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Arbeit. Philosophische, juristische und kulturwissenschaftliche Studien

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Book Series: Schwabe interdisziplinär ISBN: 9783796533365 Year: Pages: 212 Language: German
Publisher: Schwabe Verlag
Subject: Languages and Literatures --- Law --- Political Science --- Philosophy --- Social Sciences
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Abstract

We may consider labour as boon or bane ‒ man’s existence is not conceivable without labour. The expulsion from the Garden of Eden can be understood as a punishment for the consumption of the forbidden fruit from the tree of knowledge, but it can likewise be interpreted as the perfection of God’s creation. Hence only beyond Eden, God’s creature becomes man. He or she becomes human by cultivat-ing the earth, by working. Labour is not only a necessary evil in order to secure existence, nor does it serve as a means for self-preservation, but also for self-fulfillment. Labour is the epitome of the ability of self-being and thus of man’s liberty.

Mögen wir Arbeit als Fluch betrachten oder als Segen – das Sein des Menschen ist ohne Arbeit nicht denkbar. Man kann die Vertreibung aus dem Garten Eden als Strafe für den unerlaubten Genuss der Frucht vom Baume der Erkenntnis ver-stehen, man kann sie aber auch als Vollendung der göttlichen Schöpfung deuten. Denn erst jenseits von Eden wird das Geschöpf Gottes Mensch. Er wird Mensch, indem er die Erde bebaut, indem er arbeitet. Arbeit ist nicht nur ein notwendiges Übel zur Sicherung der Existenz, sie dient nicht nur der Selbsterhaltung, sondern auch der Selbstentfaltung. Arbeit ist der Inbegriff des Selbstseinkönnens und damit der Freiheit des Menschen.

Endlose Kälte : Witterungsverlauf und Getreidepreise in den Burgundischen Niederlanden im 15. Jahrhundert

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Book Series: Wirtschafts-, Sozial- und Umweltgeschichte ISBN: 9783796534683 Year: Pages: 523 Language: German
Publisher: Schwabe Verlag
Subject: History --- Social Sciences
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Abstract

Human societies are highly exposed to climate and weather conditions.. This applies in particular to the pre-industrial period. This volume presents a comprehensive and detailed climate reconstruction for the area of the Burgundian Low Countries in the 15th century. The reconstruction consists of two parts. Detailed weather descriptions from contemporary sources are complemented by systematised indices of seasonal temperature and precipitation patterns.The climate reconstruction serves as the basis for research on the impact of the weather on the economy of the Burgundian Low Countries. For the late Middle Ages grain prices are a very reliable economic indicator. Grain, an indispensable staple food and important merchandise, is directly exposed to the weather for the major part of the year. Statistical analyses of the price development of different grains in conjunction with the seasonal climate indices show a close interlinkage of the two variables. However, climate condition is only one of many factors impacting on grain price; the other factors are also presented and discussed in detail.Finally, the analysis of the development of grain prices reveals three phases of clearly increased prices in the 15th century: during the second half of the 1430s, at the beginning of the 1480s and during the last years of the 1480s until the beginning of the 1490s. The reasons for these grain price peaks, including weather conditions but also economic, political and other factors are outlined in the volume.

Macht und Gewalt im Widerstreit

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Book Series: reflexe ISBN: 9783796535567 Year: Pages: 201 Language: German
Publisher: Schwabe Verlag
Subject: Philosophy --- Social Sciences
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The philosopher Hannah Arendt (1906-1975) strongly challenged the political theory of the 20th century by positing a momentous conceptual distinction. In her books The Human Condition, On Revolution, and On Violence, she developed the thesis that power and violence are two political phenomena with opposite causes and effects and therefore have to be distinguished radically. Arendt re- reads the political history of the present time in light of the contrast between power and violence, and establishes a new understanding of revolution and de- mocracy, economic rationality, and total domination. Her conviction that the freedom--related dimension of politics is measured by its ability to avoid and transform violence in its diverse facets serves as a starting point for her political philosophy.The present work analyzes Arendt’s political philosophy by placing its focus on her descriptive and normative distinction between power and violence. The contrast between both concepts offers a key to understanding important as- pects of Arendt’s political thinking that are not fully developed neither by Ar- endt herself nor in the literature on Arendt. One the one hand, this calls for a more detailed definition of both the concept of power, understood as the power to enable as well as the power to enforce, and the distinction between the con- cept of power and the concept of violence. On the other hand, Arendt’s em- phatic notion of power, understood as a practice of beginning, sharing, and participating, is to be critically examined with respect to its limitations and ex- clusions in order to demonstrate where in Arendt’s own theory of power violence is implicitly inscribed and how power and violence might interact on a political level. The book offers a detailed reconstruction of Arendt’s understand- ing of power and violence and discusses its actual relevance for a political the- ory of democratic practices.

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