach is well suited to the Burmese authoritarian state which boasts an important strategic position in the region. In the past decade, the politics of “isolationism without isolation” has been skilfully developed by Burma’s military elite in order to preserve itself from both internal and external threats. Since the Depayin crackdown in May 2003, every step the Burmese junta has taken indicates that it has been consciously defining both its foreign policy and its internal political agenda according to these isolationist tendencies, as the recent fallbacks that followed the “Saffron Revolution” (September 2007) and the Cyclone Nargis (May 2008) illustrate. Not only does the military regime tend to strategically withdraw itself from the regional scene, by choosing only a few but crucial diplomatic and commercial partners like China, India, Singapore, Russia or Thailand, but it also gradually isolates itself from the rest of the Burmese society, by opting for a strategic and nationalist entrenchment which was perfectly highlighted by the purge of the pragmatic Military Intelligence Services (2004), the transfer of the capital to Naypyidaw (2005) and the strict control over the transitional process initiated by its own “Road Map towards a disciplined democracy” and undisrupted by the recent crises.

Keywords

democracy --- freedom --- Civil Society --- army --- junta --- autarchy

An Equal Burden

Author:
ISBN: 9780198824169 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198824169.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 480342
Subject: Medicine (General) --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 11:21:02
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"An Equal Burden forms the first scholarly study of the Army Medical Services in the First World War to focus on the roles and experiences of the men of the ranks of the Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC). These men, through their work as stretcher bearers and orderlies, provided a range of labour, both physical and emotional, in aid of the sick and wounded. They were not professional medical caregivers, yet were called upon to provide medical care, however rudimentary; they served in uniform, under military discipline, yet were forbidden, as non-combatants, from carrying weapons. Their service as men in wartime, was thus unique. &#xD;&#xD;Structured both chronologically and thematically, this study examines both the work that RAMC rankers undertook and its importance to the running of the chain of medical evacuation. It additionally explores the gendered status of these men within the medical, military and cultural hierarchies of a society engaged in total war, locating their service within the context of that of doctors, female nurses and combatant servicemen. Through close readings of official documents, personal papers, and cultural representations, both verbal and visual, it argues that the ranks of the RAMC formed a space in which non-commissioned servicemen, through their many roles, defined and redefined medical caregiving as men’s work in wartime."&#xD;

The Military and Democracy in Asia and the Pacific

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781920942007 Year: Pages: 197 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459372 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2014-01-27 08:26:02
License: ANU Press

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Politics and government; Militarism; Civil supremacy over the military; Democracy; Asia; Pacific area

8 The Relevance of Samhandling in Military Doctrines (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 26 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch8 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"Military leaders are faced with high expectations when it comes to handling&#xD;unforeseen situations in joint military operations. This chapter aims to present&#xD;a nuanced professional and pedagogical discussion of how an increased awareness&#xD;of the concept of samhandling in the use of military doctrines may contribute to&#xD;the professionalization of military higher education. Different doctrines reflect different&#xD;theoretical decisions. They are given relevance in education as a way to illustrate&#xD;formal examples of what is preferred and what is rejected. As doctrines are&#xD;built on experiences from real-life scenarios, as well as on predictions and strategies&#xD;for possible change, they may serve as a way of balancing the branch-specific “hidden&#xD;curriculum”, i.e. an established culture with a set of current values, behavior and&#xD;thinking that have been developed over time in the organization. The findings in&#xD;the current case study indicate that military doctrines are regarded as important in&#xD;leadership training at the Norwegian Military Academy, especially when it comes&#xD;to understanding and guiding samhandling in unforeseen and risk-oriented situations.&#xD;However, at the same time, the terms used to describe samhandling in military&#xD;doctrines found relevant in education at the Norwegian Military Academy are numerous,&#xD;vague and somewhat overlapping. It seems crucial to raise awareness of the&#xD;underlying processes and the relational ambition level that forms the basis of the chosen&#xD;term. It is advantageous to reach a collective understanding of the kind of skills&#xD;that need to be developed and trained. Another benefit of such analysis is to provide a&#xD;basis for clarified learning goals and practical scenario development through exercises&#xD;and other teaching plans in leadership education, as well as the evaluation of this,&#xD;both in terms of learning outcomes and education as a whole."&#xD;

17 Samhandling and Trust in Military Leadership Structures (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch17 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the importance of trust in military&#xD;samhandling. Trust serves as one of the main prerequisites for effective collaboration&#xD;(Kouzes & Posner, 2003). The Norwegian Armed Forces’ (NAF) core business is&#xD;the planning and execution of military operations (Forsvarsstaben, 2014). One of&#xD;the main tasks of the NAF is to plan for the unexpected and, ultimately, for war. The&#xD;chapter further discuss trust in military leadership, and leadership and situational&#xD;awareness. Leadership as a social interaction process that builds trust is discussed,&#xD;and samhandling is seen in a military context. A basic “trust-based model” of samhandling&#xD;is introduced and viewed in terms of internal and external framework factors.&#xD;The chapter concludes that trust is still quite an open concept, and that trust&#xD;is essential for the effective accomplishment of military missions. The basic trust&#xD;model is an attempt to underline understanding of the importance of trust in a&#xD;military planning and leadership context."&#xD;

Musket, Map and Money: How Military Technology Shaped Geopolitics and Economics

Author:
ISBN: 9788376560595 9783110399264 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.2478/9788376560595 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2014-03-05 13:50:24
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Waves of military technological changes have swept through the Eurasian land mass since the dawn of civilization. Military technological changes decisively shaped geopolitics and the fortunes of states, empires and civilizations. In his book Jimmy Teng claims that to understand the impacts of these military technological changes is in fact to understand the causes behind the following major historical puzzles or important facts: the leading position of the Near East during the dawn of civilization; the splendid achievements of Greece, India and China during the axial era; the classical golden age of India under the Gupta Empire; the Abbasid Golden Age of the Islamic world and the Sung Puzzle of China during the medieval era; and the rise of the West during the early modern and modern era.

Mine Action - The Research Experience of the Royal Military Academy of Belgium

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9789535133032 9789535133049 Year: Pages: 292 DOI: 10.5772/60107 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Every day, civilians in dozens of countries around the world are injured and killed by landmines and other lethal leftovers of conflict, years after hostilities of war have ended. Once planted, a mine will never be able to tell the difference between a military and civilian footstep, and a bomblet will continue to attract children and metal dealers. In order to put an end to the suffering and casualties caused by antipersonnel mines, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction (the Ottawa Convention or Mine Ban Treaty), was adopted in 1997. Further, in order to prevent suffering and casualties caused by cluster munitions at the time of their use, the Convention on the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Cluster Munitions (the Oslo Convention), was adopted in 2008. In 1996, the Royal Military Academy (RMA) opted for the implementation of mine action technological projects funded by the Belgian Ministry of Defense and the Belgian State Secretariat for Development Cooperation. It further decided to set up a close collaboration with other Belgian universities, which started organizing their own research activities on mine action. Later, other funding sources were granted to RMA by the Belgian Science Policy, the European Commission, and the European Committee for Standardization. At a more politico-administrative level, RMA participates in the States Parties Meetings of the Mine Ban Treaty, and in this context, Prof. Acheroy created an expert group on mine action technologies with representatives of different organizations and countries, aiming at informing the States Parties of the Mine Ban Treaty about the evolution of the mine action technologies. Further, Prof. Y. Baudoin created working groups dedicated to robotics in mine action within international organization. This book reports research activities achieved by the RMA.

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