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Die amerikanische Verheissung Schweizer Aussenpolitik im Wirtschaftskrieg 1917/18

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ISBN: 9783034013697 Year: Pages: 272 Language: German
Publisher: Chronos Verlag
Subject: History
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Abstract in English* The promise of AmericaSwiss foreign policy amidst the economic warfare of 1917-18The book tells the dramatic history of the final two years of World War I, during which Switzerland was in between the fronts of the world powers. The surrounding struggle for global domination caused serious difficulties for the small state. Cut off from important food imports, resulting from the indiscriminate German submarine warfare, it turned for help to the USA. The pleas of a high-ranking “Swiss Mission” sent across the Atlantic were heeded: The USA supplied the landlocked country with grain thus averting famine. While America thus boosted its reputation, the German empire became more of a threat. Agitation increased when German agents were convicted in spy scandals and trials of bombers in Zurich. Despite German propaganda, the German empire was unable to maintain its influence in Switzerland. German diplomats, as representatives of the unpopular old order, were expelled from Switzerland when the Central Powers collapsed in the fall of 1918. The USA under President Woodrow Wilson was, in contrast, enthusiastically celebrated. This study, just barely one hundred years later, enables a new view of one of the most animated periods in Swiss history, offering an opportunity to reflect on the relation of this small country to the rest of the world.

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World War I --- foreign policy --- Germany --- USA

Buchführung für die Ewigkeit

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ISBN: 9783034011969 Year: Pages: 486 Language: German
Publisher: Chronos Verlag
Subject: History
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Rainer HugenerBooks of Life. Commemorating the Dead in Medieval SwitzerlandHow were religious practices of remembering the deceased connected to the admin-istration of landholdings and the writing of history in the Middle Ages? Based on intertextual relations between necrologies, rent-rolls, and chronicles from Swiss regions, this study shows how commemorating the dead required new techniques of writing that were not only meant to promote salvation, but also helped enforce local lordship. By celebrating the anniversaries of battles and other crucial events, the authorities of the Swiss cantons propagated a historical concept of identity which continues to influence Switzerland's self-perception even today. Rainer Hugener emphasizes the role of religious commemoration for the development of "modern" bureaucracy and offers a new perspective on the founding myths of the Swiss Con-federacy. The book is completed by an exhaustive catalogue of more than 1000 pre-modern necrologies from Swiss monasteries, cathedrals, collegiate and parish churches.

Diplomatie als Familiengeschäft. Die Casati als spanisch-mailändische Gesandte in Luzern und Chur (1660–1700)

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ISBN: 9783034012935 Year: Pages: 384 Language: German
Publisher: Chronos Verlag
Subject: History
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Diplomacy as a family business.The Casatis as Spanish-Milanese envoys in Lucerne and Chur (1660-1700)The astonishing family career of the Casatis contradicts widespread impressions of early modern diplomacy. This monograph explains how a Spanish-Milanese diplomatic dynasty shrewdly managed, using a highly complex network of confessional, social and cultural connections, to concentrate and deploy its resources upon key actors, and put itself beyond competition from potential challengers. “Other than following God and their own self-interest, this people knows no further impulse,” was the devastating judgment of Alfonso Casati in 1674 concerning the Swiss Confederates. The diplomats nonetheless had to accommodate the needs of these local hosts, or lose their trust and that of their royal employer, the Spanish king. In order to fulfill the demands placed upon him as a diplomat, Alfonso Casati, like most envoys in early modern Europe, periodically reached into his own pockets. In contrast to many contemporaries, however, he did not respond to the costly requirements of the job by seeking to be relieved of his duties. On the contrary, he laid the ground for ensuring that his own son became the fourth generation representative in a nearly continuous position held by the same family. Tapping extensive source materials which are interpreted from the perspective of various historical actors, this study not only reconstructs the position and influence of an extraordinary diplomatic family, but also shines new light on a colorful history of patronage, corruption and politics in the external relations of the Confederacy and Graubünden.

Keywords

Diplomacy --- Spanish Crown

Die Erschliessung der dritten Dimension. Entstehung und Entwicklung der zivilen Luftfahrtinfrastruktur in der Schweiz, 1919–1990

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ISBN: 9783034012287 Year: Pages: 342 Language: German
Publisher: Chronos Verlag
Subject: History
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Developing the third dimension.The origins and evolution of civilian aviation infrastructure in Switzer-land, 1909-1990Why is Switzerland’s biggest airport today located at Zurich-Kloten? What role has airplane noise played in development of the Geneva-Cointrin and Basel-Mühlhausen airports? How were the first airways established in Switzerland and how long have air traf-fic controllers been used there? This is the first comprehensive portrayal of the history of airports, airfields and air traffic control in Switzerland, from their begin-nings and up through the end of the 20th century.Rather than focus on specific facilities separately, the author takes a Switzerland-wide perspective which he situates in a global con-text. Using extensive source material, he reconstructs the origins and development of Swiss aviation infrastructure and illuminates the impacts of regulatory frameworks and historical actors upon this development. He takes into account a broad spectrum of fac-tors, such as crucial international influences, the competition be-tween airports that has persisted since the interwar years, the role of the Swiss federal government, and issues concerning aircraft noise that emerged after the Second World War. In addition to to-day’s airports, this study also examines long-since discontinued facilities and important projects which were proposed but never completed, including the European central airport for interconti-nental seaplanes at Lake Constance, and the Swiss central airport at Bern-Utzenstorf and Lake Neuchâtel.

Fremde Richter Die Rechtsprechung im Fürstentum Liechtenstein unter dem Einfluss schweizerischer und deutsch-österreichischer Richter 1938–1945

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ISBN: 9783034012829 Year: Pages: 404 Language: German
Publisher: Chronos Verlag
Subject: History
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Foreign judgesThe Influence of Swiss and German-Austrian judges upon jurisprudence in the principality of Liechtenstein, 1939-45The principality of Liechtenstein has been a small country possessing limited resources. In matters of jurisprudence this meant adopting Austrian and Swiss legal codes and, along with local lawyers, electing attorneys from both neighboring countries as judges in Liechtenstein. While this practice worked during times of peace, it became tenuous during the era of National Socialism, and connected to the problem of potential national socialist influence upon the appointment of judges and on the practice of law. The annexation of Austria by the “Third Reich” turned Austrian judges working in Liechtenstein into “German” judges, who dispensed justice according to Nazi law in their home-land, but according to Liechtenstein law within the principality.Can a political influence upon these judges be shown? Did a national socialist spirit pervade Liechtenstein jurisprudence and the laws enacted during that time? What was the stance taken by the judges who were Swiss? The author discusses the peculiarities of justice in Liechtenstein during the Second World War.

Krisen, Kritik und Sexualnot Die «Nacherziehung» männlicher Jugendlicher in der Anstalt Aarburg (1893–1981)

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ISBN: 9783034013505 Year: Pages: 496 Language: German
Publisher: Chronos Verlag
Subject: History
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Crises, Criticism, and Sexual DeprivationThe «Nacherziehung» (remedial upbringing) of male youth at the Aarburg facility, 1893-1981The juvenile detention center Aarburg, founded in 1893, adhered superficially to an objective of separating juvenile offenders from adult offenders. From the beginning, however, roughly half of the inmates were institutionalized there in order to provide them with administrative maintenance. Power struggles soon after the institution opened, accusations of maltreatment and the suicide of two youths in the First World War era, the widely publicized critique of 1936 and the finally the “Heimkampagne” of 1970 are the focuses of this book. Source-based case studies sketch a nuanced picture of the daily life of the Aarburg institution across diverse decades, and the imponderability of interpersonal relations within the permanent emergency condition of a “total” institution. The author also devotes attention to the effects of sexual repression on the young inmates, which was not mentioned or addressed in official reports, making all the more striking, examples of this found within the archival sources analyzed here for the first time. The book offers insights into the quotidian experience of the inmates across the 20th century and also demonstrates the evolution of child-rearing techniques used on male juveniles.

Lichtduschen Geschichte einer Gesundheitstechnik, 1890–1975

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ISBN: 9783034012768 Year: Pages: 280 Language: German
Publisher: Chronos Verlag
Subject: History
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Light showersHistory of a Health Technology, 1890-1960In the interwar period, western health experts considered ultraviolet light a powerful means for stimulating the population. In Germany, the electrical industry started to sell sunlamps for daily use, while hy-gienists and the spokesmen of the health reform movement celebrated the health effects of “light showers” in the popular press. Based on a careful reading of a wide variety of scientific and popular texts, the book maps the functions of sunlight in western medicine and culture. It studies the history of light and heliotherapy in medicine and inves-tigates the transition of medical practices towards a marketed con-sumer product. The book argues that the electrification of light thera-py shaped a new rationale for the application of light on the human body in medicine and beyond at the start of the 20th century.

Reinheit als Differenz Identität und Alterität in Max Frischs frühem Erzählwerk

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ISBN: 9783034013642 Year: Pages: 392 Language: German
Publisher: Chronos Verlag
Subject: Languages and Literatures
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Purity as DifferenceIdentity and Alterity in Max Frisch`s early fictionThis study investigates the early fiction of Max Frisch, previously only margin-ally discussed, in particular his first novel, «Jürg Reinhart. Eine sommerliche Schicksalsfahrt» (1934), the novella «Antwort aus der Stille» (1937), as well as the sequel to the Reinhart story, «J’adore ce qui me brûle oder Die Schwierigen». It uses previously unknown sources to reconstruct the creative origins of these works. Deploying a discourse analysis, this book employs analytical techniques from gender and postcolonial studies to deconstruct is-sues of ethnicity, nationalism, gender, and class. The three texts, and their constructions of identity and alterity are contextualized within the contested zone of ‹purity› and ‹difference› and relevant fields of discourse. «Antwort aus der Stille» is investigated within the Alpine discourse, including its nationalistic, gender-political and sexist extensions, «Jürg Reinhart» in the anti-Semitic, Orientalist, Balkan and Slavic discourses, and «J’adore ce qui me brûle» in the contemporary discourse of emancipation and gender issues, and especially in the discourse of eugenics and its Social Darwinist implications.

Die Studie untersucht die literaturwissenschaftlich noch wenig erforschten frühen Erzählwerke von Max Frisch, namentlich den Romanerstling «Jürg Reinhart. Eine sommerliche Schicksalsfahrt» (1934), die längere Erzählung «Antwort aus der Stille» (1937) sowie die Romanfortsetzung der Reinhart-Geschichte «J’adore ce qui me brûle oder Die Schwierigen» (1943), und re-konstruiert deren Genese unter Einbezug bisher unbekannter Quellen. Einem diskursanalytischen Ansatz verpflichtet, befragt sie diese Werke mit dem Ana-lyseinstrumentarium der Gender und Postcolonial Studies nach Entwürfen von Ethnizität, Nationalität, Geschlecht und Klassenzugehörigkeit. Im Spannungs-feld von ‹Reinheit› und ‹Differenz› kontextualisiert sie die drei Primärtexte und deren Konstruktionen von Identität und Alterität in den einschlägigen Dis-kursfeldern. «Antwort aus der Stille» wird im Alpen- und Alpinismusdiskurs der Zeit verortet, einschliesslich seiner nationalistischen, genderpolitischen und sexistischen Weiterungen; «Jürg Reinhart» im antisemitischen, im Orient-, im Balkan- und im Slawendiskurs; «J’adore ce qui me brûle» im zeitgenössischen Emanzipations- und Geschlechterdiskurs sowie ganz besonders im Eugenikdis-kurs und seinen sozialdarwinistischen Implikationen.

Schule der Gesellschaft: Wissensordnungen von Zürcher Unterrichtspraktiken zwischen 1771 und 1834

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ISBN: 9783034012997 Year: Pages: 384 Language: German
Publisher: Chronos Verlag
Subject: History
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“Schule der Gesellschaft”Knowledge systems in Zurich educational practices between 1771 and 1834The great social and political revolutions of 1798 and 1831 fueled efforts at radical restructuring of education policy. There were, however, gaps between the new norms and traditional local practices. Official and intellectual setting of new standards clashed with local and regional needs and conceptions of schooling. In a process of gradual adjustment, locally varying mixtures of new prescriptions and traditional approaches emerged.Making use of voluminous source material, consisting principally of answers to school surveys from 1771 and 1779, as well as reports of school authorities from 1834, the study provides a comparative view across several hundred Zurich schools. The author conveys a nuanced portrayal of educational practices at the turn of the 19th century. The results of the study reveal similarities in schooling approaches across the region, and show the societal knowledge system underlying them. Investigating schools requires examining the surrounding society as well.

Staatlichkeit in der Schweiz Regieren und verwalten vor der neoliberalen Wende

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ISBN: 9783034013635 Year: Pages: 424 Language: German
Publisher: Chronos Verlag
Subject: History
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Governance and Public Administration in SwitzerlandTransformations before the Neoliberal Turn How did the state, its administration and its tasks change within the second half of the 20th century? To answer this question the articles in this book ana-lyze administrative practices as a crucial manifestation of statehood from the 1960s to the 1990s. Although the multilevel political system served as a stabi-lizing factor, a social and cultural readiness to reform also took shape, which has had a lasting impact on the management process. A neoliberal turn did not result immediately but a discussion in that direction was opened up.
The book deals with the structure-building effect of subsidies, the commercializa-tion and privatization of state tasks, as well as with effects of scientific exper-tise on administration and politics. Transformations in education, youth, eco-nomic, migration and health policy are highlighted. Three different disciplinari-an viewpoints - history, history of education and political science are synthe-sized in the conclusion, which also outlines a relevant research program for contemporary history.

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