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Acoustic and Elastic Waves: Recent Trends in Science and Engineering

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038422976 9783038422969 Year: Pages: XVI, 448 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-297-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI AG - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics --- Physics (General) --- Acoustics
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The present Special Issue intends to explore new directions in the field of acoustics and ultrasonics. The interest includes, but is not limited to, the use of acoustic technology for condition monitoring of materials and structures. Topics of interest (among others): • Acoustic emission in materials and structures (without material limitation) • Innovative cases of ultrasonic inspection • Wave dispersion and waveguides • Monitoring of innovative materials • Seismic waves • Vibrations, damping and noise control • Combination of mechanical wave techniques with other types for structural health monitoring purposes. Experimental and numerical studies are welcome.

Advanced Problems in Mathematics: Preparing for University

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Book Series: OBP Series in Mathematics ISSN: 23971126 23971134 ISBN: 9781783741427 9781783741441 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 186 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0075 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Education --- Mathematics
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This book is intended to help students prepare for entrance examinations in mathematics and scientific subjects, including STEP (Sixth Term Examination Papers). STEP examinations are used by Cambridge colleges as the basis for conditional offers in mathematics and sometimes in other mathematics-related subjects. They are also used by Warwick University, and many other mathematics departments recommend that their applicants practice on past papers to become accustomed to university-style mathematics. Advanced Problems in Mathematics is recommended as preparation for any undergraduate mathematics course, even for students who do not plan to take the Sixth Term Examination Paper. The questions analysed in this book are all based on recent STEP questions selected to address the syllabus for Papers I and II, which is the A-level core (i.e. C1 to C4) with a few additions. Each question is followed by a comment and a full solution. The comments direct the reader’s attention to key points and put the question in its true mathematical context. The solutions point students to the methodology required to address advanced mathematical problems critically and independently.

Advances in Discrete Differential Geometry

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ISBN: 9783662504468 9783662504475 Year: Pages: 439 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-50447-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Mathematics
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This is one of the first books on a newly emerging field of discrete differential geometry and an excellent way to access this exciting area. It surveys the fascinating connections between discrete models in differential geometry and complex analysis, integrable systems and applications in computer graphics. The authors take a closer look at discrete models in differential geometry and dynamical systems. Their curves are polygonal, surfaces are made from triangles and quadrilaterals, and time is discrete. Nevertheless, the difference between the corresponding smooth curves, surfaces and classical dynamical systems with continuous time can hardly be seen. This is the paradigm of structure-preserving discretizations. Current advances in this field are stimulated to a large extent by its relevance for computer graphics and mathematical physics. This book is written by specialists working together on a common research project. It is about differential geometry and dynamical systems, smooth and discrete theories, and on pure mathematics and its practical applications. The interaction of these facets is demonstrated by concrete examples, including discrete conformal mappings, discrete complex analysis, discrete curvatures and special surfaces, discrete integrable systems, conformal texture mappings in computer graphics, and free-form architecture. This richly illustrated book will convince readers that this new branch of mathematics is both beautiful and useful. It will appeal to graduate students and researchers in differential geometry, complex analysis, mathematical physics, numerical methods, discrete geometry, as well as computer graphics and geometry processing.

Advances in Proof-Theoretic Semantics

Authors: ---
Book Series: Trends in Logic ISSN: 15726126 ISBN: 9783319226859 9783319226866 Year: Volume: 43 Pages: 283 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-22686-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Philosophy --- Mathematics --- Statistics
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This volume is the first ever collection devoted to the field of proof-theoretic semantics. Contributions address topics including the systematics of introduction and elimination rules and proofs of normalization, the categorial characterization of deductions, the relation between Heyting's and Gentzen's approaches to meaning, knowability paradoxes, proof-theoretic foundations of set theory, Dummett's justification of logical laws, Kreisel's theory of constructions, paradoxical reasoning, and the defence of model theory. The field of proof-theoretic semantics has existed for almost 50 years, but the term itself was proposed by Schroeder-Heister in the 1980s. Proof-theoretic semantics explains the meaning of linguistic expressions in general and of logical constants in particular in terms of the notion of proof. This volume emerges from presentations at the Second International Conference on Proof-Theoretic Semantics in Tübingen in 2013, where contributing authors were asked to provide a self-contained description and analysis of a significant research question in this area. The contributions are representative of the field and should be of interest to logicians, philosophers, and mathematicians alike.

The Alor-Pantar languages: History and typology

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ISSN: 23635568 ISBN: 9783944675480 Year: Pages: 477 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics --- Mathematics
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The Alor-Pantar family constitutes the westernmost outlier group of Papuan(Non-Austronesian) languages. Its twenty or so languages are spoken onthe islands of Alor and Pantar, located just north of Timor, in eastern In-donesia. Together with the Papuan languages of Timor, they make up theTimor-Alor-Pantar family. The languages average 5,000 speakers and areunder pressure from the local Malay variety as well as the national lan-guage, Indonesian.This volume studies the internal and external linguistic history of thisinteresting group, and showcases some of its unique typological features,such as the preference to index the transitive patient-like argument onthe verb but not the agent-like one; the extreme variety in morphologi-cal alignment patterns; the use of plural number words; the existence ofquinary numeral systems; the elaborate spatial deictic systems involvingan elevation component; and the great variation exhibited in their kinshipsystems.Unlike many other Papuan languages, Alor-Pantar languages do not ex-hibit clause-chaining, do not have switch reference systems, never suffixsubject indexes to verbs, do not mark gender, but do encode clusivity intheir pronominal systems. Indeed, apart from a broadly similar head-finalsyntactic profile, there is little else that the Alor-Pantar languages sharewith Papuan languages spoken in other regions. While all of them showsome traces of contact with Austronesian languages, in general, borrow-ing from Austronesian has not been intense, and contact with Malay andIndonesian is a relatively recent phenomenon in most of the Alor-Pantarregion.

Assessment in Mathematics Education: Large-Scale Assessment and Classroom Assessment

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: ICME-13 Topical Surveys ISSN: 2366-5947 ISBN: 9783319323930 9783319323947 Year: Pages: 38 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-32394-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Education --- Mathematics
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This book provides an overview of current research on a variety of topics related to both large-scale and classroom assessment. First, the purposes, traditions and principles of assessment are considered, with particular attention to those common to all levels of assessment and those more connected with either classroom or large-scale assessment. Assessment design based on sound assessment principles is discussed, differentiating between large-scale and classroom assessment, but also examining how the design principles overlap. The focus then shifts to classroom assessment and provides specific examples of assessment strategies, before examining the impact of large-scale assessment on curriculum, policy, instruction, and classroom assessment. The book concludes by discussing the challenges that teachers currently face, as well as ways to support them. The book offers a common language for researchers in assessment, as well as a primer for those interested in understanding current work in the area of assessment. In summary, it provides the opportunity to discuss large-scale and classroom assessment by addressing the following main themes: ·Purposes, Traditions and Principles of Assessment ·Design of Assessment Tasks ·Classroom Assessment in Action ·Interactions of Large-Scale and Classroom Assessment ·Enhancing Sound Assessment Knowledge and Practices It also suggests areas for future research in assessment in mathematics education.

Attitudes, Beliefs, Motivation and Identity in Mathematics Education: An Overview of the Field and Future Directions

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: ICME-13 Topical Surveys ISSN: 2366-5947 ISBN: 9783319328102 9783319328119 Year: Pages: 35 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-32811-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Mathematics --- Education
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This book records the state of the art in research on mathematics-related affect. It discusses the concepts and theories of mathematics-related affect along the lines of three dimensions. The first dimension identifies three broad categories of affect: motivation, emotions, and beliefs. The book contains one chapter on motivation, including discussions on how emotions and beliefs relate to motivation. There are two chapters that focus on beliefs and a chapter on attitude which cross-cuts through all these categories. The second dimension covers a rapidly fluctuating state to a more stable trait. All chapters in the book focus on trait-type affect and the chapter on motivation discusses both these dimensions. The third dimension regards the three main levels of theorizing: physiological (embodied), psychological (individual) and social. All chapters reflect that mathematics-related affect has mainly been studied using psychological theories.

Bayesian Methods for Statistical Analysis

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ISBN: 9781921934254 Year: Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Mathematics
License: ANU Press

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Bayesian methods for statistical analysis is a book on statistical methods for analysing a wide variety of data. The book consists of 12 chapters, starting with basic concepts and covering numerous topics, including Bayesian estimation, decision theory, prediction, hypothesis testing, hierarchical models, Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, finite population inference, biased sampling and nonignorable nonresponse. The book contains many exercises, all with worked solutions, including complete computer code. It is suitable for self-study or a semester-long course, with three hours of lectures and one tutorial per week for 13 weeks.

Der Briefwechsel Hasse - Scholz - Taussky

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783863952532 Year: Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Mathematics
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Arnold Scholz (1906-1941) war einer der vielversprechendsten jungen Zahlentheoretiker in den 1930er Jahren, einer der besten Kenner der Klassenkörpertheorie. Als Doktorand von Issai Schur war er auch mit gruppentheoretischen Methoden vertraut. Da er während des Dritten Reichs als politisch nicht zuverlässig galt (er war ein enger Freund des ebenfalls „suspekten“ Ernst Zermelo), konnte er keine sichere Stelle finden. Trotzdem gelang es ihm, eine Reihe wichtiger Resultate zu erhalten, u.a. bei der Realisierung von Galoisgruppen und in der Theorie der Normenreste. Der zu einem klaren Verständnis dieser Ergebnisse notwendige kohomologische Apparat war damals noch nicht entwickelt, und daher konnten zunächst nur Wenige mit den Scholzschen Ideen etwas anfangen. Eine Reihe seiner Resultate wurden später wiederentdeckt. Schafarewitsch konnte mit Hilfe der Scholzschen Methoden zeigen, dass jede endliche auflösbare Gruppe als Galoisgruppe einer Erweiterung der rationalen Zahlen vorkommt. Das vorliegende Buch, das als erster Schritt zu einem besseren Verständnis des Werks von Arnold Scholz anzusehen ist, enthält die Korrespondenz zwischen Arnold Scholz und Helmut Hasse einerseits und Olga Taussky andererseits, soweit sie in den Archiven der Universität Göttingen und des California Institute of Technology in Pasadena erhalten sind. Auch die Korrespondenz zwischen Hasse und Taussky bis zum frühen Tod von Arnold Scholz wurde aufgenommen.

Arnold Scholz (1906-1941) war einer der vielversprechendsten jungen Zahlentheoretiker in den 1930er Jahren, einer der besten Kenner der Klassenkörpertheorie. Als Doktorand von Issai Schur war er auch mit gruppentheoretischen Methoden vertraut. Da er während des Dritten Reichs als politisch nicht zuverlässig galt (er war ein enger Freund des ebenfalls „suspekten“ Ernst Zermelo), konnte er keine sichere Stelle finden. Trotzdem gelang es ihm, eine Reihe wichtiger Resultate zu erhalten, u.a. bei der Realisierung von Galoisgruppen und in der Theorie der Normenreste. Der zu einem klaren Verständnis dieser Ergebnisse notwendige kohomologische Apparat war damals noch nicht entwickelt, und daher konnten zunächst nur Wenige mit den Scholzschen Ideen etwas anfangen. Eine Reihe seiner Resultate wurden später wiederentdeckt. Schafarewitsch konnte mit Hilfe der Scholzschen Methoden zeigen, dass jede endliche auflösbare Gruppe als Galoisgruppe einer Erweiterung der rationalen Zahlen vorkommt. Das vorliegende Buch, das als erster Schritt zu einem besseren Verständnis des Werks von Arnold Scholz anzusehen ist, enthält die Korrespondenz zwischen Arnold Scholz und Helmut Hasse einerseits und Olga Taussky andererseits, soweit sie in den Archiven der Universität Göttingen und des California Institute of Technology in Pasadena erhalten sind. Auch die Korrespondenz zwischen Hasse und Taussky bis zum frühen Tod von Arnold Scholz wurde aufgenommen.

Centrales nucléaires et environnement - Prélèvements d'eau et rejets

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9782759809134 Year: Pages: 258 Language: French
Publisher: EDP SCIENCES
Subject: Mathematics
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Environment, nuclear power Plant, pollution, rejection, water

Si la tendance au regroupement des industries métallurgiques en pôles de taille mondiale paraît inéluctable, il faut tout faire pour que cette évolution n'entraîne pas un affaissement de la France dans ce domaine clé. En effet, si les grands acteurs mondiaux de la Métallurgie ne peuvent plus s'appuyer,comme encore récemment, sur une recherche et un enseignement publics français forts, l'ensemble de notre système s'asséchera et migrera ailleurs. Qui plus est, la perte de substance ira bien au-delà de la R&D, frappant en particulier le tissu de nos PMI/PME. L'Académie des technologies et l'Académie des sciences présentent ici une analyse de la Métallurgie française, établie par un groupe d'experts animé par André Pineau, de l'Académie des technologies, et Yves Quéré, de l'Académie des sciences. Cet ouvrage synthétique, complété par des annexes numérisées, décrit en premier lieu la Métallurgie comme science, en tant que telle, en lien fort avec l'ingénierie, ou génie métallurgique. Il établit ensuite un diagnostic de la situation pour les divers grands secteurs industriels ainsi que pour la recherche et l'enseignement. L'ambition est ici de montrer que la Métallurgie constitue une discipline scientifique à part entière, présente dans des champs innombrables de l'industrie, où elle est source de progrès et réservoir d'emplois ; et de rappeler qu'il faut du temps pour construire des compétences indispensables, tant scientifi ques que techniques, qu'un rien suffi t à détruire. Le rapport montre également que la Métallurgie a perdu, en France, une grande part de sa substance, en raison à la fois de multiples réorganisations industrielles récentes et d'un désengagement du monde académique, largement dû aux effets de mode. C'est pourquoi des mesures urgentes, dans l'enseignement, la recherche universitaire et industrielle, l'information du public, la sensibilisation des décideurs et des acteurs… doivent être impérativement prises. Devant la gravité des évolutions recensées, qui rejaillissent notamment sur les emplois, les compétences, la R&D…, les deux académies proposent aux décideurs, publics et privés, une stratégie déclinée en une série de recommandations : dans chaque domaine est décrit l'état actuel et sont proposées des pistes de développement scientifi que et appliqué. Perdre une position de pôle dans ces domaines est dangereux ; en prendre une de leader est un défi à relever. Nous sommes actuellement à ce tournant et, en cela, nous sommes sans doute condamnés à l'excellence.

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