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Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

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ISBN: 9784431543275 9784431543282 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-54328-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Environmental Sciences --- Nuclear Physics --- Business and Management --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Manufactures
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Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, a large volume of monitoring data has been collected about the soil, air, dust, and seawater, along with data about an immense number of foods supplied to the market. Little is known, however, about the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture, information about which is vital. Although more than 80% of the damaged area is related to agriculture, in situ information specifically for agriculture is scarce. This book provides data about the actual movement and accumulation of radioactivity in the ecological system—for example, whether debris deposited on mountains can be a cause of secondary contamination, under what conditions plants accumulate radioactive cesium in their edible parts, and how radioactivity is transferred from hay to milk. Because agriculture is so closely related to nature, many specialists with different areas of expertise must be involved in answering these questions. In the case of rice, researchers in rice cultivation as well as in soil, hydrology, and radioactivity measurement are working together to reveal the paths or accumulation of radioactivity in the field. For this purpose, the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo has diverse facilities available throughout Japan, including farmlands, forests, and meadowlands. Many academic staff members have formed groups to conduct on-site research, with more than 40 volunteers participating. This book presents the data collected from the only project being systematically carried out across Japan after the Fukushima accident.

Anti-fragile ICT Systems

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Book Series: Simula SpringerBriefs on Computing ISBN: 9783319300689 9783319300702 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 151 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-30070-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Computer Science --- Transportation --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Media and communication --- Manufactures --- General and Civil Engineering
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This book introduces a novel approach to the design and operation of large ICT systems. It views the technical solutions and their stakeholders as complex adaptive systems and argues that traditional risk analyses cannot predict all future incidents with major impacts. To avoid unacceptable events, it is necessary to establish and operate anti-fragile ICT systems that limit the impact of all incidents, and which learn from small-impact incidents how to function increasingly well in changing environments. The book applies four design principles and one operational principle to achieve anti-fragility for different classes of incidents. It discusses how systems can achieve high availability, prevent malware epidemics, and detect anomalies. Analyses of Netflix’s media streaming solution, Norwegian telecom infrastructures, e-government platforms, and Numenta’s anomaly detection software show that cloud computing is essential to achieving anti-fragility for classes of events with negative impacts.

Beyond the Limits to Growth

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Book Series: Science for Sustainable Societies ISSN: 21977356 ISBN: 9784431545583 9784431545590 Year: Pages: 103 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-54559-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Pharmacy and materia medica --- Chemical Engineering --- Biotechnology --- Business and Management --- Law --- Manufactures --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Environmental Sciences
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At a time when contemporary challenges seem to many to be insurmountable, this book offers an optimistic view of the future and provides a road map for societies to get there. Drawing upon extensive research and many years as a thought leader in environmental and sustainability issues in Japan and internationally, Hiroshi Komiyama analyzes the most pressing challenges to the attainment of sustainability of economically advanced nations and argues forcefully for Japan to lead them out of the present dilemma through active promotion of creative consumer and societal demand. He shows how an active industry–government–academic partnership can provide the environment needed to promote such new creative demand and illustrates its potential through presentation of a Platinum Society Network that was launched on a regional basis in Japan in 2010 to facilitate the solution of common issues through the exchange of information and ideas. What is perhaps most surprising about the text is its unwavering optimism supported by hard evidence, history, and insightful observation. Problems arising from new paradigms of the 21st century (what the author refers to as “exploding knowledge, limited Earth resources, and aging societies“) thwart sustainable development in advanced and developing countries alike. All countries will struggle with issues that evolve from these paradigms including diminishing resources, expanding budget deficits, and growing global environmental problems. This window on potential practical pathways and solutions should be of interest to all those engaged in seeking ways to meet these contemporary challenges.

Biotechnologies for Plant Mutation Breeding: Protocols

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783319450193 (Print) 9783319450216 (Online) Year: Pages: 340 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-45021-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Biotechnology --- Chemical Engineering --- Manufactures --- Therapeutics
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This book offers 19 detailed protocols on the use of induced mutations in crop breeding and functional genomics studies, which cover topics including chemical and physical mutagenesis, phenotypic screening methods, traditional TILLING and TILLING by sequencing, doubled haploidy, targeted genome editing, and low-cost methods for the molecular characterization of mutant plants that are suitable for laboratories in developing countries. The collection of protocols equips users with the techniques they need in order to start a program on mutation breeding or functional genomics using both forward and reverse-genetic approaches. Methods are provided for seed and vegetatively propagated crops (e.g. banana, barley, cassava, jatropha, rice) and can be adapted for use in other species.

Bisociative Knowledge Discovery: An Introduction to Concept, Algorithms, Tools, and Applications

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Book Series: Lecture Notes in Computer Science ISSN: 0302-9743 ISBN: 9783642318290 9783642318306 Year: Volume: 7250 Pages: 485 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-31830-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Computer Science --- Information theory --- Pharmacy and materia medica --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Chemical Engineering --- Biotechnology --- Business and Management --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Media and communication --- Manufactures
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Modern knowledge discovery methods enable users to discover complex patterns of various types in large information repositories. However, the underlying assumption has always been that the data to which the methods are applied to originates from one domain. The focus of this book, and the BISON project from which the contributions are originating, is a network based integration of various types of data repositories and the development of new ways to analyse and explore the resulting gigantic information networks. Instead of finding well defined global or local patterns they wanted to find domain bridging associations which are, by definition, not well defined since they will be especially interesting if they are sparse and have not been encountered before. The 32 contributions presented in this state-of-the-art volume together with a detailed introduction to the book are organized in topical sections on bisociation; representation and network creation; network analysis; exploration; and applications and evaluation.

Computer and Information Sciences: 31st International Symposium, ISCIS 2016, Kraków, Poland, October 27–28, 2016, Proceedings

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Communications in Computer and Information Science ISSN: 1865-0929 ISBN: 9783319472164 (Print) 9783319472171 (Online) Year: Volume: 659 Pages: 278 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-47217-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Therapeutics --- Transportation --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Biotechnology --- Business and Management --- Manufactures
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 31st International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences, ISCIS 2016, held in Krakow, Poland, in October 2016. The 29 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 65 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on smart algorithms; data classification and processing; stochastic modelling; performance evaluation; queuing systems; wireless networks and security; image processing and computer vision.

Economics of Land Degradation and Improvement – A Global Assessment for Sustainable Development

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783319191676 9783319191683 Year: Pages: 686 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-19168-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Economics --- Business and Management --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Manufactures
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This volume deals with land degradation, which is occurring in almost all terrestrial biomes and agro-ecologies, in both low and high income countries and is stretching to about 30% of the total global land area. About three billion people reside in these degraded lands. However, the impact of land degradation is especially severe on livelihoods of the poor who heavily depend on natural resources. The annual global cost of land degradation due to land use and cover change (LUCC) and lower cropland and rangeland productivity is estimated to be about 300 billion USD. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) accounts for the largest share (22%) of the total global cost of land degradation. Only about 38% of the cost of land degradation due to LUCC - which accounts for 78% of the US$300 billion loss – is borne by land users and the remaining share (62%) is borne by consumers of ecosystem services off the farm. The results in this volume indicate that reversing land degradation trends makes both economic sense, and has multiple social and environmental benefits. On average, one US dollar investment into restoration of degraded land returns five US dollars. The findings of the country case studies call for increased investments into the rehabilitation and restoration of degraded lands, including through such institutional and policy measures as strengthening community participation for sustainable land management, enhancing government effectiveness and rule of law, improving access to markets and rural services, and securing land tenure. The assessment in this volume has been conducted at a time when there is an elevated interest in private land investments and when global efforts to achieve sustainable development objectives have intensified. In this regard, the results of this volume can contribute significantly to the ongoing policy debate and efforts to design strategies for achieving sustainable development goals and related efforts to address land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

Environmental Leadership Capacity Building in Higher Education: Experience and Lessons from Asian Program for Incubation of Environmental Leaders

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ISBN: 9784431543398 9784431543404 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-54340-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Education --- Environmental Sciences --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Manufactures
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The Graduate Program in Sustainability Science under the Department of Urban Engineering of The University of Tokyo has been running an environmental leadership education program at the graduate student level since 2007 called the Asian Program for Incubation of Environmental Leaders (APIEL). This book describes the University’s experiences in establishing and organizing that program and provides some lessons learned for those who are considering starting environmental leadership education programs. APIEL’s curriculum includes the classroom topic “Environmental Challenges and Leadership in Asia.” As well, the APIEL program has field units to provide experience in problem solving, decision making, and participation, taking into consideration ecological, political, economic, social, aesthetic, and ethical aspects. Another characteristic feature of the program is that it promotes changes in attitudes and behavior that will help to solve existing environmental problems and to avoid a generation of new ones. Over the four years of study, efforts have been made to bond leadership with field-oriented exercises such as: 1) The Intensive Program on Sustainability; 2) an integral approach focused on sustainable integrated watershed management of arid regions; 3) sustainable development of programs in Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand for qualifying students with problem-solving processes to combat issues such as flooding, lack of proper urban environmental infrastructure, and health risks; and 4) the Greater Pearl River Delta program with multicultural diversity to bring about sustainable urban development for a green city. All of those are described in the book. Last but not least, APIEL’s resonance throughout international networks and alumni are introduced.

Evaluating Climate Change Action for Sustainable Development

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783319437019 (Print) 9783319437026 (Online) Year: Pages: 355 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-43702-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Biotechnology --- Manufactures --- Pharmacy and materia medica
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This authoritative book presents the ever progressing state of the art in evaluating climate change strategies and action. It builds upon a selection of relevant and practical papers and presentations given at the 2nd International Conference on Evaluating Climate Change and Development held in Washington DC in 2014 and includes perspectives from independent evaluations of the major international organisations supporting climate action in developing countries, such as the Global Environment Facility. The first section of the book sets the stage and provides an overview of independent evaluations, carried out by multilateral development banks and development organisations. Important topics include how policies and organisations aim to achieve impact and how this is measured, whether climate change is mainstreamed into other development programs, and whether operations are meeting the urgency of climate change challenges. The following sections focus on evaluation of climate change projects and policies as they link to development, from the perspective of international organisations, NGO’s, multilateral and bilateral aid agencies, and academia. The authors share methodologies or approaches used to better understand problems and assess interventions, strategies and policies. They also share challenges encountered, what was done to solve these and lessons learned from evaluations. Collectively, the authors illustrate the importance of evaluation in providing evidence to guide policy change to informed decision-making.

Formalizing the Shadow Economy in Serbia: Policy Measures and Growth Effects

Authors: ---
Book Series: Contributions to Economics ISBN: 9783319134369 9783319134376 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-13437-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Economics --- Business and Management --- Manufactures
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The main objective of this book is to develop a strategy and policy measures to enhance the formalization of the shadow economy in order to improve the competitiveness of the economy and contribute to economic growth; it explores these issues with special reference to Serbia. The size and development of the shadow economy in Serbia and other Central and Eastern European countries are estimated using two different methods (the MIMIC method and household-tax-compliance method). Micro-estimates are based on a special survey of business entities in Serbia, which for the first time allows us to explore the shadow economy from the perspective of enterprises and entrepreneurs. The authors identify the types of shadow economy at work in business entities, the determinants of shadow economy participation, and the impact of competition from the informal sector on businesses. Readers will learn both about the potential fiscal effects of reducing the shadow economy to the levels observed in more developed countries and the effects that formalization of the shadow economy can have on economic growth.

Listing 1 - 10 of 39 << page
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