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Toward a Sustainable Agriculture: Farming Practices and Water Use

ISBN: 9783038423300/9783038423317 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: X, 120 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI AG - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
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Globally, the agri-food sector has a major role to play in ensuring food security and economic development, especially for lower income countries. In the increasingly demanding context of environmental risk, exacerbated by climate change, and of environmental degradation, agricultural producers are faced with the challenge to meet the demand of the agri-food sector to feed growing populations in a sustainable manner while still trying to make ends meet.Toward a Sustainable Agriculture: Farming Practices and Water Use, the first volume of MDPI’s Frontiers in Sustainability book series, edited by Prof. Manfred Max Bergman (University of Basel, Switzerland), aims to contribute to the agri-food sector’s need for science-based evidence required to address these challenging demands: In this book, a variety of scholars explore risks and potential solutions to inform producers and policy makers regarding practices towards sustainable production in the context of a changing climate.

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Society - Water - Technology: A Critical Appraisal of Major Water Engineering Projects

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Water Resources Development and Management ISSN: 1614810X ISBN: 9783319189703 9783319189710 Year: Pages: 295 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Technology
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This book presents the results of the Interdisciplinary Research Group 'Society – Water – Technology' of the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities. It describes interdisciplinary evaluation criteria for major water engineering projects (MWEPs) and portrays an application to the Lower Jordan Valley (Middle East) and the Fergana Valley (Central Asia). Both areas are characterised by transboundary conflicts, by challenges due to demographic and climate change and by political and societal pressures. Based on the findings, the book provides recommendations for science and political decisions makers as well as for international financing institutions. In addition, it outlines research gaps from an interdisciplinary perspective.In the past, MWEPs have been used as an instrument to cope with the demands of growing populations and to enhance development progress. Experiences with MWEPs have shown that a purely technical approach has not always brought about the desired results. In many cases, MWEPs have even resulted in negative implications for society and environment. Therefore, improved management strategies and enhanced technologies for a sustainable water resource management system are a prerequisite to meet present and future challenges. And, moreover, the continuous evaluation and optimisation of these measures is, likewise, a must.

Keywords

water --- technology --- waste --- pollution --- control --- aquatic --- environment --- law

Earth Observation for Water Resource Management in Africa

ISBN: 9783038421535 9783038421542 Year: Pages: XVIII, 538 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI AG - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
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Reliable access to water, managing the spatial and temporal variability of water availability, ensuring the quality of freshwater and responding to climatological changes in the hydrological cycle are prerequisites for the development of countries in Africa. Water being an essential input for biomass growth and for renewable energy production (e.g. biofuels and hydropower schemes) plays an integral part in ensuring food and energy security for any nation. Water, as a source of safe drinking water, is furthermore the basis for ensuring the health of citizens and plays an important role in urban sanitation.The concept of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is seen as an opportunity to help manage water variability and the wide spread water scarcity in Africa. One key component missing from IWRM in Africa is the limited knowledge of the available extent and quality of water resources at basin level. Earth Observation (EO) technology can help fill this information gap by assessing and monitoring water resources at adequate temporal and spatial scales. The goal of this Special Issue is to understand and demonstrate the contribution which satellite observations, consistent over space and time, can bring to improve water resource management in Africa. Possible EO products and applications range from catchment characterization, water quality monitoring, soil moisture assessment, water extent and level monitoring, irrigation services, urban and agricultural water demand modeling, evapotranspiration estimation, ground water management, to hydrological modeling and flood mapping/forecasting. Some of these EO applications have already been developed by African scientists within the 10 year lifetime of the TIGER initiative: Looking after Water in Africa (http://www.tiger.esa.int), whose contributions are intended to be the starting point of this Special Issue and is only one example of the wide range of activities in the field. Contributions from the entire African and international scientific community dealing with the challenges of water resource management in Africa are the target of the special issue.

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Public Health: Progress and Current Challenges

ISBN: 9783038421559 9783038421566 Year: Pages: 316
Publisher: MDPI AG - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
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Over the past decade, coastal and freshwater systems in the U.S. and worldwide have experienced an apparent increase in the frequency and geographic distribution of harmful algal blooms (HABs). These blooms can adversely affect both public health and ecosystem health. Toxin-producing HABs can accumulate in drinking and recreational waters and in foods of aquatic origin such as fish and seafood. Human and animal health risks include exposure to the toxins through eating contaminated food or drinking or swimming in contaminated water. Because of these potential public health risks, several countries and U.S. states have developed monitoring programs and guidelines for drinking and recreational water quality to protect public health. This special issue will present research papers and reviews on various aspects of public health and environmental responses to harmful algal blooms. [...]

Governance for Drought Resilience: Land and Water Drought Management in Europe

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783319296692 9783319296715 Year: Pages: 256 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Technology
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This book presents the findings of a team of scientists and practitioners who have been working on the project “Benefits of Governance in Drought Adaptation” (in short: the DROP project), which is included in the European Union’s INTERREG IVB NWE programme. The DROP governance team developed a Governance Assessment Tool (GAT), which allows the governance setting of a given region for planning and realizing drought adaptation measures to be assessed. Based on this assessment, recommendations can be developed for regional water authorities concerning how to operate most effectively towards increased drought resilience in this context. The GAT has been applied to six regions in Northwest Europe: Twente and Salland in the Netherlands, Eifel-Ruhr in Germany, Brittany in France, Somerset in the United Kingdom, and Flanders in Belgium. These regions are subject to drought aspects related to nature, agriculture and freshwater. This book will aid regional water authorities and other relevant stakeholders interested in governance assessment, whether that context is about water, more specifically about drought or flooding events, or other environmental issues. Further, the GAT can and has also been applied more broadly to a range of governance contexts for water management and beyond.

Atlas of Challenges and Opportunities in European Neighbourhoods

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783319285207 9783319285214 Year: Pages: 198 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Ecology
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This atlas provides a macro-regional overview of the areas that surround the European Union, from the Sahara to the Middle East, Western Balkans to European Russia, Turkey to the Arctic. Detailing key socio-economic data as well as developmental trends, the maps provide a comprehensive territorial analysis at a local scale and explore the potential for regional integration and cooperation.These pioneering maps examine challenges that threaten this wide, yet inter-connected, region, including environmental concerns in the North, political unrest in the East, social factors in the Western Balkans, and the upheaval in the Mediterranean since the Arab spring. Coverage investigates such key countries and areas as Libya, Israel, Palestine, Syria, and the Ukraine as well as explores such essential issues as Europe’s energy procurement. In addition, it also presents a comparison with other world regions such as East Asia and North America.In the end, readers discover that territorial integration faces many shortcomings, but that deep regional cooperation would be a key driver for the EU’s sustainable future. This atlas features the main results of the “Integrated Territorial Analysis of the Neighbourhoods” research project undertaken by ESPON (The European Observation Network for Territorial Development and Cohesion). It provides scholars; local authorities and NGOs involved in cross-border cooperation; companies interested in energy, agriculture, water, transportation and communication; and interested readers with key insights into this important region.

History of Water Supply and Governance in Kenya (1895-2005) Lessons and Futures

Author:
ISBN: 9789520300593 9789520300609 Year: Pages: 618 Language: English
Publisher: Tampere University Press
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Environmental Technology --- History
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This book on the History of Water Development in Kenya transverses through a matrix of infrastructural development, administration, policy, legal and legislation framework, and evolution of various water supply technologies in an inimitably comprehensive approach. The book has carefully constructed the development over one century timeline of water supply and provided the future prediction of the services.The book is a quest to track and understand the origin, the development and sustainability of water supplies within 100 years of its 1st water supply constructed by the railways as the pioneer of water supply in Kenya. It interrogates how the water legislations, policies and administration came to be and what the drivers of water supplies were, when the 1st water reforms mounted and the status of the reform implementation. It elucidates on the role of development partners in influencing the choice of technology, policy and legislative framework.Preparation of this book took fifteen years of passionate research from Kenya National Archives; Kenya Railways; Ministry of Water Development; Colonial archival materials at Rhodes House, Oxford, UK; and the British Institute in Eastern Africa. The research findings have been disseminated in several peer reviewed journals; and several presentations in local, regional and international conferences.Eng Ezekiel Nyangeri Nyanchaga is an Associate Professor, Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, University of Nairobi, Doctor of Technology holder in Civil Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Finland.Professor Nyangeri is a licensed and practicing consulting engineer with over 35 years of professional experience and over 28 years of academic teaching experience at the University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Keywords

History --- Kenya --- Water Supply

Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident: The First Three Years

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9784431558262 9784431558286 Year: Pages: 263 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Technology
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This book reports the results from on-site research into radioactive cesium contamination in various agricultural systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident that occurred in March 2011. This is the second volume from the research groups formed in the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo who have published the initial data in their first volume. In this book, additional data collected in the subsequent years are presented to show how the radioactivity level in agricultural products and their growing environments have changed with time. The data clarify the route by which radioactive materials entered agricultural products and their movement among different components (e.g., soil, water, and trees) within an environmental system (e.g., forests). The book consists of various topics, including radioactivity inspection of food products; decontamination trials for rice and livestock production; the state of contamination in wild animals and birds, trees, mushrooms, and timber; the dynamics of radioactivity distribution in mountain and paddy fields; damage incurred by the forestry and fishery industries; and the change in consumers’ minds. The last chapter introduces a real-time radioisotope imaging system, the forefront technique to visualize actual movement of cesium in soil and in plants. This is the only book to provide systematic data about the actual change of radioactivity, and thus is of great value for all researchers who wish to understand the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture. The project is ongoing; the research groups continue their work in the field for further evaluation of the long-term effects.

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