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MDPI Books is an open access platform for high quality monographs (short and full-length), edited books, Festschriften, proceedings, doctoral theses, and reprinted special issues. MDPI, a company formed in Basel, Switzerland, in 1996, offers scholars a typically Swiss publishing experience, which includes fast but precise editorial and publication procedures, as well as thorough peer-review for all published work. The MDPI Books project encompasses all the benefits of open access: high availability and visibility, as well as wide and fast dissemination.

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MDPI organizes rigorous peer-review for all published items. The Editorial Office applies the same peer review procedure for books as it does for the journals. This includes:
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Browse results: Found 160

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Earth Observation for Water Resource Management in Africa

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ISBN: 9783038421535 9783038421542 Year: Pages: XVIII, 538 Language: English
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Reliable access to water, managing the spatial and temporal variability of water availability, ensuring the quality of freshwater and responding to climatological changes in the hydrological cycle are prerequisites for the development of countries in Africa. Water being an essential input for biomass growth and for renewable energy production (e.g. biofuels and hydropower schemes) plays an integral part in ensuring food and energy security for any nation. Water, as a source of safe drinking water, is furthermore the basis for ensuring the health of citizens and plays an important role in urban sanitation. The concept of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is seen as an opportunity to help manage water variability and the wide spread water scarcity in Africa. One key component missing from IWRM in Africa is the limited knowledge of the available extent and quality of water resources at basin level. Earth Observation (EO) technology can help fill this information gap by assessing and monitoring water resources at adequate temporal and spatial scales. The goal of this Special Issue is to understand and demonstrate the contribution which satellite observations, consistent over space and time, can bring to improve water resource management in Africa. Possible EO products and applications range from catchment characterization, water quality monitoring, soil moisture assessment, water extent and level monitoring, irrigation services, urban and agricultural water demand modeling, evapotranspiration estimation, ground water management, to hydrological modeling and flood mapping/forecasting. Some of these EO applications have already been developed by African scientists within the 10 year lifetime of the TIGER initiative: Looking after Water in Africa (http://www.tiger.esa.int), whose contributions are intended to be the starting point of this Special Issue and is only one example of the wide range of activities in the field. Contributions from the entire African and international scientific community dealing with the challenges of water resource management in Africa are the target of the special issue.

14th CIRIAF National Congress – Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development

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ISBN: 9783038420972 9783038420989 Year: Pages: X, 164 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI AG - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
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Acoustic and Elastic Waves: Recent Trends in Science and Engineering

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ISBN: 9783038422976/9783038422969 Year: Pages: XVI, 448 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-297-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI AG - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics --- Physics (General) --- Acoustics
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The present Special Issue intends to explore new directions in the field of acoustics and ultrasonics. The interest includes, but is not limited to, the use of acoustic technology for condition monitoring of materials and structures. Topics of interest (among others): • Acoustic emission in materials and structures (without material limitation) • Innovative cases of ultrasonic inspection • Wave dispersion and waveguides • Monitoring of innovative materials • Seismic waves • Vibrations, damping and noise control • Combination of mechanical wave techniques with other types for structural health monitoring purposes. Experimental and numerical studies are welcome.

Adolescent Pregnancy: Past, Present and Future Trends and Issues

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ISBN: 9783038422945/9783038422952 Year: Pages: X, 172 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI AG - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences
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This collection provides a forum for leading scholars to examine theoretical insights and empirical findings associated with the recent decline in adolescent pregnancy and childbearing internationally, with special attention given to the United States. This recent shift in the incidence of adolescent fertility is notable in its consistency and magnitude; at the same time, however, continuing historic disparities require focused attention on the contemporary meaning of early childbearing in the U.S. as well as across the globe. The widely interdisciplinary contributions focus on demographic trends in adolescent fertility; successful intervention approaches and major “lessons learned” regarding primary pregnancy prevention; identification of key theoretical issues associated with these trends, with particular focus on the existence and meaning of disparities and their implications for youth development and wellbeing.

Advances and New Perspectives in Marine Biotechnology

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ISBN: 9783038421061 9783038421092 Year: Volume: Volume 1 - Marine Animals & Pl Pages: 428 Language: English
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As the Century of Biology begins to bear fruit, through the translation of predictive biological understanding into applications that enhance the human condition and maintain biodiversity, the almost infinite potential of marine biological resources will be unlocked. Although Marine Biotechnology already has delivered products for medicine, food, bioenergy, nanomaterials, and bioremediation, less than 5% of our vast oceanic environment has been explored. Marine Biotechnology is a scientifically and economically expanding enterprise that is poised to harness the enormous but uncharted functional diversity of marine life, with its novel and rich array of biodesigns and biosynthetic capabilities. From this pursuit comes new genes, chemicals, materials, and inspirations for the benefit of industry, nutrition, and medicine, and which enable the sustainable use and management of the world’s oceans. This Special Issue in Marine Drugs highlights the cutting-edge developments in Marine Biotechnology with a collection of papers written by authors who are leading experts in the field, including selected papers from the 10th International Marine Biotechnology Conference (IMBC-2013), the premier meeting in marine biotechnology, which is held under the auspices of the International Marine Biotechnology Association.

Advances and New Perspectives in Marine Biotechnology

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ISBN: 9783038421078 9783038421108 Year: Volume: Volume 2 - Marine Microbes & M Pages: 654 Language: English
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As the Century of Biology begins to bear fruit, through the translation of predictive biological understanding into applications that enhance the human condition and maintain biodiversity, the almost infinite potential of marine biological resources will be unlocked. Although Marine Biotechnology already has delivered products for medicine, food, bioenergy, nanomaterials, and bioremediation, less than 5% of our vast oceanic environment has been explored. Marine Biotechnology is a scientifically and economically expanding enterprise that is poised to harness the enormous but uncharted functional diversity of marine life, with its novel and rich array of biodesigns and biosynthetic capabilities. From this pursuit comes new genes, chemicals, materials, and inspirations for the benefit of industry, nutrition, and medicine, and which enable the sustainable use and management of the world’s oceans. This Special Issue in Marine Drugs highlights the cutting-edge developments in Marine Biotechnology with a collection of papers written by authors who are leading experts in the field, including selected papers from the 10th International Marine Biotechnology Conference (IMBC-2013), the premier meeting in marine biotechnology, which is held under the auspices of the International Marine Biotechnology Association.

Advances in Catalyst Deactivation

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ISBN: 9783038421870 9783038421887 Year: Pages: X, 300 Language: English
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Catalyst deactivation, the loss over time of catalytic activity and/or selectivity, is a problem of great and continuing concern in the practice of industrial catalytic processes. Costs to industry for catalyst replacement and process shutdown total tens of billions of dollars per year. While catalyst deactivation is inevitable for most processes, some of its immediate, drastic consequences may be avoided, postponed, or even reversed. Accordingly, there is considerable motivation to better understand catalyst decay and regeneration. Indeed, the science of catalyst deactivation and regeneration has been developing rapidly as evidenced by the considerable literature addressing this topic, including 21,000 journal articles, presentations, reports, reviews, and books; and more than 29,000 patents for the period of 1980 to 2012. This developing science provides the foundation for continuing, substantial improvements in the efficiency and economics of catalytic processes through development of catalyst deactivation models, more stable catalysts, and regeneration processes. This special issue focuses on recent advances in catalyst deactivation and regeneration, including advances in (1) scientific understanding of mechanisms; (2) development of improved methods and tools for investigation; and (3) more robust models of deactivation and regeneration.

Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan

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ISBN: 9783038421306 9783038421290 Year: Pages: XIV, 470 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI AG - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics
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Recently, biomass-based polymers from renewable resources have received increasing focus owing to the depletion of petroleum resources. Natural polysaccharides such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and starch are among the candidates from natural resources for biomass polysaccharide products including bioplastics. Although several kinds of neutral or anionic polysaccharides such as chitin, alginic acid, hyaluronic acid, heparin, and chondroitin sulfate exist in nature, natural cationic polysaccharides are quite limited. Chitin is second only to cellulose as the most natural abundant polysaccharide in the world. Chitosan, the product from the N-deacetylatation of chitin, appears to be the only natural cationic polysaccharide. Therefore, chitin and chitosan due to their unique properties are expected to continue to offer a vast number of possible applications for not only chemical or industrial use, but also biomedicine. The research history on chitins, one of the most major and abundant natural polysaccharides on earth, started around 1970. Since the 1980s, chitin and chitosan research (including D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and their oligomers) has progressed significantly over several stages in both fundamental research and industrial fields.

Agent-Based Modelling and Landscape Change

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ISBN: 9783038422808 9783038422815 Year: Pages: XII, 314 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI AG - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
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The use of agent-based models (ABMs) and modelling for understanding landscape change and dynamics continues to grow. One reason for the popularity of ABMs is that they provide a framework to represent multiple, discrete, multi-faceted, heterogeneous actors (human or otherwise) and their relationships and interactions between one another and their environment, through time and across space. This collection showcases innovative uses of ABMs for investigating and explaining landscape change and dynamics and to explore and identify how researchers in different disciplines can learn from one another to further innovate. The diverse range of processes and landscapes that ABMs are currently used to examine is clearly demonstrated, including: land-use decision making in agricultural landscapes; soil erosion in semi-arid environments; forest change in mountainous landscapes; trade in 1st Century BC southern France; social adaptations of herders in northern Mongolia; and malaria epidemiology in Kenya. A range of agent-based representation is used from the implied presence of agents, through comparing heterogeneous vs. aggregated representation of human activity, to alternative means of parameterizing individual agent behaviour. The collection will be of interest to all interested in innovative agent-based modelling for understanding landscape change, its causes and consequences for sustainability in the Anthropocene.

Air Quality and Source Apportionment

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ISBN: 9783038422983/9783038422990 Year: Pages: XVI, 226 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI AG - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
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Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is known to have far-ranging impacts on human health through to climate forcing. The characterization of emission sources and the quantification of specific source impacts to PM concentrations significantly enhance our understanding of, and our ability to, eventually predicting the fate and transport of atmospheric PM and its associated impacts on humans and the environment. Recent advances in source apportionment applications have contributed unique combinations of chemical and numerical techniques for determining the contributions of specific sources, including diesel exhaust and biomass burning. These advances also identify and help characterize the contributions of previously uncharacterized sources. Numerical modeling has also enabled estimations of contributions of emission sources to atmospherically processed PM in urban and rural regions. Investigation into the emissions sources driving air quality is currently of concern across the globe. This Special Issue offers studies at the intersection of air quality and source apportionment for study areas in China, Germany, Iceland, Mexico, and the United States. Studies cover diverse methods for chemical characterization and modeling of the impact of different emission sources on air quality.

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