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Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

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ISBN: 9784431543275 9784431543282 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-54328-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Environmental Sciences --- Nuclear Physics --- Business and Management --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Manufactures
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Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, a large volume of monitoring data has been collected about the soil, air, dust, and seawater, along with data about an immense number of foods supplied to the market. Little is known, however, about the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture, information about which is vital. Although more than 80% of the damaged area is related to agriculture, in situ information specifically for agriculture is scarce. This book provides data about the actual movement and accumulation of radioactivity in the ecological system—for example, whether debris deposited on mountains can be a cause of secondary contamination, under what conditions plants accumulate radioactive cesium in their edible parts, and how radioactivity is transferred from hay to milk. Because agriculture is so closely related to nature, many specialists with different areas of expertise must be involved in answering these questions. In the case of rice, researchers in rice cultivation as well as in soil, hydrology, and radioactivity measurement are working together to reveal the paths or accumulation of radioactivity in the field. For this purpose, the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo has diverse facilities available throughout Japan, including farmlands, forests, and meadowlands. Many academic staff members have formed groups to conduct on-site research, with more than 40 volunteers participating. This book presents the data collected from the only project being systematically carried out across Japan after the Fukushima accident.

Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident: The First Three Years

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ISBN: 9784431558262 9784431558286 Year: Pages: 263 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-55828-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Technology --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Nuclear Physics --- Business and Management --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Manufactures
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This book reports the results from on-site research into radioactive cesium contamination in various agricultural systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident that occurred in March 2011. This is the second volume from the research groups formed in the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo who have published the initial data in their first volume. In this book, additional data collected in the subsequent years are presented to show how the radioactivity level in agricultural products and their growing environments have changed with time. The data clarify the route by which radioactive materials entered agricultural products and their movement among different components (e.g., soil, water, and trees) within an environmental system (e.g., forests). The book consists of various topics, including radioactivity inspection of food products; decontamination trials for rice and livestock production; the state of contamination in wild animals and birds, trees, mushrooms, and timber; the dynamics of radioactivity distribution in mountain and paddy fields; damage incurred by the forestry and fishery industries; and the change in consumers’ minds. The last chapter introduces a real-time radioisotope imaging system, the forefront technique to visualize actual movement of cesium in soil and in plants. This is the only book to provide systematic data about the actual change of radioactivity, and thus is of great value for all researchers who wish to understand the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture. The project is ongoing; the research groups continue their work in the field for further evaluation of the long-term effects.

Anti-fragile ICT Systems

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Book Series: Simula SpringerBriefs on Computing ISBN: 9783319300689 9783319300702 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 151 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-30070-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Computer Science --- Transportation --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Media and communication --- Manufactures --- General and Civil Engineering
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This book introduces a novel approach to the design and operation of large ICT systems. It views the technical solutions and their stakeholders as complex adaptive systems and argues that traditional risk analyses cannot predict all future incidents with major impacts. To avoid unacceptable events, it is necessary to establish and operate anti-fragile ICT systems that limit the impact of all incidents, and which learn from small-impact incidents how to function increasingly well in changing environments. The book applies four design principles and one operational principle to achieve anti-fragility for different classes of incidents. It discusses how systems can achieve high availability, prevent malware epidemics, and detect anomalies. Analyses of Netflix’s media streaming solution, Norwegian telecom infrastructures, e-government platforms, and Numenta’s anomaly detection software show that cloud computing is essential to achieving anti-fragility for classes of events with negative impacts.

Beyond the Limits to Growth

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Book Series: Science for Sustainable Societies ISSN: 21977356 ISBN: 9784431545583 9784431545590 Year: Pages: 103 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-54559-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Pharmacy and materia medica --- Chemical Engineering --- Biotechnology --- Business and Management --- Law --- Manufactures --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Environmental Sciences
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At a time when contemporary challenges seem to many to be insurmountable, this book offers an optimistic view of the future and provides a road map for societies to get there. Drawing upon extensive research and many years as a thought leader in environmental and sustainability issues in Japan and internationally, Hiroshi Komiyama analyzes the most pressing challenges to the attainment of sustainability of economically advanced nations and argues forcefully for Japan to lead them out of the present dilemma through active promotion of creative consumer and societal demand. He shows how an active industry–government–academic partnership can provide the environment needed to promote such new creative demand and illustrates its potential through presentation of a Platinum Society Network that was launched on a regional basis in Japan in 2010 to facilitate the solution of common issues through the exchange of information and ideas. What is perhaps most surprising about the text is its unwavering optimism supported by hard evidence, history, and insightful observation. Problems arising from new paradigms of the 21st century (what the author refers to as “exploding knowledge, limited Earth resources, and aging societies“) thwart sustainable development in advanced and developing countries alike. All countries will struggle with issues that evolve from these paradigms including diminishing resources, expanding budget deficits, and growing global environmental problems. This window on potential practical pathways and solutions should be of interest to all those engaged in seeking ways to meet these contemporary challenges.

Biotechnologies for Plant Mutation Breeding: Protocols

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783319450193 9783319450216 Year: Pages: 340 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-45021-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Biotechnology --- Chemical Engineering --- Manufactures --- Therapeutics
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This book offers 19 detailed protocols on the use of induced mutations in crop breeding and functional genomics studies, which cover topics including chemical and physical mutagenesis, phenotypic screening methods, traditional TILLING and TILLING by sequencing, doubled haploidy, targeted genome editing, and low-cost methods for the molecular characterization of mutant plants that are suitable for laboratories in developing countries. The collection of protocols equips users with the techniques they need in order to start a program on mutation breeding or functional genomics using both forward and reverse-genetic approaches. Methods are provided for seed and vegetatively propagated crops (e.g. banana, barley, cassava, jatropha, rice) and can be adapted for use in other species.

Bisociative Knowledge Discovery: An Introduction to Concept, Algorithms, Tools, and Applications

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Book Series: Lecture Notes in Computer Science ISSN: 0302-9743 ISBN: 9783642318290 9783642318306 Year: Volume: 7250 Pages: 485 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-31830-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Computer Science --- Information theory --- Pharmacy and materia medica --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Chemical Engineering --- Biotechnology --- Business and Management --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Media and communication --- Manufactures
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Modern knowledge discovery methods enable users to discover complex patterns of various types in large information repositories. However, the underlying assumption has always been that the data to which the methods are applied to originates from one domain. The focus of this book, and the BISON project from which the contributions are originating, is a network based integration of various types of data repositories and the development of new ways to analyse and explore the resulting gigantic information networks. Instead of finding well defined global or local patterns they wanted to find domain bridging associations which are, by definition, not well defined since they will be especially interesting if they are sparse and have not been encountered before. The 32 contributions presented in this state-of-the-art volume together with a detailed introduction to the book are organized in topical sections on bisociation; representation and network creation; network analysis; exploration; and applications and evaluation.

Computer and Information Sciences: 31st International Symposium, ISCIS 2016, Kraków, Poland, October 27–28, 2016, Proceedings

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Communications in Computer and Information Science ISSN: 1865-0929 ISBN: 9783319472164 9783319472171 Year: Volume: 659 Pages: 278 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-47217-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Therapeutics --- Transportation --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Biotechnology --- Business and Management --- Manufactures
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 31st International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences, ISCIS 2016, held in Krakow, Poland, in October 2016. The 29 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 65 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on smart algorithms; data classification and processing; stochastic modelling; performance evaluation; queuing systems; wireless networks and security; image processing and computer vision.

Corporate Data Quality: Voraussetzung erfolgreicher Geschäftsmodelle

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ISBN: 9783662468050 9783662468067 Year: Pages: 205 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-46806-7 Language: Deutsch
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Business and Management --- Pharmacy and materia medica --- Transportation --- Biotechnology --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Manufactures
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Daten sind die strategische Ressource des 21. Jahrhunderts. Es findet kein Geschäftsprozess, keine Kommunikation zwischen Geschäftspartnern, keine Wertschöpfung statt, ohne dass die involvierten Personen, Maschinen und IT-Systeme Daten nutzen, erzeugen oder verändern. Trends wie die Digitalisierung, Industrie 4.0 und Social Media tragen ebenfalls dazu bei, dass Datenmanagement zu einer Kernkompetenz für erfolgreiche Unternehmen dieser Zeit geworden ist. Damit Daten ihren ganzen Wert entfalten können, müssen sie stets in angemessener Qualität zur Verfügung stehen. Dies gilt besonders für Stammdaten, die zentralen Geschäftsobjekte eines Unternehmens. Dieses Buch zeigt einen ganzheitlichen Ansatz zum qualitätsbewussten Management von Stammdaten auf und richtet sich damit sowohl an Praktiker als auch an die Wissenschaft. Das „Framework für Stammdatenqualitätsmanagement“ wurde im Rahmen des „Competence Center Corporate Data Quality“ der Universität St. Gallen seit dem Jahr 2006 gemeinsam mit Unternehmen aus unterschiedlichen Industrien in zahlreichen praktischen Anwendungen entwickelt und verbessert. Neben den theoretischen Grundlagen räumt das Buch der praktischen Sicht mit 10 Fallstudien großen Raum ein, die erfolgreich durchgeführte Datenqualitätsprojekte praxisnah aufbereiten. Schließlich führt das Buch noch Methoden und Werkzeuge für das Datenqualitätsmanagement auf, die (Stamm-)datenmanager bei Projekten im eigenen betrieblichen Umfeld unterstützen können.

Ecological Risk Assessment for Chlorpyrifos in Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems in North America

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Book Series: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology ISSN: 21976554 ISBN: 9783319038643 9783319038650 Year: Volume: 231 Pages: 282 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-03865-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Biotechnology --- Pharmacy and materia medica --- Manufactures
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This book attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavor in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications.

Economics of Land Degradation and Improvement – A Global Assessment for Sustainable Development

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783319191676 9783319191683 Year: Pages: 686 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-19168-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Economics --- Business and Management --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Manufactures
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This volume deals with land degradation, which is occurring in almost all terrestrial biomes and agro-ecologies, in both low and high income countries and is stretching to about 30% of the total global land area. About three billion people reside in these degraded lands. However, the impact of land degradation is especially severe on livelihoods of the poor who heavily depend on natural resources. The annual global cost of land degradation due to land use and cover change (LUCC) and lower cropland and rangeland productivity is estimated to be about 300 billion USD. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) accounts for the largest share (22%) of the total global cost of land degradation. Only about 38% of the cost of land degradation due to LUCC - which accounts for 78% of the US$300 billion loss – is borne by land users and the remaining share (62%) is borne by consumers of ecosystem services off the farm. The results in this volume indicate that reversing land degradation trends makes both economic sense, and has multiple social and environmental benefits. On average, one US dollar investment into restoration of degraded land returns five US dollars. The findings of the country case studies call for increased investments into the rehabilitation and restoration of degraded lands, including through such institutional and policy measures as strengthening community participation for sustainable land management, enhancing government effectiveness and rule of law, improving access to markets and rural services, and securing land tenure. The assessment in this volume has been conducted at a time when there is an elevated interest in private land investments and when global efforts to achieve sustainable development objectives have intensified. In this regard, the results of this volume can contribute significantly to the ongoing policy debate and efforts to design strategies for achieving sustainable development goals and related efforts to address land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

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