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Society - Water - Technology: A Critical Appraisal of Major Water Engineering Projects

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Book Series: Water Resources Development and Management ISSN: 1614810X ISBN: 9783319189703 9783319189710 Year: Pages: 295 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Technology
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This book presents the results of the Interdisciplinary Research Group 'Society – Water – Technology' of the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities. It describes interdisciplinary evaluation criteria for major water engineering projects (MWEPs) and portrays an application to the Lower Jordan Valley (Middle East) and the Fergana Valley (Central Asia). Both areas are characterised by transboundary conflicts, by challenges due to demographic and climate change and by political and societal pressures. Based on the findings, the book provides recommendations for science and political decisions makers as well as for international financing institutions. In addition, it outlines research gaps from an interdisciplinary perspective.In the past, MWEPs have been used as an instrument to cope with the demands of growing populations and to enhance development progress. Experiences with MWEPs have shown that a purely technical approach has not always brought about the desired results. In many cases, MWEPs have even resulted in negative implications for society and environment. Therefore, improved management strategies and enhanced technologies for a sustainable water resource management system are a prerequisite to meet present and future challenges. And, moreover, the continuous evaluation and optimisation of these measures is, likewise, a must.

Keywords

water --- technology --- waste --- pollution --- control --- aquatic --- environment --- law

Global Water Issues and Insights

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ISBN: 9781925021660 Year:
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
License: ANU Press

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This book brings together some of the world’s leading water researchers with an especially written collection of chapters on: water economics; transboundary water; water and development; water and energy; and water concepts.

Keywords

Water --- economics --- development --- transboundary

Water Resource Variability and Climate Change

ISBN: 9783038422440 9783038422303 Year: Pages: XVI, 378 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI AG - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
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Climate change affects global and regional water cycling, as well as surficial and subsurface water availability. These changes have increased the vulnerabilities of ecosystems and of human society. Understanding how climate change has affected water resource variability in the past and how climate change is leading to rapid changes in contemporary systems is of critical importance for sustainable development in different parts of the world. This Special Issue focuses on “Water Resource Variability and Climate Change” and aims to present a collection of articles addressing various aspects of water resource variability as well as how such variabilities are affected by changing climates. Potential topics include the reconstruction of historic moisture fluctuations, based on various proxies (such as tree rings, sediment cores, and landform features), the empirical monitoring of water variability based on field survey and remote sensing techniques, and the projection of future water cycling using numerical model simulations.

Wetlands and Water Framework Directive

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Book Series: GeoPlanet: Earth and Planetary Sciences ISSN: 21905193 ISBN: 9783319137636 9783319137643 Year: Pages: 103 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Sciences
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This book compares the lessons learned from a wetland-perspective approach to the changing climate and the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) with regard to environmental conservation. Examples from Germany and Poland are discussed due to the efficiency of their respective implementations of water conservation policies. Although the general scientific interest in specific issues such as wetlands, climate change, nature conservation and the WFD enjoy a well established position in international environmental research, these four elements are rarely considered together due to the complexity of the processes, biased scenarios of global change and subjective policy background. Major challenges involved in carrying out environmental conservation actions that assess the potential impacts of climate change and management plans on water bodies are identified. The results of this approach are addressed to practitioners in the field of adaptive management in a wetlands context.

Forestry and Water Conservation in South Africa

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ISBN: 9781925022834 Year:
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Forestry --- Environmental Sciences --- Social Sciences
License: ANU Press

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This innovative interdisciplinary study focuses on the history, science, and policy of tree planting and water conservation in South Africa. South Africa’s forestry sector has sat—often controversially—at the crossroads of policy and scientific debates regarding water conservation, economic development, and biodiversity protection. Bennett and Kruger show how debates about the hydrological impact of exotic tree planting in South Africa shaped the development of modern scientific ideas and state policies relating to timber plantations, water conservation, invasive species control, and biodiversity management within South Africa as well as elsewhere in the world. Forestry and Water Conservation in South Africa shows how scientific research on the impact of exotic and native vegetation led to the development of a comprehensive national policy for conserving water, producing timber, and protecting indigenous species from invasive alien plants. Policies and laws relating to forests and water began to change in the late 1980s and early 1990s as a result of political and administrative changes within South Africa. This book suggests that the country’s contemporary policies towards timber plantations, guided by the National Water Act of 1998, need to be reconsidered in light of the authors’ findings. Bennett and Kruger also call for more interdisciplinary research and greater emphasis on integrated policies and management plans for forestry, invasive alien plants, water conservation, and biodiversity preservation.

Troubled Waters: Confronting the Water Crisis in Australia's Cities

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ISBN: 9781921313844 Year: Pages: 217 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Environmental Technology
License: ANU Press

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Australian cities have traditionally relied for their water on a ‘predict-and-provide’ philosophy that gives primacy to big engineering solutions. In more recent years privatised water authorities, seeking to maximise consumption and profits, have reinforced the emphasis on increasing supply. Now the cities must cope with the stresses these policies have imposed on the eco-systems from which they harvest water, into which they discharge wastes, and on which they are located. Residents are having to pay more for their water, while the cities themselves are becoming less sustainable.Must we build more dams and desalination plants, or should we be managing the demand for urban water more prudently? This book explores the demand for urban water and how it has changed in response to shifting social mores over the past century. It explains how demand for centralised provision of water might be reshaped to enable the cities to better cope with expected changes in supply as our climate changes. And it discusses the implications of property rights in water for proposals to privatise water services.

Water Policy, Productivity and Economic Efficiency

ISBN: 9783038420125 9783038420132 Year: Pages: 212 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI AG - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
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Over the past few decades, water policies have undergone significant changes in many countries, notably due to the development of national and international political, social, and environmental issues, including globalization, trade liberalization, institutional and legal requirements, changing standards of living, management practices, and technological innovation. Policy changes include both “high level” views about water status and practical instruments, in particular with an emphasis on integrated basin management and economic policy instruments. A relevant part of the water policy literature addresses this topic, mainly as an issue related to environmental conservation. However, water remains a major productive factor, particularly in agriculture. This role is made even more prominent in light of economic crises, increased competition across markets and climate change, as well as fossil energy limitations, which also highlight the water–energy nexus as a key resource issue for future economic viability. The delay, in the past, in recognizing the economic consequences of a limited water supply, and in decoupling economic development from water demand and supply, has resulted in a water-dependent growth model, currently threatened by increasing scarcity and droughts. Consequently, there is now an urgent need for new perspectives for promoting a more sustainable and efficient use of water resources. This calls for, on the one hand, a comprehensive understanding of water efficiency and productivity and, on the other hand, an investigation of the linkages among economic sectors to illustrate trade-offs in water reallocations. In addition, this also points to the need to study the institutional innovations and economic evaluation instruments that are able to better assess policy performance and provide evidence for improved mechanism designs aimed specifically at water efficiency and productivity.

Water Resources Assessment and Management in Drylands

ISBN: 9783038422471 9783038422488 Year: Pages: XXII, 302 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI AG - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
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Drylands are fragile environments and, therefore, highly susceptible to environmental changes. They cover nearly 50% of the world’s land surface and are increasingly being reclaimed by a growing population for food production and urbanization. This makes water resources management in drylands an extremely important issue. The unplanned water resources development may result in aquifer depletion, soil and/or water salinization, loss of water through evapotranspiration due to inadequate irrigation systems, and land degradation (e.g., soil erosion, soil crusting, and sand encroachment).

History of Water Supply and Governance in Kenya (1895-2005) Lessons and Futures

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ISBN: 9789520300593 9789520300609 Year: Pages: 618 Language: English
Publisher: Tampere University Press
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Environmental Technology --- History
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This book on the History of Water Development in Kenya transverses through a matrix of infrastructural development, administration, policy, legal and legislation framework, and evolution of various water supply technologies in an inimitably comprehensive approach. The book has carefully constructed the development over one century timeline of water supply and provided the future prediction of the services.The book is a quest to track and understand the origin, the development and sustainability of water supplies within 100 years of its 1st water supply constructed by the railways as the pioneer of water supply in Kenya. It interrogates how the water legislations, policies and administration came to be and what the drivers of water supplies were, when the 1st water reforms mounted and the status of the reform implementation. It elucidates on the role of development partners in influencing the choice of technology, policy and legislative framework.Preparation of this book took fifteen years of passionate research from Kenya National Archives; Kenya Railways; Ministry of Water Development; Colonial archival materials at Rhodes House, Oxford, UK; and the British Institute in Eastern Africa. The research findings have been disseminated in several peer reviewed journals; and several presentations in local, regional and international conferences.Eng Ezekiel Nyangeri Nyanchaga is an Associate Professor, Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, University of Nairobi, Doctor of Technology holder in Civil Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Finland.Professor Nyangeri is a licensed and practicing consulting engineer with over 35 years of professional experience and over 28 years of academic teaching experience at the University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Keywords

History --- Kenya --- Water Supply

Earth Observation for Water Resource Management in Africa

ISBN: 9783038421535 9783038421542 Year: Pages: XVIII, 538 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI AG - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
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Reliable access to water, managing the spatial and temporal variability of water availability, ensuring the quality of freshwater and responding to climatological changes in the hydrological cycle are prerequisites for the development of countries in Africa. Water being an essential input for biomass growth and for renewable energy production (e.g. biofuels and hydropower schemes) plays an integral part in ensuring food and energy security for any nation. Water, as a source of safe drinking water, is furthermore the basis for ensuring the health of citizens and plays an important role in urban sanitation.The concept of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is seen as an opportunity to help manage water variability and the wide spread water scarcity in Africa. One key component missing from IWRM in Africa is the limited knowledge of the available extent and quality of water resources at basin level. Earth Observation (EO) technology can help fill this information gap by assessing and monitoring water resources at adequate temporal and spatial scales. The goal of this Special Issue is to understand and demonstrate the contribution which satellite observations, consistent over space and time, can bring to improve water resource management in Africa. Possible EO products and applications range from catchment characterization, water quality monitoring, soil moisture assessment, water extent and level monitoring, irrigation services, urban and agricultural water demand modeling, evapotranspiration estimation, ground water management, to hydrological modeling and flood mapping/forecasting. Some of these EO applications have already been developed by African scientists within the 10 year lifetime of the TIGER initiative: Looking after Water in Africa (http://www.tiger.esa.int), whose contributions are intended to be the starting point of this Special Issue and is only one example of the wide range of activities in the field. Contributions from the entire African and international scientific community dealing with the challenges of water resource management in Africa are the target of the special issue.

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