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3D Printing with Biomaterials - Towards a Sustainable and Circular Economy

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ISBN: 9781614994855 9781614994862 Year: Pages: 86 DOI: 10.3233/978-1-61499-486-2-i Language: English
Publisher: IOS Press
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Business and Management --- Environmental Sciences
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"Additive manufacturing or 3D printing, manufacturing a product layer by layer, offers large design freedom and faster product development cycles, as well as low startup cost of production, on-demand production and local production. In principle, any product could be made by additive manufacturing. Even food and living organic cells can be printed. We can create, design and manufacture what we want at the location we want. 3D printing will create a revolution in manufacturing, a real paradigm change. 3D printing holds the promise to manufacture with less waste and energy. We can print metals, ceramics, sand, synthetic materials such as plastics, food or living cells. However, the production of plastics is nowadays based on fossil fuels. And that’s where we witness a paradigm change too. The production of these synthetic materials can be based also on biomaterials with biomass as feedstock. A wealth of new and innovative products are emerging when we combine these two paradigm changes: 3D printing and biomaterials. Moreover, the combination of 3D printing with biomaterials holds the promise to realize a truly sustainable and circular economy."

Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

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ISBN: 9784431543275 9784431543282 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-54328-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Environmental Sciences --- Nuclear Physics --- Business and Management --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Manufactures
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Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, a large volume of monitoring data has been collected about the soil, air, dust, and seawater, along with data about an immense number of foods supplied to the market. Little is known, however, about the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture, information about which is vital. Although more than 80% of the damaged area is related to agriculture, in situ information specifically for agriculture is scarce. This book provides data about the actual movement and accumulation of radioactivity in the ecological system—for example, whether debris deposited on mountains can be a cause of secondary contamination, under what conditions plants accumulate radioactive cesium in their edible parts, and how radioactivity is transferred from hay to milk. Because agriculture is so closely related to nature, many specialists with different areas of expertise must be involved in answering these questions. In the case of rice, researchers in rice cultivation as well as in soil, hydrology, and radioactivity measurement are working together to reveal the paths or accumulation of radioactivity in the field. For this purpose, the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo has diverse facilities available throughout Japan, including farmlands, forests, and meadowlands. Many academic staff members have formed groups to conduct on-site research, with more than 40 volunteers participating. This book presents the data collected from the only project being systematically carried out across Japan after the Fukushima accident.

Autonomes Fahren: Technische, rechtliche und gesellschaftliche Aspekte

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Ist das voll automatisierte, autonom fahrende Auto zum Greifen nah? Testfahrzeuge und Zulassungen in den USA erwecken diesen Eindruck, werfen aber gleichzeitig viele neue Fragestellungen auf. Wie werden autonome Fahrzeuge in das aktuelle Verkehrssystem integriert? Wie erfolgt ihre rechtliche Einbettung? Welche Risiken bestehen und wie wird mit diesen umgegangen? Und welche Akzeptanz seitens der Gesellschaft sowie des Marktes kann hinsichtlich dieser Entwicklungen überhaupt erwartet werden? Das vorliegende Buch gibt Antworten auf ein breites Spektrum dieser und weiterer Fragen. Expertinnen und Experten aus Deutschland und den USA beschreiben aus ingenieur- und gesellschaftswissenschaftlicher Sicht zentrale Themen im Zusammenhang mit der Automatisierung von Fahrzeugen im öffentlichen Straßenverkehr. Sie zeigen auf, welche „Entscheidungen“ einem autonomen Fahrzeug abverlangt werden beziehungsweise welche „Ethik“ programmiert werden muss. Die Autorinnen und Autoren diskutieren Erwartungen und Bedenken, die die individuelle wie auch die gesellschaftliche Akzeptanz des autonomen Fahrens kennzeichnen. Ein durch autonome Fahrzeuge erhöhtes Sicherheitspotenzial wird den Herausforderungen und Lösungsansätzen, die bei der Absicherung des Sicherheitskonzeptes eine Rolle spielen, gegenübergestellt. Zudem erläutern sie, welche Veränderungsmöglichkeiten und Chancen sich für unsere Mobilität und die Neuorganisation des Verkehrsgeschehens ergeben, nicht zuletzt auch für den Güterverkehr. Das Buch bietet somit eine aktuelle, umfassende und wissenschaftlich fundierte Auseinandersetzung mit dem Thema „Autonomes Fahren“.

Bisociative Knowledge Discovery: An Introduction to Concept, Algorithms, Tools, and Applications

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Book Series: Lecture Notes in Computer Science ISSN: 0302-9743 ISBN: 9783642318290 9783642318306 Year: Volume: 7250 Pages: 485 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-31830-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Computer Science --- Information theory --- Pharmacy and materia medica --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Chemical Engineering --- Biotechnology --- Business and Management --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Media and communication --- Manufactures
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Modern knowledge discovery methods enable users to discover complex patterns of various types in large information repositories. However, the underlying assumption has always been that the data to which the methods are applied to originates from one domain. The focus of this book, and the BISON project from which the contributions are originating, is a network based integration of various types of data repositories and the development of new ways to analyse and explore the resulting gigantic information networks. Instead of finding well defined global or local patterns they wanted to find domain bridging associations which are, by definition, not well defined since they will be especially interesting if they are sparse and have not been encountered before. The 32 contributions presented in this state-of-the-art volume together with a detailed introduction to the book are organized in topical sections on bisociation; representation and network creation; network analysis; exploration; and applications and evaluation.

Economics of Land Degradation and Improvement – A Global Assessment for Sustainable Development

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783319191676 9783319191683 Year: Pages: 686 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-19168-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Economics --- Business and Management --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Manufactures
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This volume deals with land degradation, which is occurring in almost all terrestrial biomes and agro-ecologies, in both low and high income countries and is stretching to about 30% of the total global land area. About three billion people reside in these degraded lands. However, the impact of land degradation is especially severe on livelihoods of the poor who heavily depend on natural resources. The annual global cost of land degradation due to land use and cover change (LUCC) and lower cropland and rangeland productivity is estimated to be about 300 billion USD. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) accounts for the largest share (22%) of the total global cost of land degradation. Only about 38% of the cost of land degradation due to LUCC - which accounts for 78% of the US$300 billion loss – is borne by land users and the remaining share (62%) is borne by consumers of ecosystem services off the farm. The results in this volume indicate that reversing land degradation trends makes both economic sense, and has multiple social and environmental benefits. On average, one US dollar investment into restoration of degraded land returns five US dollars. The findings of the country case studies call for increased investments into the rehabilitation and restoration of degraded lands, including through such institutional and policy measures as strengthening community participation for sustainable land management, enhancing government effectiveness and rule of law, improving access to markets and rural services, and securing land tenure. The assessment in this volume has been conducted at a time when there is an elevated interest in private land investments and when global efforts to achieve sustainable development objectives have intensified. In this regard, the results of this volume can contribute significantly to the ongoing policy debate and efforts to design strategies for achieving sustainable development goals and related efforts to address land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

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Book Series: Ocean Engineering & Oceanography ISSN: 2194-6396 ISBN: 9783319398884 (Print) 9783319398891 (Online) Year: Volume: 7 Pages: 287 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-39889-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Chemical Technology --- Business and Management --- Materials --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
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This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners in the wave energy sector.

Inorganic Biomaterials

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198016 Year: Pages: 149 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-801-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Biotechnology
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The intention of the editors A. R. Boccaccini and W. Höland has been to target this e-book to a broad readership and at the same time to present scientific contributions sufficiently detailed which discuss various specific fundamental aspects of inorganic biomaterials and their biomedical and dental applications. In this context, two large categories of biomaterials need to be mentioned, namely bioactive biomaterials for the replacement and regeneration of hard tissue and biocompatible, non-bioactive biomaterials for restorative dentistry. Both categories include products based on glasses or glass-ceramics as well as organic-inorganic composite materials. Among the bioactive products, BIOGLASS®, developed in the late 1960s by Prof. Dr. L. L. Hench, occupies a prominent position, being BIOGLASS® the first man-made material shown to form strong and functional bonding to leaving tissue. Sadly, Prof. Hench passed away in December 2015, at the time this e-book was being completed, it is therefore a great honor for the editors to dedicate this e-book to his memory. Indeed the book contains a comprehensive review written by Prof. Hench, in collaboration with Prof. J. R. Jones (UK), which provides a timely overview of the development and applications of bioactive glasses, including a discussion on the remaining challenges in the field. Further bioactive materials have been developed over the years by leading scientists such as Prof. Kokubo (Japan). These materials have also found their way into this book. The other contributions in this book, written by worldwide recognized experts in the field, present the latest advances in relevant areas such as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, metallic ion releasing systems, cements, bioactive glass–polymer coatings, composites for bone regeneration, and effect of porosity on cellular response to bioceramics. In addition to bioactive materials, inorganic systems for restorative dentistry are also discussed in this e-book. Biomaterials for dental restorations consist of glassy or crystalline phases. Glass-ceramics represent a special group of inorganic biomaterials for dental restorations. Glass-ceramics are composed of at least one inorganic glassy phase and at least one crystalline phase. These products demonstrate a combination of properties, which include excellent aesthetics and the ability to mimic the optical properties of natural teeth, as well as high strength and toughness. They can be processed using special processing procedures, e.g. machining, moulding and sintering, to fabricate high quality products. The editors would like to extend their gratitude to the Frontiers team in Lausanne, Switzerland, for their outstanding dedication to make possible the publication of this e-book in a timely manner. It is our wish that the book will contribute to expand the field of inorganic biomaterials, both in terms of fundamental knowledge and applications, and that the book will be useful not only to established researchers but also to the increasing number of young scientists starting their careers in the field of inorganic biomaterials.

Linked Open Data - Creating Knowledge Out of Interlinked Data: Results of the LOD2 Project

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Book Series: Lecture Notes in Computer Science ISSN: 03029743 ISBN: 9783319098456 9783319098463 Year: Volume: 8661 Pages: 215 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-09846-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Computer Science --- Pharmacy and materia medica --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Biotechnology --- Business and Management --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Media and communication
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Linked Open Data (LOD) is a pragmatic approach for realizing the Semantic Web vision of making the Web a global, distributed, semantics-based information system. This book presents an overview on the results of the research project “LOD2 -- Creating Knowledge out of Interlinked Data”. LOD2 is a large-scale integrating project co-funded by the European Commission within the FP7 Information and Communication Technologies Work Program. Commencing in September 2010, this 4-year project comprised leading Linked Open Data research groups, companies, and service providers from across 11 European countries and South Korea. The aim of this project was to advance the state-of-the-art in research and development in four key areas relevant for Linked Data, namely 1. RDF data management; 2. the extraction, creation, and enrichment of structured RDF data; 3. the interlinking and fusion of Linked Data from different sources and 4. the authoring, exploration and visualization of Linked Data.

Managing the Complexity of Critical Infrastructures: A Modelling and Simulation Approach

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Book Series: Studies in Systems, Decision and Control ISSN: 2198-4182 ISBN: 9783319510422 (Print) 9783319510439 (Online) Year: Volume: 90 Pages: 299 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-51043-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Pharmacy and materia medica --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Biotechnology --- Computer Science --- Manufactures --- Business and Management
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This book summarizes work being pursued in the context of the CIPRNet (Critical Infrastructure Preparedness and Resilience Research Network) research project, co-funded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). The project is intended to provide concrete and on-going support to the Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) research communities, enhancing their preparedness for CI-related emergencies, while also providing expertise and technologies for other stakeholders to promote their understanding and mitigation of the consequences of CI disruptions, leading to enhanced resilience. The book collects the tutorial material developed by the authors for several courses on the modelling, simulation and analysis of CIs, representing extensive and integrated CIP expertise. It will help CI stakeholders, CI operators and civil protection authorities understand the complex system of CIs, and help them adapt to these changes and threats in order to be as prepared as possible for mitigating emergencies and crises affecting or arising from CIs.

New Frontiers in Multiscale Modelling of Advanced Materials

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197552 Year: Pages: 91 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-755-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
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Atomistic simulations, based on ab-initio and semi-empirical approaches, are nowadays widespread in many areas of physics, chemistry and, more recently, biology. Improved algorithms and increased computational power widened the areas of application of these computational methods to extended materials of technological interest, in particular allowing unprecedented access to the first-principles investigation of their electronic, optical, thermodynamical and mechanical properties, even where experiments are not available. However, for a big impact on the society, this rapidly growing field of computational approaches to materials science has to face the unfavourable scaling with the system size, and to beat the time-scale bottleneck. Indeed, many phenomena, such as crystal growth or protein folding for example, occur in a space/time scale which is normally out of reach of present simulations. Multi-scale approaches try to combine different scale algorithms along with matching procedures in order to bridge the gap between first-principles and continuum-level simulations. This Research Topic aims at the description of recent advances and applications in these two emerging fields of ab-inito and multi-scale materials modelling for both ground and excited states. A variety of theoretical and computational techniques are included along with the application of these methods to systems at increasing level of complexity, from nano to micro. Crossing the borders between several computational, theoretical and experimental techniques, this Research Topic aims to be of interest to a broad community, including experimental and theoretical physicists, chemists and engineers interested in materials research in a broad sense.

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